Introduction  
  What is food?  
  What happens to the food we eat?  
Our nutrient needs  
  Energy balance  
  Nutritional status
  Laws & labels  
  Additives & colours  
  Toxicity in food  
  Processing food  
  Stability of food nutrients  
  Storage life of foods  
  Food- associated health problems  


 

 

 


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- Diet and lifestyle -

FIGURE 21:
DIETARY INTAKE AND CULTURE OR LIFESTYLE

FOOD STYLE CHARACTERISTIC FOODS NUTRITIONAL ADVANTAGES NUTRITIONAL DISADVANTAGES
Arctic (e.g. Scandinavian, Eskimo, Canadian Indian) Fish, berries Vitamins A and D Vitamin C Essential polyunsaturated fat (see saturated and polyunsaturated fat Chart 9) Preservation techniques of salting and smoking may increase risk of conditions such as high blood pressure and cancer of the gut.
Mediterranean (e.g. Greek, Italian, Spanish, Yugoslavian) Bread, olive oil, wine, vegetables Dietary pattern protective against coronary heart disease and cancer of the large bowel Overweight
Oriental (e.g. Chinese, Japanese) Rice, soya sauce, monosodium glutamate (MSG), vegetables Low fat, high carbohydrate - protective against coronary heart disease Sometimes high in sodium (from MSG) increasing prevalence of high blood pressure
Hunter-gatherer (e.g. AboriginalFind out more about this term Australians and Malaysians, African bushmen) Roots, berries, nuts, leafy plants, fruit, fish A wide variety of foods with good prospects of obtaining adequate amounts of all essential nutrients and not too much of any hazardous contaminants.  
Multicultural (as in societies to which successive large migrations have occurred) A wide range of food styles A wide variety of foods  
Vegetarian 1: Cereals, vegetables, fruits ( Vegan diet) 2: Eggs, milk and dairy products (1+2 = Lacto-ovo vegetarian) Low fat, high carbohydrate, high dietary fibre - protective against coronary heart disease and large bowel cancer May be low in some amino acids if complementary sources of protein (e.g. cereals and legumes) are not eaten
Zen macrobiotic From 10 to 100% cereal content of diet, depending on level of adherence At lowest level of cereal intake advantages of vegetarianism At higher levels of cereal intake, risk of nutrient deficiency through lack of variety
Organically grown foods Foods grown without agricultural chemicals Possibly less pesticide residues Inflated food prices
High fat, low carbohydrate (e.g. Dr Atkins' diet) Dairy products, fats and oils, ruminant (beef and lamb) meats   High blood fats and increased risk of coronary heart disease Nutrient deficiency Low-dietary-fibre content leading to increased risk of disorders such as constipation and haemorrhoids Ketosis, with more acid blood
Dependence on ready to-eat or institutionalized food sources Fried foods, sweetened beverages, dairy products   Nutrient losses with re-heating and prolonged standing Often high in fat and sodium and low in dietary fibre
No breakfast     Mid to late morning hunger with recourse to less critical food selection of, for example, salty energy-dense snacks, sweetened beverages Fatigue or distraction due to hunger Delayed bowel movement
Snacking Often readily accessible foods May avoid 'binge' eating due to hunger In those with poor appetites, or those who need to eat often (e.g. diabetics), an adequate nutrient intake may be achieved provided the snacks are nutrient dense. More dental caries Tendency to overeat if snacks are energy dense Losing track of dietary intake
Confectionery Sweets, chocolates   Dental caries Excessive energy intake, leading to overweight

Food Facts
- Assessing your own nutritional status
- Water balance
- Special nutritional situations
- Medications
- Sugars and health
Diet and lifestyle
Figures:
16: Several ways to assess your nutritional status
17: Are you too fat?
18: Water input and output
19: Nutritional needs of particular health conditions
20: Some medications that may increase nutritional needs
21: Dietary intake and culture or lifestyle
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