What is food?  
  What happens to the food we eat?  
Our nutrient needs  
  Energy balance  
  Nutritional status
  Laws & labels  
  Additives & colours  
  Toxicity in food  
  Processing food  
  Stability of food nutrients  
  Storage life of foods  
  Food- associated health problems  











- FIGURE 21 -

Arctic (e.g. Scandinavian, Eskimo, Canadian Indian) Fish, berries Vitamins A and D

Vitamin C

Essential polyunsaturated fat (see saturated and polyunsaturated fat Chart 9)

Preservation techniques of salting and smoking may increase risk of conditions such as high blood pressure and cancer of the gut.
Mediterranean (e.g. Greek, Italian, Spanish, Yugoslavian) Bread, olive oil, wine, vegetables Dietary pattern protective against coronary heart disease and cancer of the large bowel Overweight
Oriental (e.g. Chinese, Japanese) Rice, soya sauce, monosodium glutamate (MSG), vegetables Low fat, high carbohydrate -

protective against coronary heart disease

Sometimes high in sodium (from MSG) increasing prevalence of high blood pressure
Hunter-gatherer (e.g. AboriginalFind out more about this term Australians and Malaysians, African bushmen) Roots, berries, nuts, leafy plants, fruit, fish A wide variety of foods with good prospects of obtaining adequate amounts of all essential nutrients and not too much of any hazardous contaminants. .
Multicultural (as in societies to which successive large migrations have occurred) A wide range of food styles A wide variety of foods .
Vegetarian 1: Cereals, vegetables, fruits
(Vegan diet)

2: Eggs, milk and dairy products

(1+2 = Lacto-ovo vegetarian)

Low fat, high carbohydrate, high dietary fibre - protective against coronary heart disease and large bowel cancer May be low in some amino acids if complementary sources of protein (e.g. cereals and legumes) are not eaten
Zen macrobiotic From 10 to 100% cereal content of diet, depending on level of adherence At lowest level of cereal intake advantages of vegetarianism At higher levels of cereal intake, risk of nutrient deficiency through lack of variety
Organically grown foods Foods grown without agricultural chemicals Possibly less pesticide residues Inflated food prices
High fat, low carbohydrate

(e.g. Dr Atkins' diet)

Dairy products, fats and oils, ruminant (beef and lamb) meats . High blood fats and increased risk of coronary heart disease

Nutrient deficiency

Low-dietary-fibre content leading to increased risk of disorders such as constipation and haemorrhoids

Ketosis, with more acid blood

Dependence on ready to-eat or institutionalized food sources Fried foods, sweetened beverages, dairy products . Nutrient losses with re-heating and prolonged standing

Often high in fat and sodium and low in dietary fibre

No breakfast . . Mid to late morning hunger with recourse to less critical food selection of, for example, salty energy-dense snacks, sweetened beverages

Fatigue or distraction due to hunger

Delayed bowel movement

Snacking Often readily accessible foods May avoid 'binge' eating due to hunger

In those with poor appetites, or those who need to eat often (e.g. diabetics), an adequate nutrient intake may be achieved provided the snacks are nutrient dense.

More dental caries

Tendency to overeat if snacks are energy dense

Losing track of dietary intake

Confectionery Sweets, chocolates . Dental caries

Excessive energy intake, leading to overweight

Food Facts
- Assessing your own nutritional status
- Water balance
- Special nutritional situations
- Medications
- Sugars and health
- Diet and lifestyle
16: Several ways to assess your nutritional status
17: Are you too fat?
18: Water input and output
19: Nutritional needs of particular health conditions
20: Some medications that may increase nutritional needs
Dietary intake and culture or lifestyle