Background and Objectives: The study objective was to assess if Dietary diversity score (DDS) based on counting 10 food groups consumed can be used as an indicator of adequacy of micronutrient intake in Filipino children and adolescents. Methods and Study Design: Dietary data of 7448 Filipinos age 3 to 18 years old included in the National Nutrition Survey in 2013 were used to assess the adequacy of intake of iron, vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin and niacin. Nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR) for each micronutrient was computed and these were used to calculate the mean adequacy ratio (MAR) for each individual. Linear association for MAR and the different scores of DDS was verified using Pearson’s correlation. Sensitivity and specificity were analyzed through the receiver operating characteristics curve to determine the DDS cut-off point that can be used to ascertain adequacy of micronutrient intake. Results: The mean DDS is 6 and the mean MAR is 0.69. There was significant positive correlation between MARs and NARs (p<0.0001), as well as between MAR and DDS (r=0.29; p<0.0001). A DDS of 6 showed the highest sensitivity (74.2%) and specificity (44.6%) for achieving MAR of 0.5, while a DDS of 7 had the highest sensitivity (54.9%) and specificity (67.6%) in achieving MAR of 0.75. Conclusions: DDS is significantly correlated with micronutrient intake and a score of 6 or 7 can be used as a cutoff in screening for those with possible dietary micronutrient inadequacy in Filipino children and adolescents.
Background and Objectives: This study aims to investigate the effects of individualised dietary guidance and anti-resistance exercise intervention on blood pressure and metabolic indexes of perimenopausal women. Methods and Study Design: Between June 2018 to August 2018, 78 perimenopausal women were recruited at the Gynaecological Outpatient Department of Beijing Pinggu District Hospital. After coding, they were randomly divided into three groups, A, B and C, by lottery. Group B was required to participate in educational seminars and received individualised dietary guidance from professional nutritionists. Group C had the same intensive education classes and individualised dietary guidance as Group B, along with intensive resistance exercise. The difference in the various observation indexes was reviewed after three months of intervention. Results: The number of patients with abnormal metabolic indexes in the diet and comprehensive groups decreased significantly after intervention, compared with the statistics before intervention. The number of patients with a waist circumference ≥80 cm in the diet and comprehensive groups decreased significantly, and the difference was statistically significant (χ2=5.976, p=0.014; χ2=4.433, p=0.035). Before and after observation, the control and diet groups had a higher incidence of HDL <1.29 mmol/L than the comprehensive group, and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). After intervention, TGs in the comprehensive group were significantly lower than the control group (≥1.7 mmol/L), and the difference was statistically significant. Conclusions: Individualised dietary intervention combined with anti-resistance exercise can significantly improve eating and exercise habits, correct metabolic disorders and reduce the occurrence of metabolic syndrome.
Background and Objectives: Postpartum period is associated with mood depression with a high prevalence of postpartum depression globally (17.7%), as reported in a recent study. Postpartum depression may contribute to the poor health and well-being of newly delivered women. This scoping review investigates the effect of nutrition and physical activity interventions on improving and treating postpartum depression among postpartum women. Methods and Study Design: The scoping review was performed using Arksey and O'Malley's methodological framework. A thorough and systematic search was conducted using Scopus, Pubmed, EBSCOHost and Google Scholar in April 2020, and then was updated in March 2021. Only literature published between January 2010 until February 2021 were searched in each database. Results: A total of 25 articles were included in this study, of which 23 were randomised controlled trial studies, and 2 were quasi-experimental studies. A total of 76% of the study indicated a significant association on improving depression, while 24% of the study showed a non-significant effect. Based on the findings, nutrition or physical activity intervention was found to improve postpartum depression. In addition, the combination of nutrition and physical activity was believed to improve depression if a more thorough follow-up with the participants was conducted. Participants' positive involvement in the intervention was crucial to measure intervention's effectiveness. Conclusions: Nutrition and physical activity interventions through appropriate delivery and strategies are desirable in managing postpartum maternal mental health. This indicates a need for further research on non-pharmacological interventions to overcome depression among postpartum women.
Background and Objectives: Although large-scale natural disasters and the resultant changes in living environments worsen dietary habits among adults immediately after the disasters, whether this association remains for a long period is unclear. This is particularly important for recent mothers because lactating women require additional nutrition for milk production. Thus, we investigated the association of living environments with dietary habits and nutritional intake of recent mothers between four and seven years after the Great East Japan Earthquake (11th March, 2011). Methods and Study Design: We analyzed 8,551 mothers who participated to the Tohoku Medical Megabank Project Birth and Three-Generation Cohort Study. Living environments were characterized into four categories: “same home before the earthquake”, “rental housing”, “reconstructed home”, and “acquaintance’s home”. Dietary habits and nutritional intake were evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire answered 12 months after their deliveries (the questionnaire was answered between March 2015 and July 2018). Results: Multiple linear regression analyses demonstrated that mothers in ‘rental housing’ or ‘reconstructed home’ had a significantly lower intake of almost all nutrients or certain nutrients, respectively, compared with those residing in ‘same home before the earthquake’. However, fewer significant differences were detected between the nutritional intake of the mothers lodging in an ‘acquaintance’s home’ and that of those living in ‘same home before the earthquake’. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that living environments long-term after large-scale disasters are associated with dietary habits and nutritional intake among recent mothers.
Background and Objectives: The differences of dietary iron and zinc intakes between patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and controls remain controversial. The meta-analysis aimed to explore the differences of dietary iron and zinc intakes between NAFLD patients and healthy subjects. Methods and Study Design: A systematic literature search was performed up to July 2021 in databases of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang. Using a random-effects model, the differences of dietary iron and zinc intakes between cases and controls were calculated as standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 21 studies from 19 articles with 6639 cases were included. Results: The pooled estimate showed no difference in dietary iron consumption in the NAFLD groups compared with control groups. The difference became significant in Asia (SMD=0.16; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.28; I2=89.1%; pheterogeneity< 0.001) as well as in cross-sectional studies (SMD=0.12; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.17; I2=4.7%; pheterogeneity = 0.350). The difference in dietary zinc intake between cases and controls was not significant. We noticed a statistically significant increase of dietary zinc intake in NAFLD compared to controls in studies using food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to evaluate dietary intake (SMD=0.15; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.20; I2=12.2%; pheterogeneity=0.332). Conclusions: Our findings indicated that dietary iron intake in patients with NAFLD was higher than healthy subjects in Asia.
Background and Objectives: There is emerging scientific evidence of the health benefits of traditional food plants at both molecular and folk remedy levels; however, epidemiological observations are limited. The Amami island region of Japan has a variety of unique traditions conserved till today, where a cohort study was conducted in 2005. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between the intake of common and local vegetables and the risk of mortality and cancer incidence in Amami. Methods and Study Design: Participants were enrolled from the general population of Amami as part of the Japan Multi-institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study. In total, 5,015 participants (2,053 men and 2,962 women) aged 35-69 years were enrolled in this study. They were followed up to obtain information on movement, death, and cancer incidence. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using the Cox proportional hazard model after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results: A significant inverse association was observed between cabbage intake and the HRs for overall mortality (p for trend=0.046) and lung cancer incidence (p=0.016). Intake of handama and togan as local vegetables was associated with decreased HRs for overall mortality (p=0.019 and 0.036, respectively). Conclusions: While the molecular and biochemical reasoning and residual confounding factors behind this association remain unclear, the findings of this study suggest that the dietary lifestyle in Amami has a positive impact on the residents, which can significantly decrease mortality risk.
Background and Objectives: Although the association between dietary protein intake and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) risk has been investigated, the results are inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to reassess the relationship between dietary protein intake and IBD risk. Methods and Study Design: The PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and Wanfang databases were searched for pertinent studies through January 31, 2020. Relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were derived using a random-effect model. Subgroup analyses according to disease type, geographic location, and sex; sensitivity analysis; and publication bias analysis were performed. Results: The current report includes 8 articles consisting of 12 studies with 1069 cases and 330,676 participants. The pooled RR (95% CI) of the highest vs. the lowest categories of dietary protein intake for the IBD risk was 1.561 (0.384-6.347) in cohort studies and 1.060 (0.663-1.694) in case-control studies. Evidence of heterogeneity was found both in cohort studies (I2=86.4%, p=0.007) and in case-control studies (I2=49.0%, p=0.039). However, the association was significant among Asian populations (RR=1.675, 95% CI=1.096-2.559) but not in other populations. We did not find any relationship of dietary protein intake with the risk of either Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis. Conclusions: Based on limited information, the highest dietary protein intakes among Asians may increase the risk of IBD, undifferentiated for ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease. This may reflect dietary patterns for which protein is a marker rather than implicate protein itself.