Using national monitoring data collected between 1995 and 2009, this paper describes the change in trend with regard to the coverage of qualified iodized household salt and iodine status of the population in China since the implementation of universal salt iodization. The review indicates that the iodine content in edible salt increased from 16.2 mg/kg in 1995 to 42.3 mg/kg in 1999, then declined to 30.8 mg/kg in 2005 and has retained this level through the most recent data collection cycle, which is considered sufficient to achieve optimal iodine status. However, the median urinary iodine excretion level for children aged 8-10 at the national level has been consistently classified as “excessive iodine intake” since 1997, suggesting that although three adjustments on the standard of iodine content in edible salt have been made, the current content of salt iodization is still on the high side. The iodine content in edible salt could be lowered, and possibly adapted to local specific conditions such as wa- ter iodine content and the average daily intake of salt among the population in order to achieve a balance be- tween preventing deficiency and reducing the risk of excessive intake.
The aim of this study was to determine the strong candidate genes increasing susceptibility to obesity among previously reported obesity-related genes in Korean subjects and evaluate gene-environmental interactions in susceptibility to obesity. The study population comprised of 163 adolescents (95 boys and 68 girls) and their parents (97 men and 96 women).We used multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analysis, and classification and regression tree (CART) analysis incorporating both the genetic (ADRB2 R16G genotype) and environ- mental (overeating, smoking status, and parent’s obese status) variables. The polymorphisms were genotyped with SNP-ITTM assays using the SNPstream 25KTM System (Orchid Biosciences, New Jersey, USA). Arg16 allele of ADRB2 R16G, smoking and overeating were linked to an increased risk of obesity in adults. CART analysis showed that smoking parents who overate and carried the Arg allele, ADRB2 R16G, had an odds ratio (OR) of 11.7 (95% confidence interval (CI), 2.13-64.04) for obesity compared to non-smoking parents who had none of these factors. Among children, the highest risk group for obesity was the overeater with obese parents (OR, 5.20; 95% CI, 1.86-14.53). The results of the study indicate that beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphism may contribute to the development of obesity through gene-environmental interactions. Further replication studies with larger sample size would be needed to confirm our study results.
Complementary foods (CF) are introduced earlier or later than appropriate in developing societies. They often contribute poorly to overall adequate micronutrient intake during the critical period for growth and development, which constitutes the period from 6 to 12 months of life. The objective of this study was to determine the contri- bution of the CF nutrients to the total estimated nutrient intake in infants in the second semester of life. Three non-consecutive 24-hour recalls interviews were conducted with mothers of 64 infants, aged 6-12 months on en- rolment, from a convenience sample in a marginal urban settlement in Guatemala City. Retrospective recording of early introduction of pre- and post-lacteal feeding and introduction of first foods and beverages was included. Human milk intakes were estimated by a model based on assumptions that human milk plus CF exactly satisfied the infant’s daily energy needs. The WHO/FAO Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI) were the standards for adequate nutrient consumption. Instances of exclusive breast feeding to 6 months were rare, with the introduc- tion of CF earlier than recommended. Baby food in jars was mentioned most frequently as the first food offered. The contribution of CF increased with age through the second semester of life. CF contributed more of a nutrient than human milk in all instances. However,CF nutrient density for Ca, Fe, and Zn fell below international stan- dard. Fortified sugar contributed excessive amounts of Vitamin A to the diets. We conclude that for most nutri- ents, intakes reached or exceeded recommendation levels, unusual within the CF experience in scientific litera- ture.
Purpose: To assess the nutritional status among rural children under five years in China relative to WHO Child Growth Standards 2006, and to explore risk factors for undernutrition. Design: Cross- sectional study of rural areas in 10 provinces of China. A total of 84,009 children under five recruited through multi-level sampling. Main findings: A total of 17.92% of children have at least one form of undernutrition. The prevalence of stunting, underweight and wasting, were 14.59%, 7.19% and 3.07%, respectively. The corresponding mean z-score in height-for-age, weight-for-age, and weight- for-height were -0.732, -0.410 and -0.001. An upward trend with age in stunting and underweight was observed, and higher risks noticed among older children in contrast with children under 6 months in terms of stunning and underweight. The inter-provincial variation of undernutrition remains very large. Low birth weight, multi parity, preterm birth, multiple birth, maternal illiteracy, low provincial GDP, and low household income are identified as significant factors associated with stunting. Parity shows no corresponding significant relationship with underweight, and wasting was not found to be associated with either preterm or multiple births. Conclusion: The nutritional status among children under five in rural areas of China, although greatly improved in the past decades, still lags behind the WHO Child Growth Standards. Stunting and underweight occur mostly before two years of age. In- tervention strategies and programs should be developed to target the preventable risk factors.
Clinical trials have reported the lipid-lowering effect of consuming soy products, and epidemiological studies have shown that soy intake is associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of this meta-analysis was to systematically review the effects of soy products consumption on serum lipid profiles and glycaemic control in T2DM patients. Potential papers were initially searched from PubMed (1966 to 2010) and Cochrane Library (1984 to 2010) without language limitations. All randomized controlled trials were included in which soy products supplementation was the only intervention in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Weighted mean effect size was calculated for net changes in serum lipids and fasting glucose concentrations using fixed-effect or random-effect models. Previously defined subgroup analyses were performed to identify the source of heteroge- neity. Eight studies were included according to the criteria. The intake of soy products was associated with a sig- nificant reduction in serum total cholesterol (by 0.42 mmol/L; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.70, -0.14; p<0.001), triacylglycerol (by 0.22 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.38, -0.07; p<0.001) and low-density lipoprotein- cholesterol (by 0.30 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.60, -0.00; p<0.001), and a significant increase in high-density lipopro- tein-cholesterol (0.05 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.06; p=0.89). There were no significant effects on fasting glu- cose, insulin and glycated hemoglobin. It can be concluded that intake of soy and soy products has beneficial ef- fects in T2DM patients in relation to serum lipids.
Asian populations have changed from traditional to Westernized diets, with increased red meat intake. They are suggested to be particularly susceptible to the adverse effects of red meat on the development of colorectal can- cers, however, few prospective studies of this putative link have been conducted. We examined associations be- tween the consumption of red and processed meat and the risk of subsite-specific colorectal cancer by gender in a large Japanese cohort. During 1995-1998, a validated food frequency questionnaire was administered to 80,658 men and women aged 45-74 years. During 758,116 person-years of follow-up until the end of 2006, 1,145 cases of colorectal cancer were identified. Higher consumption of red meat was significantly associated with a higher risk of colon cancer among women [multivariate hazard ratios (95%CIs) for the highest versus lowest quintiles (HR): 1.48 (1.01, 2.17; trend p=0.03)], as was higher consumption of total meat among men [HR=1.44 (1.06, 1.98; trend p=0.07)]. By site, these positive associations were found for the risk of proximal colon cancer among women and for distal colon cancer among men. No association was found between the consumption of processed meat and risk of either colon or rectal cancer. In conclusion, red meat intake may modestly increase the risk of colon cancer in middle-aged Japanese, although the highest quintile of red meat consumption could be consid- ered moderate by Western standards.
Food insecurity is frequent in both developed and developing countries, affecting from 5% to 25% of the general population. The aim of this study was to assess food insecurity, its influencing factors and control measures in the northwest of Iran. A total population of 15,070 (2,911 households) were studied. A short questionnaire was used for the screening of food insecurity and energy intake in this study. After the screening programme, those families identified as having food insecurity were recruited for the second part of the study which was a commu- nity trial. We organized small training campaigns (through peer education) for target households. Six months later, the same techniques were applied again to assess the impact of educational intervention in reducing the rate of food insecurity. Total prevalence of food insecurity in the study population was 59.3 percent (95% confidence interval: 57.4-61.3). Logistic regression showed that apart from the mother’s age and smoking status of the head of the family, there was a significant association between household food insecurity and other variables in the model (mainly economic factors). The prevalence of food insecurity reduced by 7.3 percent after the intervention (p>0.10). The high prevalence of food insecurity in this study indicates that there is an urgent need for a close collaboration between governmental, international and local leadership to identify and implement the key inter- ventional programmes to overcome this ever increasing health problem. According to our findings, a special at- tention should be paid on the economic improvement in the region.
Food insecurity is common in developing countries and related to the physical well being of families. Household food insecurity is intended to reflect a household’s access, availability, and utilization of food. The relationship between paternal smoking and household food insecurity has not been well characterized. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of paternal smoking with household food insecurity among poor families in rural Indonesia. In a cross-sectional study of 26,380 rural households in the Indonesian Nutrition Surveillance System in 2003, we examined the relationship between paternal smoking and household food insecurity score, as measured using a 9-item food security questionnaire. The prevalence of paternal smoking was 72.9%. In families with and without a father who smoked, the mean (standard error) household food insecurity score was 1.83 (0.01) and 1.48 (0.02), respectively (p<0.0001). Paternal smoking was associated with greater household food insecu- rity score (p<0.0001) in a multivariable linear regression model, adjusting for maternal age, maternal education, weekly household expenditure per capita, and province. Among poor families in rural Indonesia, households with a father who smokes are at greater risk of household food insecurity.
Background: It is estimated that the number of migrant adolescents in Chinese cities may have reached 25 mil- lion. However, little research has been conducted on their dietary habits. The objective of this study was to com- pare dietary habits between migrant and local adolescents in Shenzhen, China. Methods: A school based cross- sectional study was conducted in 3368 adolescents (aged 11-18 years; 52.5% boys). A self-administered ques- tionnaire completed by adolescents was designed to gather information on socio-demographic characteristics, meal location, food pattern and intake. Results: Of the 3368 adolescents, 58.2% were migrants. Compared with locals, migrant adolescents showed significantly higher percentage of having three meals away-from home. Nearly half of the subjects (45.6 %) skipped breakfast, with a higher proportion among migrant students (48.5 vs 41.5%). Migrant students consumed street food more frequently (12.2 vs 8.5%), while the difference was oppo- site in Western fast food intake (27.3 vs 32.5%). No significant difference was found in snacks intake between these two groups. Migrant students exhibited lower percentage of vegetables (57.3 vs 63.7%), fruits (27.7 vs 38.3%), meats (37.0 vs 44.3%), soybean (11.6 vs 17.5%) and dairy products (28.4 vs 42.5%) intake daily. After adjusted for socio-demographic confounders, the difference mentioned above still remained except Western fast food. Conclusion: Dietary habits among adolescents showed pronounced household variation. Migrant adoles- cents are more likely to exhibit unhealthy dietary behavior. Schools and families should collaborate to improve the dietary environment for adolescents, especially those from migrant families.
Aim: To assess a nutrition risk screening tool amongst Māori and non-Māori of advanced age. Method: A cross sectional feasibility study was conducted in three North Island locations. One hundred and eight community- living residents aged 75- 85 years were assessed for nutrition risk using ‘the validated questionnaire ‘Seniors in the Community: Risk Evaluation for Eating and Nutrition’, Version II (SCREENII) and level of physical activity using the ‘Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly’ (PASE). Physical assessments included height and weight. Results: Fifty-two percent of participants were assessed to be at high nutrition risk (SCREENII score <50; range 29-58; out of maximum score 64). Nutrition risk factors amongst Māori and non-Māori respectively differed for weight change in the previous six months (45.2% and 18.7%, p=0.005), skipping meals (54.8% and 13.3%, p<0.001), fruit and vegetable intake (77.4% and 18.7%, p<0.001) and the use of meal replacements (28.1% and 9.3%, p=0.013). Process evaluation showed that Māori took different meaning from the individual question items in SCREENII. Level of physical activity (PASE score) was higher for Māori, median (IQR): 125 (74) than non-Māori, 72 (74) (p<0.001) especially for leisure-time and household related activity. BMI was higher for Māori median (IQR): 31.5 kg/m2 (6.8) compared to non-Māori 24.7 kg/m2 (5.4) (p<0.001). Conclusions: The nu- trition risk tool suggested that Māori were at high risk for malnutrition despite higher BMI and higher levels of activity. Several items of the screening tool were interpreted differently among Māori compared to non-Māori. Further development is needed to ensure accurate assessment.
Background: Cardiovascular diseases are the major cause of death in Malaysia. Evidence shows that dietary fat intake is one of the important risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, studies assessing the association of fatty acids and risk of cardiovascular diseases in Malaysia are scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) assessing total fat and different types of fat among Malay adults in Malaysia. Methods: A 100 food item FFQ focused on dietary cholesterol, total fat, saturated fat, mono- unsaturated fat and polyunsaturated fat intake for the past one month was developed and validated against 3-day dietary record (DR) among 151 Malay participants. Validity was assessed through the reliability and agreement of two methods. Intra-class correlation (ICC) coefficients were used to assess reliability; while regression analy- sis and classification into categories were used to assess agreement of the two methods. Results: The mean nutri- ent intakes tended to be higher in FFQ compared to DR. The developed FFQ showed excellent reliability with ICC coefficients ranging from 0.92-0.98. Regression analysis demonstrated an acceptable agreement between FFQ and DR for total fat and different types of fat intakes. There were a relatively high proportion of subjects being correctly classified (into same or adjacent category) and only a small number of grossly misclassification for total energy, fat, dietary cholesterol, saturated fat and unsaturated fat occurred. Conclusion: This FFQ is valid in assessing absolute total energy, total fat and types of fat intakes among Malay adults.
The objective is to determine the association between the 24 hour urinary α-tocopherol catabolite, 2,5,7,8- tetramethyl-2(2'-carboxyethyl)-6-hydroxychroman (α-CEHC) and α-tocopherol intake in an intervention and a cross-sectional studies. In the 4-weeks intervention study, Japanese men (n = 10) consumed the test diet in week 1, and the test diet plus varying amounts of α-tocopherol in the three subsequent weeks: 21 μmol/d α-tocopherol in week 2, 63 μmol/d in week 3, and 125 μmol/d in week 4. A significant association between α-tocopherol in- take and urinary α-CEHC was observed in this strictly controlled experiment (r = 0.99, p<0.001). In the cross- sectional study, all foods consumed over 4 consecutive days were recorded in 76 free-living young subjects (18- 33 years). The association was weak, but a significant relationship was observed (r = 0.29, p<0.05) even in the cross-sectional study. In the cross-sectional study adults, mean estimated α-tocopherol intake calculated by uri- nary α-CEHC and the excretory ratio was 91% of their mean intake over the 4 days. The results show that uri- nary α-CEHC level reflected recent α-tocopherol intake in free-living young Japanese adults, and could be used as a measure of intake during the previous few days, both for group means and for individual rankings within a group.
Objectives: To determine the resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a sample of Iranian women, and to evaluate the validity of predictive equations for estimating RMR in normal and obese subjects. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 187 healthy women aged 18-45 years. Anthropometric data were collected and subjects’ RMR was measured by indirect calorimetry for 15 minutes following an overnight fast. RMR was also predicted using various types of formulas based on subjects’ height, age, weight or fat-free mass. Body composi- tion was estimated by bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA). Results: Measured RMR (mean ± SD) was found to be 1473 ± 296 kcal/day. The abbreviation formula overestimated RMR, while other formulas underestimated it. Harris-Benedict formula was valid among all BMI categories (normal weight, overweight, obese and morbidly obese). Two Schofield formulas were valid in normal weight, overweight and morbidly obese subjects; and Cunningham formula was valid only among overweight and obese women. Overweight and obese Iranian women had higher RMR in comparison with normal weight subjects (p<0.01); although after age and weight ad- justment, the differences were not significant in any of the BMI categories. Conclusions: The Harris-Benedict for mula provides a valid estimation of RMR at the group level in a range of normal-weight to morbidly obese Iranians. However, at the individual level, errors might be so high that using a measured value has to be pre- ferred over an estimated value.
Iron is important general well being, to prevent or treat anemia, and is a cofactor of many enzymes in the anti- oxidant process. Effect of sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaFeEDTA) and ferrous sulfate on iron bio- availability and oxidative stress in anemic pregnant women was evaluated. A 2-month randomized controlled trial was conducted on 153 anemic pregnant women, with 80≤ Hb <110g/L. They were randomly allocated to three groups: group C (n=51) was the placebo control group, group I (n=51) was supplemented daily with 60 mg iron as ferrous sulfate, and group IE (n=51) with 60 mg iron as NaFeEDTA. Blood samples were collected be- fore and at the end of the intervention for measurements of hematological indices and oxidative stress parameters. Considerable increases of hematologic indicators were observed: 20.5 and 21.8 g/L for Hb (both p values <0.001); 4.81 and 7.19 μmol/L for plasma iron (both p values <0.001), 2.63 and 8.99 μg /L for ferritin (both p values <0.05) in I and IE groups, respectively, compared with the control group. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH- Px) activities increased by 32.6 and 75.3 IU/ml, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels decreased by 0.70 and 1.12 μmol/L in I and IE groups, compared withthe C group (p values <0.05). Moreover, differences of plasma iron, ferritin and GSH-Px activity were 2.38 μmol/L, 6.36 μg /L and 42.7 IU/ml were also significantly greater in the IE group than in the I group. Moderate iron supplementation may be beneficial to improving iron deficiency and oxidative stress, and NaFeEDTA is better than ferrous sulfate.
Introduction: Type 2 diabetes is a major public health problem. Recent epidemiological evidence also points to a potential association of vitamin D insufficiency with adverse metabolic risks, including that for type 2 diabetes. Subjects and method: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial was carried out. Seventy subjects with type 2 diabetes, age 30-75 years old, were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to two groups. One group received two capsules of calcitriol (0.25 μg 1,25-dihydroxy cholecalciferol per each capsule) per day. The second group received placebo tablets. At the beginning, middle and the end of the 12 week supplementation trial, serum glucose, insulin, calcium and phosphorous, HbA1c and 25(OH) vitamin D were measured. Results: There was no significant difference between two groups at baseline. At the end of the study, fasting plasma glu- cose increased in the control group (p=0.038), while it remained unchanged in calcitriol group. Level of insulin and HbA1c increased significantly in both groups (p=0.013 and 0.0004 in treatment and control group). Regard- ing insulin resistance indices, there was a significant change in HOMA-IR and QUICKI in both groups (p=0.023 and 0.002 in treatment and 0.001 and <0.001 in control group respectively). Insulin secretion as assessed by HOMA-%β, remained relatively unchanged in the control group, while it increased significantly in the treatment group at the end of study (p=0.009). Conclusion: Vitamin D supplementation attenuated the increase in glycemia, and increased insulin secretion, but had no effect on insulin resistance.
Background: Soy protein is used for meal replacement therapy in obesity, however the influence on renal func- tion parameters is not adequately investigated. This study evaluates glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF) in patients with the metabolic syndrome and healthy controls after ingestion of different amounts of soy protein. Methods: 10 patients with the metabolic syndrome but no signs of kidney disease and 10 healthy controls ingested 1 g protein/kg body weight of a commercial soy-yoghurt-honeypreparation. The patient group was also given a protein challenge of 0.3 g/kg body weight. Results: Baseline GFR and RPF both were significantly higher in the patient group (147±34.8 vs. 116±21.1 ml/min, p=0.01 and 848±217 vs. 637±121 ml/min, p=0.02) and were strongly correlated with body weight. Use of different algorithms to estimate GFR re- sulted in underestimation of GFR, particularly in the patients with the metabolic syndrome. The challenge with an acute protein load of 1g protein per kilogram body weight induced a significant increase in GFR and RPF in healthy controls (GFR: +12.6±11.0 % (p=0.01), RPF: +13.6±15.6 % (p=0.04)) and even more in patients with the metabolic syndrome (GFR: +31.5±32.2 % (p=0.01); RPF: +19.4±22.7 % (p=0.02)). The ingestion of 0.3 g protein/ kg body weight did not induce significant changes. Conclusions: Basic renal function is changed in pa- tients with the metabolic syndrome, even without microalbuminuria. In addition, there is an elevated susceptibil- ity for protein load. However, the protein amount recommended for use in soy-protein based meal replacement therapy induced no significant changes.
Energy and micronutrient deficiency remain prevalent among Filipino children. Juice drinks are commonly con- sumed and could be a viable vehicle for fortification to supplement the nutrient gap. This study determined the effects of a newly developed non-carbonated fortified juice drink on the iron, zinc and nutritional status of schoolchildren. One hundred randomly selected anemic children were randomly allocated into two groups in a doubly-masked placebo controlled manner: Group 1 received the fortified juice, Group 2 received the non- fortified juice for 100 days, five days a week under strict supervision. The juice drink was fortified with vitamin A, zinc, iron, vitamin C and lysine. The non-fortified juice was fortified only with vitamin C. All children were dewormed prior to the intervention. Hemoglobin, plasma ferritin and plasma zinc, weight and height were as- sessed using standard methods before and after intervention. A two-day 24-hour food recall was also collected. The basal prevalence of anemia was significantly reduced in both the fortified group (100% to 13%) and the non-fortified group (100% to 40%) at endline. The mean plasma ferritin levels were similar in both groups at baseline and endline. At endline, mean plasma zinc in the fortified group has significantly increased by 20 μg/dL from a baseline value of 83.9 μg/dL to 103.9 μg/dL, while the non-fortified group remained at similar levels with baseline. Basal weight and height significantly increased among all children at endline. The fortified juice drink was effective in reducing the prevalence of anemia and improved the zinc status of children.
Objectives: Nutrition support has long been ignored in China’s HIV/AIDS treatment and care. The objectives of this project were to evaluate the prevalence of malnutrition among Chengdu urban HIV positive patients, and to provide evidence for further nutritional intervention. Materials and Methods: HIV-infected adults admitted to an infectious diseases inpatient unit were eligible for this study. Nutritional status was evaluated using Subject Global Assessment (SGA), Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), body mass index (BMI), food fre- quency questionnaire and dietary records. Results: 94 hospitalized HIV positive patients were enrolled from April 2009 to May 2010. The median CD4 T cell count was 44.0/mm3. The prevalence of malnutrition is meas- ured by three tools and ranged from 37.2% (by BMI) to 77.2% (by SGA class B/C or MUST scores≥2). Chi- square test showed significant relationship between opportunistic infections and MUST score (OR=5.67, p<0.005, 95% CI=1.96-16.4). Of patients, 59.6% had insufficient total energy intake; while 54.3% had insuffi- cient protein intake. Conclusions: Malnutrition is highly prevalent among Chengdu urban HIV/AIDS patients who underwent inpatient treatment. Calorie and protein deficiency should be given more attention in HIV/AIDS care programs. Nutrition evaluation and support should be considered an integral parts of national and commu- nity HIV/AIDS treatment and care guidelines.
The purpose of this study was to develop and cross-validate anthropometric equations for the estimation of ap- pendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) in Chinese adults. A total of 763 adults aged 18-69 years (345 men and 418 women) were recruited from residents living in four regions (Jinan, Guangzhou, Xi’an and Chengdu) in China. ASM were measured by fan-beam dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Participants’ body weight, height, limb circumferences (upper arm, thigh, and calf), waist circumference, and skinfold thicknesses (triceps, thigh, and calf) were measured by trained testers. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups: a model- development group (MD group) and a cross-validation group (CV group). Prediction models were established using the data from the MD group, and cross-validated with the data of the CV group. The results suggested that the developed equations had satisfactory prediction qualities, and could be applied as a practical method of quan- tifying ASM in Chinese adults.
Objective: To investigate the relationship between waist circumference and blood pressure (BP) to determine if waist circumference was an indicator of BP in preschool children. Methods: Body weight, height, waist circum- ference (WC), hip circumference, and blood pressure of 939 3-6-year-old preschool children were collected. Re- sults: Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in obese children were significantly higher than that in normal weight children in both sexes (p<0.001). Overweight children had significantly higher SBP and DBP than normal weight boys (p<0.01). Age- and sex-adjusted Body mass index (BMI) correlated sig- nificantly with SBP and DBP. In children aged 3-6 years, age-, sex-and BMI-adjusted waist circumference corre- lated significantly with SBP, but not with DBP. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves showed a sig- nificant ability of BMI, WC and waist-to-height ratio (WtHr) to discriminate high blood pressure in children of both sexes. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis using SBP as the dependent variable showed that BMI and WC were significant independent factors that influence high blood pressure adjusted for age, WtHr and waist-to-hip circumference ratio (WHr) in boys. When using DBP as the dependent variable, BMI was the only significant independent factor that influenced high blood pressure adjusted for age, WtHr and WHr, in both sex- es. Conclusion: Waist circumference was independently associated with high blood pressure in boys aged 3-6 years. In addition to BMI, increased waist circumference was found to be an indicator of high blood pressure in the preschool children, especially in boys.