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1 Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
       Volume 20, 2

         (June 2011)


Abstracts

Contents

Abstract Papers

Obituary for Professor Prasong Tienboon (1952-2011)
MARK L WAHLQVIST
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(2):i.

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Mini-Review

Securing food from field to table: what can we do?
DUO LI AND MARK L WAHLQVIST
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(2):149-150.

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Appendix to Mini-Review

Action Plan for a Health Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People

ARTEMIS P SIMOPOULOS, OLE FAERGEMAN AND PETER G BOURNE
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(2):151-153.

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Original Research Communications

 

Clinical Nutrition Trials or Feeding Studies

Enteral nutrition is superior to total parenteral nutrition for pancreatic cancer patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy
CHANGLI LIU, ZHI DU, CHENG LOU, CHENXUAN WU, QIANG YUAN, JUN WANG, GUIMING SHU AND YIJUN WANG
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(2):154-160.

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A simple meal plan of ‘eating vegetables before carbohydrate’ was more effective for achieving glycemic control than an exchange–based meal plan in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes
SAEKO IMAI, MIKUKO MATSUDA, GOJI HASEGAWA, MICHIAKI FUKUI, HIROSHI OBAYASHI, NEIKO OZASA AND SHIZUO KAJIYAMA
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(2):161-168.

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Effect of kiwifruit consumption on sleep quality in adults with sleep problems
HSIAO-HAN LIN, PEI-SHAN TSAI, SU-CHEN FANG AND JEN-FANG LIU
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(2):169-174.

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Testing the acceptability of liquid fish oil in older adults
ALISON YAXLEY, MICHELLE D MILLER, ROBERT J FRASER, LYNNE COBIAC AND MARIA CROTTY
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(2):175-179.

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Growth and child nutrition

Secular changes in growth among Japanese children over 100 years (1900-2000)
MASAHARU KAGAWA, YASUAKI TAHARA, KAZUHIKO MOJI, RIEKO NAKAO, KIYOSHI AOYAGI AND ANDREW P HILLS
 Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(2):180-189.

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Macro- Micro and Phyti-nutrients

Coconut oil is associated with a beneficial lipid profile in pre-menopausal women in the Philippines
ALAN B FERANIL, PAULITA L DUAZO, CHRISTOPHER W KUZAWA AND LINDA S ADAIR
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(2):190-195.

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Survey on eating disorders related thoughts, behaviors and dietary intake in female junior high school students in Taiwan
MEI-RONG TSAI, YU-JHEN CHANG, PEI-JU LIEN AND YUECHING WONG
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(2):196-205.

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Nutritional adequacy of energy restricted diets for young obese women
HELEN O’CONNOR, ZAHRA MUNAS, HAYLEY GRIFFIN, KIERON ROONEY, HOI LUN CHENG AND KATHARINE STEINBECK
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(2):206-211.

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Attitudes toward pregnancy related changes and self-judged dieting behavior
HIDEMI TAKIMOTO, CHISAKO MITSUISHI AND NORIKO KATO
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(2):212-219.

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Nutritionally-Related Disorders and Diseases and Their Risk Factors

Relation of plasma somatostatin levels with malondialdehyde in hyperlipidemic patients
RUI-LI YANG, WU LI, PENG YUE, YONG-HUI SHI AND GUO-WEI LE
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(2):220-224.

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NAHSIT 2005-2008

Design and sample characteristics of the 2005-2008 Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan
SU-HAO TU, CHENG CHEN, YAO-TE HSIEH, HSING-YI CHANG, CHIH-JUNG YEH, YI-CHIN LIN AND WEN-HARN PAN
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(2):225-237.

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Diet and health trends in Taiwan: comparison of two nutrition and health surveys from 1993-1996 and 2005-2008
WEN-HARN PAN, HSING-JUAN WU, CHIH-JUNG YEH, SHAO-YUAN CHUANG, HSING-YI CHANG, NAI-HUA YEH AND YAO-TE HSIEH
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(2):238-250.

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Trends in nutrient and dietary intake among adults and the elderly: from NAHSIT 1993-1996 to 2005-2008
SHIN-JIUAN WU, WEN-HARN PAN, NAI-HUA YEH AND HSING-YI CHANG
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(2):251-265.

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Trends and Nutritional Status for Magnesium in Taiwan from NAHSIT 1993 to 2008
JUI-LINE WANG, YAO-LIN WENG, WEN-HARN PAN AND MEI-DING KAO
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(2):266-274.

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Trends in folate status in the Taiwanese population aged 19 years and older from the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan 1993-1996 to 2005-2008
KUAN-JU CHEN, WEN-HARN PAN, YI-CHIN LIN AND BI-FONG LIN
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(2):275-282.

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Bone mineral density in adults in Taiwan: results of the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan 2005-2008 (NAHSIT 2005-2008)
YI-CHIN LIN AND WEN-HARN PAN
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(2):283-291.

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 Time trend of obesity, the metabolic syndrome and related dietary pattern in Taiwan: from NAHSIT 1993-1996 to NAHSIT 2005-2008
CHIH-JUNG YEH, HSING-YI CHANG AND WEN-HARN PAN
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(2):292-300.

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Trends in hyperuricemia and gout prevalence: Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan from 1993-1996 to 2005-2008
SHAO-YUAN CHUANG, SHU-CHEN LEE, YAO-TE HSIEH AND WEN-HARN PAN
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(2):301-308.

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2005-2008 Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan: the nutrition knowledge, attitude and behavior of 19–64 year old adults
WEI LIN, CHI-MING HANG, HSIAO-CHI YANG AND MING-HUI HUNG
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(2):309-318.
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Use of supplements by Taiwanese adults aged 19-44 during 2005-2008
JIA-RONG LIN, YI-SHIN LIN, MEI-DING KAO, YI-HSIN YANG AND WEN-HARN PAN
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(2):319-326.
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Dietary supplements usage among elderly Taiwanese during 2005-2008
SHIH-YING CHEN, JIA-RONG LIN, TZU-HSIU CHEN, SHIOU-GUEI GUO, MEI-DING KAO AND WEN-HARN PAN
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(2):327-336.
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Practice to introduce complementary foods to infants in Taiwan – changes from 1997 to 2008
JIA-RONG LIN, MIN-SU TZENG, MEI-DING KAO, YI-HSIN YANG AND WEN-HARN PAN
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(2):337-345.

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Future Events

 

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(2):346.

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Enteral nutrition is superior to total parenteral nutrition for pancreatic cancer patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy
CHANGLI LIU, ZHI DU, CHENG LOU, CHENXUAN WU, QIANG YUAN, JUN WANG, GUIMING SHU AND YIJUN WANG
Objective: To determine the effects of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and enteral nutrition (EN) on biochemical and clinical outcomes in pancreatic cancer patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy. Methods: From the year 2006 to 2008, 60 patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy in Tianjin Third Central Hospital were enrolled in this study. They were randomly divided into the EN group and the TPN group. The biochemical and clinical parameters were recorded and analyzed between the two groups. Results: There was no significant difference in the nutritional status, liver and kidney function, and blood glucose levels between the TPN and EN groups on the preoperative day, the 1st and 3 rd postoperative days. However, on the 7th postoperative day, there was significant difference between the two groups in 24 h urinary nitrogen, serum levels of, total protein (TP),  transferrin (TF), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and γ-glutamyl transpeptadase (GGT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr). On the 14th postoperative day, there was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of urinary levels of 24 h nitrogen, TP, TF, retinol binding protein, ALT, AST, ALP, GGT, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, BUN, Cr, and glucose. The incidence of delayed gastric emptying in the EN and TPN groups was 0% and 20%, respectively. Moreover, the incidence of pancreatic fistulas and hemorrhages in the EN group were 3.6% and 3.6%, versus 26.7% and 30% in the TPN group, respectively. Conclusions: EN is better than TPN for pancreatic cancer patients who received pancreaticoduodenectomy.

Key Words: EN, TPN, pancreaticoduodenectomy, biochemical parameter, complication

 

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對胰十二指肠切除的胰腺癌患者給予肠内营养优於全肠外营养
目的:本前瞻性研究的目的,在于比较全肠外营养和肠内营养,在胰腺癌胰十二指肠切除的患者之生化及临床指标方面的优劣。方法:从2006年到2008年间在天津第三中心医院接受胰十二指肠切除术的60名患者,随机分为两组,一组为肠内营养组,另一组为全肠外营养组。记录并分析两组的生化及临床指标差异。结果:术前1天及术后第1及第3天,全肠外营养组和肠内营养组患者在营养状态、肝肾功能和血糖方面无明显差异。但是术后第7天,两组之间在24小时尿氮,血清总蛋白、转铁蛋白、丙氨酸转氨酶、天冬氨酸转氨酶、碱性磷酸酶、γ-谷氨酰转肽酶及血尿素氮、肌酐有明显差异。术后第14天,两组患者在24小时尿氮,血清总蛋白、转铁蛋白、视黄醇结合蛋白、丙氨酸转氨酶、天冬氨酸转氨酶、碱性磷酸酶、γ-谷氨酰转肽酶、总胆红素、直接胆红素、血尿素氮、肌酐和血糖方面均存在显著性差异。肠内营养组和全肠外营养组,胃排空延迟的发生率分别为0%和20%。再者,胰瘺和出血的发生率,在肠内营养组分别为3.6%和3.6%,在全肠外营养组則為26.7%和30%。结论:在胰腺癌胰十二指肠切除的患者中,肠内营养优于全肠外营养。
关键词:肠内营养、全肠外营养、胰十二指肠切除术、生化指标、并发症
 

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A simple meal plan of ‘eating vegetables before carbohydrate’ was more effective for achieving glycemic control than an exchange–based meal plan in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes
SAEKO IMAI, MIKUKO MATSUDA, GOJI HASEGAWA, MICHIAKI FUKUI, HIROSHI OBAYASHI, NEIKO OZASA AND SHIZUO KAJIYAMA

This study aimed to determine whether educating diabetic patients to ‘eat vegetables before carbohydrate’ was as effective on long-term glycemic control as a traditional exchange-based meal plan. To test this hypothesis, we carried out a randomized, controlled trial in patients with type 2 diabetes that compared changes in HbA1c as the primary outcome. A total of 101 patients were stratified according to sex, age, BMI, duration of diabetes, and HbA1c, and then randomized to receive instructions to eat either vegetables before carbohydrate (VBC, n=69) or an exchange-based meal plan (EXB, n=32). The impact of the two plans on glycemic control was compared over 24 months of follow-up. Significant improvements in HbA1c over 24 months were observed in both groups (VBC, 8.3 to 6.8% vs EXB, 8.2 to 7.3%). HbA1c levels were significantly lower in the VBC group than in the EXB group after 6, 9, 12 and 24 months of the study. Both groups exhibited similar improvements in dietary practices with respect to intake of carbohydrate, fats and sweets, while the VBC group had a significant increase in consumption of green vegetables and a significant decrease in fruit consumption. A simple meal plan of ‘eat-ing vegetables before carbohydrate’ achieved better glycemic control than an exchange-based meal plan in Japa-nese patients with type 2 diabetes over a 24-month period.
Key Words: type 2 diabetes, dietary interventions, glycemic control, vegetables, carbohydrate
 

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‘吃醣類食物前先吃蔬菜’的飲食方式對日本糖尿病患者比飲食份量代換更有效控制血糖

本研究目的是探討“吃醣類食物之前先吃蔬菜” 的飲食方式,是否比傳統的飲食份量代換更有利於糖尿病患者的長期血糖控制。為了測試這個假說,採用隨機對照試驗,比較第二型糖尿病患者的HbA1c變化情形。將101名患者根據性別、年齡、BMI、罹患糖尿病時間長短和HbA1c作分層,再隨機分配到”吃醣類食物之前先吃蔬菜”組(簡稱VBC,共69人)和傳統的飲食份量代換(簡稱EXB,共32人)。追蹤這兩組接下來24個月的血糖控制情形。在這24個月中,兩組的HbA1c都獲得明顯的改善(VBC: 8.3降至6.8%,對照EXB: 8.2降至7.3%)。而在第6、9、12和24個月時,VBC組的HbA1c都顯著比EXB組低。兩組患者在飲食習慣上有相似的改善,包括減少醣類、脂肪和甜食的攝取;但VBC組的綠色蔬菜攝取量顯著增加,而水果攝取量則顯著減少。研究結果顯示,對於日本的第二型糖尿病患者而言,在24個月內,簡單的飲食計畫”吃醣類食物之前先吃蔬菜”比傳統的飲食份量代換更能有效控制血糖。
關鍵字:第二型糖尿病、飲食介入、血糖控制、蔬菜、醣類
 

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Effect of kiwifruit consumption on sleep quality in adults with sleep problems
HSIAO-HAN LIN, PEI-SHAN TSAI, SU-CHEN FANG AND JEN-FANG LIU

Numerous studies have revealed that kiwifruit contains many medicinally useful compounds, among which anti-oxidants and serotonin may be beneficial in the treatment of the sleep disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of kiwifruit on sleep patterns, including sleep onset, duration, and quality. In this study, we applied a free-living, self-controlled diet design. Twenty-four subjects (2 males, 22 females) 20 to 55 years of age consumed 2 kiwifruits 1 hour before bedtime nightly for 4 weeks. The Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (CPSQI), a 3-day sleep diary, and the Actigraph sleep/activity logger watch were used to as-sess the subjective and objective parameters of sleep quality, including time to bed, time of sleep onset, waking time after sleep onset, time of getting up, total sleep time, and self-reported sleep quality and sleep onset latency, waking time after sleep onset, total sleep time, and sleep efficiency before and after the intervention. After 4 weeks of kiwifruit consumption, the subjective CPSQI score, waking time after sleep onset, and sleep onset la-tency were significantly decreased (42.4%, 28.9%, and 35.4%, respectively). Total sleep time and sleep effi-ciency were significantly increased (13.4% and 5.41%, respectively). Kiwifruit consumption may improve sleep onset, duration, and efficiency in adults with self-reported sleep disturbances. Further investigation of the sleep-promoting properties of kiwifruit may be warranted.
Key Words: insomnia, sleep disorders, kiwifruit, antioxidants, sleep quality
 

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攝取奇異果可以改善成年人之睡眠品質
先前許多研究指出,奇異果(kiwifruit) 含有許多有益健康的成分,其中所含的豐富抗氧化營養素或物質及血清素等,或許對於改善睡眠有幫助。本研究的主要目的,是評估奇異果的攝取是否可以改善睡眠障礙者的睡眠品質,例如睡眠時數及睡眠模式等。共有24位(2位男性、22位女性) 年齡介於20-55歲之自述有睡眠障礙的受試者參與試驗,每位受試者於每夜睡覺前1小時食用2顆奇異果,為期4週。以中文版匹茲堡睡眠品質問卷 (CPSQI)、3天睡眠日誌及腕動計記錄等工具分別來評估其主觀性與客觀性的睡眠狀況,包括上床時間、入睡時間、睡眠覺醒時間、起床時間、總睡眠時數、睡眠效率、自我睡眠品質評估、整體睡眠品質等。結果顯示,經過4週的奇異果介入後,在主觀性的評估方面,受試者的CPSQI 分數、睡眠覺醒時間與入睡延遲期等均顯著降低,分別降低 42.4%、28.9% 及35.4%。睡眠總時數與睡眠效率則顯著增加,分別為 13.4% 及 5.41%。因此推測睡前攝取2顆奇異果,持續四週對自述有睡眠障礙的成年人而言,可以改善其睡眠品質,但真正的機制及主要可以改善睡眠之成分仍需更多的研究來探討。
關鍵字:失眠、睡眠障礙、奇異果、抗氧化物質、睡眠品質


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Testing the acceptability of liquid fish oil in older adults
ALISON YAXLEY, MICHELLE D MILLER, ROBERT J FRASER, LYNNE COBIAC AND MARIA CROTTY

Inflammatory conditions likely to benefit from fish oil therapy are prevalent in older adults however acceptability in this group is uncertain. This study aimed to assess the palatability of a range of liquid fish oil concentrations, the frequency and extent of side effects, and to summarise any effects on adherence to fish oil therapy in older adults. One hundred patients (≥60 years) completed a randomised, single-blind palatability study, conducted in two parts. In part one, 50 subjects, blinded to random sample order, consumed multiple liquid fish oil samples (2x10%, 40% and 100%). In part two, 50 subjects tasted one concentration, or 100% extra light olive oil (con-trol). Pleasantness of taste was scored on a 5-point Likert scale. Side effects were recorded 24-hr post-tasting. Results of part one showed that 9/50 participants reported increasingly unpleasant taste with increasing fish oil concentration. 14/50 reported unpleasant taste for 100% fish oil vs 7/50 for 10%. 14/50 reported side effects which would not affect compliance with therapy. For part two, 1/12 reported unpleasant taste for 100% vs 0/13 for 10% fish oil or control. 4/50 reported side effects and 2/4 indicated these would prevent ongoing fish oil therapy. The authors conclude that taste itself is not a deterrent to fish oil therapy. Furthermore, reported adverse effects may not be a true reaction to fish oil, or dissuade patients from compliance. Liquid fish oil supplements are acceptable to older adults, therefore should be investigated as a therapy for geriatric conditions.
Key Words: fish oils, older adults, acceptability, taste, adverse effects
 

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測試老年人對液態魚油的接受度
炎症性疾病受益于鱼油治疗的可能性常见于老年人,可是老年人對魚油的接受性并不确定。这研究旨在评估,對老年人,不同浓度的液態鱼油之适口性、鱼油副作用的频率和程度、和总结鱼油治疗的所有效應。研究分两部分,共計100位患者(≥60岁),完成一项随机单盲的适口性試驗。第一部分,50位受試者,以随机抽样次序,攝取多次液体鱼油樣品(2x10%,40%和100%)。在第二部分,50位受試者分別品尝其中一个鱼油样本,或100%的淡味橄榄油(对照组)。受試者对油样本味道的喜好度,以5点計分的Likert量表來评估。对于油样本之副作用,在品尝后24小时被记录。第一部分的结果表明,9/50受試者报告,随着鱼油的浓度增高,令人不悅的味道亦上昇。有14/50的受試者不喜歡100%鱼油的口味,有7/50的受試者覺得10%鱼油不適口。14/50受試者报告有鱼油的副作用,但这不会影响他们對治疗的依从性。至于第二部分,1/12品尝100%鱼油与0/13品尝10%鱼油或橄榄油的受試者,宣稱有不悅的味道。4/50受試者报告有副作用,而其中2位表示这会阻止他们繼續进行鱼油治疗。结论是,味道本身并不会妨礙鱼油治疗。此外,报告的副作用有可能不是对于鱼油的真正反应,或阻止患者遵从治疗。液体鱼油补充剂老年人可接受,因此針對治疗老年状况应加以调查。
關鍵字:魚油、老年人、接受度、品嘗、副作用
 

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Secular changes in growth among Japanese children over 100 years (1900-2000)
MASAHARU KAGAWA, YASUAKI TAHARA, KAZUHIKO MOJI, RIEKO NAKAO, KIYOSHI AOYAGI AND ANDREW P HILLS

Human growth is associated with complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. While re-search has reported increased body size and body mass index (BMI) of Japanese children, few studies have com-pared the magnitude of increments in growth before and after World War II (WW II) and also considered other social and economical events that may have influenced the growth of children. The current study assessed the secular change in growth in Japanese children and adolescents aged between 6 and 17 years using data from the School Health Statistics Survey conducted between 1900 and 2000 with consideration of key social changes dur-ing the 20th Century. Over the 100-year period, Japanese boys had height and weight increments of 1.0-2.0 cm per decade and 0.4-1.7 kg per decade whereas girls had rates of 1.1-1.9 cm and 0.4-1.5 kg per decade, respec-tively. The rates of height increment were significantly (p<0.05) different between pre-, during and post-WW II periods. While Japanese children were considerably larger in 2000 compared to 1900, increments between 1950 and 1960 reflected catch-up growth to restore physical size seen in children prior to WW II. The increments in body size continued after 1960 with greatest changes seen across the pubertal years. While increments in BMI were evident in most age groups, the BMI of 17-year-old girls was consistent over the 100 years. Results clari-fied secular changes in growth in Japanese school children across the 20th Century and possible factors contrib-uting to these changes.
Key Words: secular change, Japan, children, height, BMI
 

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日本兒童在20世紀期間生長情況之變化
基因與環境因子複雜的交互作用與人類生長息息相關。過去研究曾報告日本兒童體型與身體質量指數的增加,然而較少的研究比較二次世界大戰前後兒童之生長,並且較少考慮其他社會及經濟因子對日本兒童生長之衝擊。本研究使用1900至2000年所進行的學童健康統計調查(School Health Statistics Survey)資料,以6至17歲之日本兒童與青少年為目標族群,同時考慮主要的社會變遷,評估在20世紀間目標族群之生長變化。在20世紀的100年間,男生平均每10年身高增加1.0-2.0公分,體重增加0.4-1.7公斤;而女生平均每10年身高增加1.1-1.9公分,體重增加0.4-1.5公斤。在二次世界大戰前、戰爭期間及戰後,身高增加的速率有顯著差異。雖然2000年的日本孩童比上1900年的孩童,體型明顯較大,但是在1950至1960年間,增加的幅度可能只是補長,回復至二次大戰前的體型大小。在1960年後,體型仍繼續增長,以青春期學生的體型增加最大。雖然身體質量指數在大部分年齡層都增加,但17歲的女生在那100年間都維持一致的身體質量指數。本篇結果釐清20世紀日本學童生長情況的長期變化,以及可能造成影響之因素。
關鍵字:長期性變化、日本、兒童、身高、身體質量指數

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Coconut oil is associated with a beneficial lipid profile in pre-menopausal women in the Philippines
ALAN B FERANIL, PAULITA L DUAZO, CHRISTOPHER W KUZAWA AND LINDA S ADAIR

Coconut oil is a common edible oil in many countries, and there is mixed evidence for its effects on lipid profiles and cardiovascular disease risk. Here we examine the association between coconut oil consumption and lipid profiles in a cohort of 1,839 Filipino women (age 35-69 years) participating in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, a community based study in Metropolitan Cebu. Coconut oil intake was estimated using the mean of two 24-hour dietary recalls (9.5▒8.9 grams). Lipid profiles were measured in morning plasma samples collected after an overnight fast. Linear regression models were used to estimate the association between coconut oil intake and each plasma lipid outcome after adjusting for total energy intake, age, body mass index (BMI), number of pregnancies, education, menopausal status, household assets and urban residency. Dietary coconut oil intake was positively associated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol especially among pre-menopausal women, suggesting that coconut oil intake is associated with beneficial lipid profiles. Coconut oil consumption was not significantly associated with low density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride values. The relationship of coconut oil to cholesterol profiles needs further study in populations in which coconut oil consumption is common.
Key Words: cholesterol, cardiovascular disease, nutrition, saturated fat, nutrition transition
 

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菲律賓停經前婦女之椰子油攝取與有益的血脂質相關
椰子油在許多國家是一種常用的食用油,但其對於血脂影響及心血管疾病之風險並未定論。本研究以菲律賓宿霧市健康與營養調查(Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey)其中的婦女世代為調查對象,共1839位,年齡為35-69歲,探討她們的椰子油攝取與血脂之相關性。椰子油攝取量是由兩次24小時飲食回憶資料求得之平均值(9.5▒8.9克)。由空腹抽血樣本,分析各項血脂的指標。以線性迴規模式,校正總能量、年齡、身體質量指數、懷孕次數、教育程度、停經狀態、家戶所得及城市居住等變項後,評估椰子油攝取與血脂之間的相關性。結果發現,椰子油攝取與低密度脂蛋白或三酸甘油酯沒有顯著相關,然而與高密度脂蛋白呈正相關,尤以停經前婦女更為明顯,顯示椰子油攝取與有益的血脂質有關。針對經常食用椰子油的族群,需再進一步探討椰子油與血膽固醇的關連。
關鍵字:膽固醇、心血管疾病、營養、飽和脂肪、營養過渡期

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Survey on eating disorders related thoughts, behaviors and dietary intake in female junior high school students in Taiwan
MEI-RONG TSAI, YU-JHEN CHANG, PEI-JU LIEN AND YUECHING WONG

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate body weight satisfaction, eating attitudes and dietary intake related to eating disorders of female junior high school students in Taiwan. METHODS: In a cross-sectional survey, 835 female junior high school students participated in this study. The questionnaire items in-cluded respondents’ demographic information as well as weight and body image concerns. Developmental and attitudinal scales such as the body shape-related teasing scale, Pubertal Development Scale, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) and 24-hour dietary recall were also used to collect data. Data were analyzed using a Stu-dent’s t test, chi-square test and logistic regression. RESULTS: Disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors were found in 10.4 % of participants (measured by EAT-26≥20). The multivariate logistic regressions showed that disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors were associated with weight/shape-related teasing experiences and dis-satisfaction with body weight. The reported intakes of energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, cholesterol, zinc and vi-tamins B-6, B-12, were significantly lower in participants with disturbed eating patterns than in participants without disturbed eating. Conversely, participants with disturbed eating patterns had higher dietary and crude fi-ber intake than participates without disturbed eating. CONCLUSION: Disturbed eating behaviors exist among female adolescents in Taiwan, and these behaviors jeopardize their necessary dietary intake requirements. More research using the EAT-26 as a measure to predict the quality and quantity of food intake among female adoles-cents warrants further study.
Key Words: eating disorders, body image, EAT-26, body shape-related teasing, female junior high school students
 

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臺灣國中女生對病態飲食行為相關的思維、行為及飲食攝取狀況
本研究主要目的在瞭解台中市國中女生與病態飲食行為相關的體型滿意度、飲食態度及飲食攝取狀況。本研究為橫斷式調查,共有835位國中女生參與本研究。以匿名自填式問卷為研究工具,內容包括: 基本資料、體型意識、體型受嘲笑經驗量表、青春期發展量表、飲食態度測驗及24小時飲食回憶法。結果發現,有10.4%的受試者為具病態飲食行為傾向的高危險群(EAT-26≥20)。多元邏輯回歸顯示「體型受嘲笑經驗」及「體型不滿意度」與病態飲食行為傾向間有顯著相關性。具病態飲食行為傾向的高危險群,其熱量、蛋白質、醣類、脂質、膽固醇、維生素B6、B12及鋅的攝取量顯著低於低危險群(EAT-26<20);但在粗纖維及膳食纖維的攝取,則顯著高於低危險群。病態飲食行為相關問題確實存在於台灣的青春期女性,且已經影響其飲食攝取狀況,飲食態度測驗( EAT-26)是否可預測青少年的飲食攝取狀況值得更進一步研究。
關鍵字:病態飲食行為、體型意識、EAT-26、飲食態度測驗、國中女生

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Nutritional adequacy of energy restricted diets for young obese women
HELEN O’CONNOR, ZAHRA MUNAS, HAYLEY GRIFFIN, KIERON ROONEY, HOI LUN CHENG AND KATHARINE STEINBECK

Aim: Energy restricted meal plans may compromise nutrient intake. This study used diet modelling to assess the nutritional adequacy of energy restricted meal plans designed for weight management in young obese women. Methods: Diet modelling of 6000 kJ/d animal protein based meal plans was performed using Australian nutrient databases with adequacy compared to the Australian Nutrient Reference Values (NRVs) for women (19-30 years). One diet plan was based on the higher carbohydrate (HC) version of the Australian Guide to Healthy Eat-ing for women 19-60 years. An alternative higher protein (HP) plan was adapted from the CSIRO Total Wellbe-ing Diet. Vegan and lacto-ovo versions of these plans were also modelled and compared to the appropriate vege-tarian NRVs. Results: Both animal protein diets met the estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate in-take (AI) for all nutrients analysed. The recommended dietary intake (RDI) was also satisfied, except for iron. HC met 75▒30% and HP 81▒31% of the iron RDI when red meat and iron fortified cereal were both included three days a week, and remained below the RDI even when red meat was increased to seven days. Iron for the modified vegan (57▒5% HC; 66▒4% HP) and lacto-ovo (48▒6% HC; 59▒7% HP) plans was below the RDI and zinc below the EAR for the vegan (76▒8% HC; 84▒9% HP) plans. Conclusion: The 6000 kJ/d animal protein meal plans met the RDI for all nutrients except iron. Iron and zinc failed to meet the vegetarian RDI and EAR respectively for the vegan plans.
Key Words: iron, zinc, nutritional requirements, obesity, overweight
 

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熱量限制膳食在年輕肥胖女性的營養適足度
目標:熱量限制膳食可能使營養素攝取不足,因而本篇研究利用膳食模式,評估針對年輕肥胖女性減重計畫設計的熱量限制膳食之營養適足程度。方法:設計出每日6000 kJ的葷食膳食模式,利用澳洲食品成份資料庫找出營養素含量,再與澳洲19-30歲女性的營養素建議量(NRVs)比較。其中一種膳食模式屬較高醣類飲食(HC),是根據澳洲健康飲食指南對19-60歲女性的建議設計。另一種為較高蛋白質飲食(HP),是由CSIRO Total Wellbeing Diet 衍變而來。另外也設計這兩種膳食模式的全素和蛋奶素版本,並與素食者的營養素建議量比較。結果:兩種葷食的膳食模式所提供的營養素都達到平均需要量(EAR)或足夠攝取量(AI)。除了鐵,其他營養素均滿足膳食建議攝取量(RDI)。當一周中有三天攝取紅肉和鐵強化的穀類時,HC飲食和HP飲食的鐵攝取量分別達到RDI的75▒30%和81▒31%;但即使紅肉的攝取天數增加到七天,鐵的供給量仍未及RDI。全素和蛋奶素飲食提供的鐵量都低於RDI,且全素飲食的含鋅量低於平均需要量。結論:每日提供6000 kJ的葷食膳食模式,除了鐵,其餘營養素皆達到RDI。全素飲食中的鐵和鋅分別未達素食者的RDI和EAR。
關鍵字:鐵、鋅、營養需要量、肥胖、過重
 

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Attitudes toward pregnancy related changes and self-judged dieting behavior
HIDEMI TAKIMOTO, CHISAKO MITSUISHI AND NORIKO KATO

Adequate weight gain in pregnancy is essential for the health of the mother and developing fetus. However, a woman’s self-beliefs regarding body shape and weight gain may become a driving force toward unnecessary die-tary restriction during pregnancy. In order to assess the current status of self-beliefs, attitudes toward pregnancy related changes, and dieting behavior in pregnant women, a questionnaire survey was conducted at a prenatal clinic in Tokyo. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 500 women and 248 women responded with eligible data. Nearly all respondents (91.5%) stated that they knew their own weight gain targets. Thirty-four women (13.7%) reported dieting before being pregnant, and 88 women (35.5%) reported current dieting. Seventy-eight of the current dieters were doing so based on self-judgment, and only fifteen were following a di-etician’s advice. The majority of the respondents (69.0%) believed that smaller babies would help a smooth de-livery. From multivariable logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio (OR) for current self-judged dieting was significant in women who had dieted before pregnancy (OR: 4.67, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 2.10-10.4), and those who desired smaller babies for a smooth delivery (OR: 2.73, 95% CI: 1.35-5.52). Obstetricians, mid-wives, and dieticians should be aware of previous dieting history and self-beliefs in pregnant women, in order to give professional advice about the importance of adequate weight gains.
Key Words: pregnancy, weight gain, diet, health knowledge, attitude to health
 

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對懷孕期相關變化的態度及自我判斷的節食行為
懷孕時體重適度的增加對於母親的健康和胎兒的發育是必要的。然而,女性對體型和體重的自我評價可能導致懷孕時不必要的飲食限制。為瞭解目前孕婦的自我評價、對孕期時相關變化的態度及節食行為,於東京一間產檢診所進行問卷調查。發放自填式問卷給500名女性,其中248名孕婦回覆合用的資料。幾乎所有(91.5%)的回覆者都知道自己的目標體重。有34位(13.7%)孕婦自述懷孕前曾節食。另有88位(35.5%)孕婦目前節食中,其中78位是根據自己的判斷而節食。只有15位孕婦飲食有遵照營養師的建議。大多數(69%)回覆者相信,比較小的寶寶可使分娩較順利。以多變項邏輯迴歸分析結果,懷孕前曾節食的婦女,懷孕後有4.67倍的機率會在孕期自行節食;而希望較小的胎兒使分娩順利的婦女,也有2.73倍的機率在孕期節食。因此,產科醫師、助產士和營養師應瞭解孕婦過去的節食史及健康認知,以專業告知懷孕時增加足夠體重的重要性。
關鍵字:懷孕、體重增加、膳食、健康知識、對健康的態度

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Relation of plasma somatostatin levels with malondialdehyde in hyperlipidemic patients
RUI-LI YANG, WU LI, PENG YUE, YONG-HUI SHI AND GUO-WEI LE
Somatostatin (SST) may protect organism from overnutrition-induced insulin resistance and oxidative stress by inhibiting pancreatic endocrine and exocrine secretion, gastrointestinal digestion and absorption. Many studies clearly show its release becomes perturbed in diabetes and obesity. Therefore, in the present study we first aimed to investigate whether or not plasma somatostatin level was different in patients with hyperlipidemia and nor-molipidemic controls. We also assessed the relationship between plasma somatostatin levels with atherosclerotic index (AI) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in non-diabetic dyslipidemic patients. Subjects with hyperlipidemia have insulin resistance and high levels of oxidative stress. Median somatostatin (57.2▒19.2 vs 68.0▒21.9 pg/mL; p<0.05) levels were lower in hyperlipidemic than in normolipidemic subjects. Significant inverse relationships between SST level and AI (r=–0.21, p< 0.05), or MDA (r=–0.31, p<0.01) were observed. These results suggest a possible protective role of endogenous SST, at least on hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis that are attributed to excess energy intake and physical inactivity. Of course these preliminary results should be supported by prospec-tive studies.
Key Words: somatostatin, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, malondialdehyde, hyperlipidemia
 

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高脂血症患者血浆生长抑素水平与氧化应激的关系
生长抑素具有抑制胰腺内外分泌和胃肠消化吸收的功能,可能对机体高能摄入导致的胰岛素阻抗和氧化应激具有保护作用。许多研究也表明糖尿病和肥胖个体的生长抑素分泌紊乱。本研究目的是调查高脂血症患者的血浆生长抑素水平是否低于正常个体,并进而分析血浆生长抑素水平与动脉粥样硬化指数与MDA的关系。结果表明:高脂血症患者存在明显的氧化应激和胰岛素阻抗现象。高脂血症患者血浆生长抑素水平显著低于正常对照组,而且生长抑素水平与动脉粥样硬化指数和MDA水平呈显著负相关。這些數據说明,生长抑素分泌水平降低,可能与长期高能量摄入和体能活动不足攸关的高脂血症和动脉粥样硬化的发生密切相关。
关键词:生长抑素,胰岛素阻抗,氧化应激,MDA,高脂血症
 

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Design and sample characteristics of the 2005-2008 Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan
SU-HAO TU, CHENG CHEN, YAO-TE HSIEH, HSING-YI CHANG, CHIH-JUNG YEH, YI-CHIN LIN AND WEN-HARN PAN

The Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) 2005-2008 was funded by the Department of Health to provide continued assessment of health and nutrition of the people in Taiwan. This household survey collected data from children aged less than 6 years and adults aged 19 years and above, and adopted a three-stage stratified, clustered sampling scheme similar to that used in the NAHSIT 1993-1996. Four samples were produced. One sample with five geographical strata was selected for inference to the whole of Taiwan, while the other three samples, including Hakka, Penghu and mountainous areas were produced for inference to each cultural stratum. A total of 6,189 household interviews and 3,670 health examinations were completed. Interview data included household information, socio-demographics, 24-hour dietary recall, food frequency and habits, dietary and nutri-tional knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, physical activity, medical history and bone health. Health exam data included anthropometry, blood pressure, physical fitness, bone density, as well as blood and urine collection. Re-sponse rate for the household interview was 65%. Of these household interviews, 59% participated in the health exam. Only in a few age subgroups were there significant differences in sex, age, education, or ethnicity distri-bution between respondents and non-respondents. For the health exam, certain significant differences between participants and non-participants were mostly observed in those aged 19-64 years. The results of this survey will be of benefit to researchers, policy makers and the public to understand and improve the nutrition and health status of pre-school children and adults in Taiwan.
Key Words: Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) 2005-2008, sample design, response rates, weighting, Computer Assistant Personal Interview (CAPI)
 

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2005-2008臺灣營養健康調查的調查設計與樣本特質分析
為了持續檢測臺灣人民之營養健康狀況,在行政院衛生署的補助下,於2005-2008年以家戶為單位,進行了國民營養健康狀況調查,針對6歲(含)以下嬰幼兒、以及19歲(含)以上成人各年齡層。本次調查的抽樣方式與1993-1996年的營養調查接近,皆是分層三段集束法,分別抽出四套樣本。其中一套包含五個地理分層,用來推估全臺灣這些年齡層民眾的營養健康狀況。其他三套樣本分別針對客家人、澎湖人與原住民,當作獨立推估這三類族群的營養健康狀況。總共回收了6,189份問卷以及3,167筆體檢資料。問卷資料包含家戶資料、社會人口基本資料、二十四小時飲食回憶、飲食頻率與習慣、營養知識態度與行為、體能活動量、家族疾病史與骨骼健康情形。體檢資料包括人體測量、血壓、體適能、骨質密度、抽血與驗尿。問卷回應率為65%,在回答問卷的受訪者中,參與體檢的有59%。經統計檢定問卷與體檢回應與非回應者間特徵的差異後發現,僅有少數年齡層樣本在問卷回應上具有性別、年齡、教育程度與省籍的明顯差異。而體檢參與與否有明顯差異者多發生在19-64歲樣本。本調查結果可提供相關領域學者、決策單位與大眾瞭解與改進臺灣之學齡前孩童與成人之營養健康狀況的參考。
關鍵字:臺灣營養健康調查2005-2008、抽樣設計、回應率、加權、電腦輔助面訪調查(CAPI)
 

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Diet and health trends in Taiwan: comparison of two nutrition and health surveys from 1993-1996 and 2005-2008
WEN-HARN PAN, HSING-JUAN WU, CHIH-JUNG YEH, SHAO-YUAN CHUANG, HSING-YI CHANG, NAI-HUA YEH AND YAO-TE HSIEH

The availability of new food choices has increased dramatically in recent times, whilst increasingly sedentary lifestyles have reduced calorie intake requirements. The present study uses 24 hour dietary recall data, and bio-chemical and anthropometric measurements from the 1993-1996 and 2005-2008 Nutrition and Health Surveys in Taiwan (NAHSIT) to investigate trends in dietary habits, and cardiovascular and metabolic disease markers in Taiwanese persons aged 19 years and above. We found that dietary habits in Taiwan are changing, particularly in regards to intakes of cakes and sweets, and sugary drinks. Energy intakes in young people have increased, and combined with an increasingly sedentary lifestyle, this may have led to the increase in obesity and associated metabolic diseases. Large increases in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia and gout have been observed. Fortunately, some positive dietary and behavioral changes have also been ob-served; including an increased avoidance of products made from animal fats and oils’ and a concomitant increase in the use of vegetable oil. Intakes of fruit and vegetables, soy products, fish, whole grains, nuts and seeds have also increased; and intakes of red meat, carbohydrates and sodium containing foods have decreased. These posi-tive dietary changes could explain the lack of large changes in the prevalence of hypertension and hypercholes-terolemia, and the decrease in prevalence of hyperuricemia. Intake of dairy products remains low, and continues to be an important dietary issue in Taiwan.
Key Words: metabolic syndrome, anemia, health indices, 24-hour recall, food frequency
 

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臺灣人飲食與健康之趨勢:1993-1996與2005-2008兩次營養健康調查之比較
近年來食品新的選擇、新的口味層出不窮,而靜態的生活使得熱量需求減少。本文分析比較1993-1996與2005-2008兩次臺灣營養健康調查之24小時飲食回憶以及體檢所得臨床生化、人體測量資料,探討19歲(含)以上成人飲食型態、心臟血管代謝疾病與指標之趨勢。本研究發現臺灣人飲食型態正在轉型中,特別是糕餅甜食、加糖飲料的風行,年輕人卡路里攝取量增加,同時由於生活方式日趨靜態,使得肥胖及其相關代謝疾病:代謝症候群、糖尿病、高三酸甘油脂症、痛風盛行率大幅增加。所幸,有一些正向的飲食型態改變,包括:使用植物油的比例增加,民眾懂得避免動物性脂肪和油炸食品,另外蔬果、黃豆製品、魚、全穀類、核果種子等的攝取量增加,紅肉類、醣類、和鈉的攝取量減少等。可能因此,高血壓與高血膽固醇的盛行率改變不大,高尿酸血症盛行率下降。奶類攝取量持續偏低,無法提升,是一值得關注的問題。持續推動減脂、減鈉、多蔬果飲食;並應針對加糖飲料的健康危害加強宣導,特別要著力在年輕人群,強調以本態性的甜食,如水果、果乾、百分之百果汁等取代加糖飲料和其他甜食。加強民眾對肥胖代謝症候群的定義、其健康危害、以及其防治飲食及生活形態的瞭解,並改善大環境,提高健康飲食和體能活動場所的可近性。應積極探討國人不喜歡奶類的原因,以有效提升低脫脂奶類攝取量,或研發提升鈣質的其他替代方案。
關鍵字:臺灣營養健康調查2005-2008、趨勢、健康指標、疾病指標、飲食習慣、飲食型態
 

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Trends in nutrient and dietary intake among adults and the elderly: from NAHSIT 1993-1996 to 2005-2008
SHIN-JIUAN WU, WEN-HARN PAN, NAI-HUA YEH AND HSING-YI CHANG

The aim of this study was to investigate trends in nutrients and sources of dietary intake for Taiwanese people from the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) 1993-1996 to 2005-2008. Twenty-four hour dietary recall data were obtained from the 2005-2008 NAHSIT. The results showed that intake of cereals and grains, and dietary fiber has decreased, whereas intake of carbohydrate rich convenience foods has increased. As a result, 10-20 g of dietary fat is now obtained from carbohydrate rich foods. A greater proportion of Taiwanese are choosing low-fat meat products, however, excessive intake of meat by men and women aged 19 to 64 years is resulting in excessive intakes of protein, cholesterol and saturated fat. Men and women aged 19 to 30 years had insufficient intakes of fruit and vegetables. Consumption of fruit, dairy/products, and nuts was low in all age groups. We recommend strengthening public nutrition education and changing diet related environment to im-prove dietary quality and food group distributions. Issues of concern include excessive intakes of energy and the soybean/fish/meat/eggs food group in all subjects, high amount of processed foods and refined-carbohydrate rich foods in men aged 19 to 64 years and women aged 19-30 years, as well as intakes below the DRI for a variety of nutrients in elderly persons.
Key Words: 24-hour recall, dietary intake, food sources, nutrients, Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT)
 

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臺灣成人與老人營養素及食物攝取來源之變遷趨勢:
由NASHIT 1993-1996到2005-2008
本研究之目的在探討臺灣1993-1996至2005-2008年,成人與老人的營養素及其食物攝取來源之變遷趨勢,以提供營養健康相關決策之參考。研究對象與資料分析來源是以2005-2008年(19歲以上)「臺灣營養健康狀況調查」(NAHSIT Ⅲ)中,不同性別、年齡及地區的成人與老人24小時飲食回憶資料。該資料運用四個主要食品成分資料庫及SAS與SUDAAN統計軟體進行分析,並進一步與1993-1996年(19-64歲)、1999-2000年(65歲以上)的調查結果相比較。研究結果發現:成人與老人對「榖類與富含澱粉植物性食品」的攝取量減少,以至於膳食纖維攝取量降低;但對「富含醣類便利食品」的攝取量卻增加,並提供了10-20 g的脂肪。此外,已有較多人會選用脂肪含量較低的家畜類及其製品,但19-64歲男、女性對肉類的攝取量分別高達9與6份,而致蛋白質、膽固醇與飽和脂肪酸的攝取過量。19-30歲男、女性的蔬菜類攝取都不足。各年齡層對水果、乳製品、堅果的攝取量低,對各類加工食品所含的潛在脂肪與鈉攝取量過高等問題,應予重視,因此建議加強教育民眾避免攝取過量。此外,也應留意19-64歲男性、19-30歲女性對熱量、肉魚豆蛋類、加工食品、含糖飲料的攝取是否過量;並留意老人有多種營養素攝取量低於DRI的問題。
關鍵字: 24小時回憶法、食物來源、飲食攝取、營養素、臺灣營養健康狀況變遷調查


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Trends and Nutritional Status for Magnesium in Taiwan from NAHSIT 1993 to 2008
JUI-LINE WANG, YAO-LIN WENG, WEN-HARN PAN AND MEI-DING KAO

Data from nationwide population-based nutrition surveys in Taiwan were used to investigate trends and nutri-tional status for magnesium from 1993 to 2008. Dietary magnesium intake was estimated from 24-hour dietary recalls. Serum and urinary magnesium were also measured. In Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) 2005-2008, average magnesium intake was 305 mg and 259 mg for adult males and females, respectively, which is equivalent to 82-85% of relevant Taiwanese Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). After correcting intra-individual variation, 74-81% of adult subjects’ dietary magnesium was estimated as sub-optimal. Mean serum magnesium concentration was 0.866 mmol/L and 0.861 mmol/L for the males and females, respectively. The prevalence of low serum magnesium (<0.8 mmol/L) was 12.3% and 23.7% for the males and females, respec-tively. There was positive association among dietary magnesium, blood magnesium, and urinary magne-sium/creatinine ratio. From NAHSIT 1993-1996 to NAHSIT 2005-2008, dietary magnesium significantly in-creased (p<0.05), the blood magnesium and urinary magnesium/creatinine ratio decreased (p<0.05). The findings suggest that the relationships between dietary magnesium and biochemical markers among different nutrition and health surveys are not straightforward and need to be further clarified.
Key Words: nutrition and health survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT), nutrition status of magnesium, magnesium intake, blood magnesium, urinary magnesium/creatinine ratio
 

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臺灣地區國人鎂營養狀況及其變遷: 由NAHSIT 1993-2008
本研究之目的是探討臺灣民眾鎂之營養狀況與變化趨勢。以「臺灣營養健康狀況變遷調查2005-2008」中19歲以上2911獨立樣本進行分析,飲食鎂攝取量由24小時回憶法評估,並同時分析血清鎂與尿鎂濃度。結果顯示,男、女性飲食鎂攝取量分別約為305 mg及259 mg,約達臺灣「國人膳食營養素參考攝取量」(DRIs)的82-85%,鎂攝取量低於DRIs比率為74-81%。男、女性血清鎂平均濃度分別為0.866 mmol/L及0.861 mmol/L。以血清鎂濃度<0.8 mmol/L為缺乏指標,男、女性血清鎂缺乏比例分別為12.3%及23.7%。國人飲食鎂攝取量與血清鎂濃度、尿鎂/肌酸酐濃度比呈正相關性。另外,從NAHSIT1993-1996與NAHSIT2005-2008營養調查資料分析近十年來臺灣地區國人鎂營養狀況,結果發現國人飲食鎂攝取量呈現顯著增加趨勢(p<0.05),但是血清鎂濃度與尿鎂/肌酸酐濃度比則呈現顯著下降趨勢(p<0.05)。因此由趨勢分析結果顯示,於不同調查間之飲食鎂攝取量及鎂攝取量與鎂營養狀況之相關性仍需進一步探討與釐清。
關鍵字:臺灣營養健康狀況變遷調查、鎂營養狀況、飲食鎂、血清鎂、尿鎂/肌酸酐濃度比
 

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Trends in folate status in the Taiwanese population aged 19 years and older from the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan 1993-1996 to 2005-2008
KUAN-JU CHEN, WEN-HARN PAN, YI-CHIN LIN AND BI-FONG LIN

To investigate ten year trends in folate status in Taiwanese aged 19 yrs by three Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) in 1993-1996, 1999-2000 and 2005-2008. Women had higher blood folate levels than men in all three surveys. The prevalence of folate deficiency (5.2% <3 ng/mL) and insufficiency (34.1% 6 ng/mL) in men was highest in 2005-2008. Adults aged 19-30 yrs had the lowest blood levels and the highest prevalence of deficiency (8.1% in men; 3.5% in women) and insufficiency (48.6% in men; 25% in women) as compared to other age groups in 2005-2008. Folate insufficiency rate in those aged 31-44 yrs was twice as high in men and three times as high in women in 2005-2008 compared to 1993-1996. In the elderly, folate insufficiency rate (28%) in 2005-2008 was not higher than that of 1993-1996, although it was higher than that found in 1999-2000 (18.4%). Men aged  80 yrs had the poorest folate status in 2005-2008, and men were twice as likely to have in-adequate status as women. Plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels were higher in older men than older women in both surveys. The elderly had significantly higher plasma tHcy in 2005-2008 compared to the 1999-2000 survey. Dark green vegetables and fruit intake frequency in young adults (19-30 yrs) was the lowest among all age groups. This study suggests that folate status in Taiwan has not improved during the past fifteen years, and has worsened in the young population.
Key Words: folate status, NAHSIT, nutrition survey, homocysteine, hyperhomocysteinemia
 

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臺灣19歲以上成人葉酸營養狀況的變遷趨勢:從NAHSIT 1993-1996到NAHSIT 2005-2008
本研究探討臺灣19歲以上成人葉酸營養狀況的變遷。三次臺灣營養健康家戶調查(NAHSIT)的女性血中葉酸濃度顯著高於男性。NAHSIT 2005-2008調查結果,男性成人的葉酸缺乏率 (5.2%,血清葉酸<3 ng/mL)與葉酸不足率 (34.1%,血清葉酸<6 ng/mL),較NAHSIT 1993-1996與臺灣老人營養健康狀況調查(1999-2000)的葉酸營養狀況差,尤其19-30歲男性的葉酸不足率高達48.6%;而 31-44歲男女性成人的葉酸不足率增加了2-3倍,不容忽視。老人葉酸不足率 (男性28.4%,女性13.7%) 比臺灣老人營養健康狀況調查(1999-2000)的結果更高,尤其是男性老人在80歲以上的葉酸不足率高達40%。兩次調查結果顯示,老年男性之年齡別血漿同半胱胺酸濃度平均值皆顯著高於女性,且血中同半胱胺酸濃度有隨年齡增加而上升之趨勢。NAHSIT 2005-2008調查的老人,血漿同半胱胺酸濃度與同半胱胺酸濃度>15 Ámol/L的盛行率皆顯著較臺灣老人營養健康狀況調查(1999-2000)的老人高。進一步分析NAHSIT 2005-2008之富含葉酸食物的攝取狀況,結果顯示19-30歲成人的深綠色蔬菜及水果類攝取頻率,顯著低於其他年齡層。過去十五年間,臺灣成人的葉酸營養狀況仍未改善,尤其是年輕族群的葉酸營養狀況變差,值得注意。而近年來臺灣成人血中同半胱胺酸濃度與高同半胱胺酸血症盛行率有增高的趨勢,建議衛生行政單位仍需關注國人葉酸營養狀況並研擬對策加以改善。
關鍵字:葉酸營養狀況、NAHSIT、營養調查、同半胱胺酸、高同半胱胺酸血症

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Bone mineral density in adults in Taiwan: results of the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan 2005-2008 (NAHSIT 2005-2008)
YI-CHIN LIN AND WEN-HARN PAN

Osteoporosis is one of the most prevalent global health problems in the elderly. A nationwide representative sample of 1121 adult subjects, aged 19 years and older, were scanned by a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the third survey year of Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan 2005-2008. There was an apparent gender differ-ence in the trend of bone mineral density (BMD) with age. In males, the decrease in BMD with age at lumbar spine and at femoral neck were statistically significant in those younger than 50 years, whereas the decrease in BMD at forearm was significant only in those aged 50 years and older (β= -0.005, p<0.0001). In females there was a significant negative correlation between BMD at femoral neck and age (β= -0.004, p<0.0001). In the 236 subjects aged 50 years and older, the prevalence rates of osteoporosis were 4.3% at lumbar spine, 12.0% at femoral neck, and 11.6% at forearm in males, and 12.6% at lumbar spine, 18.1% at femoral neck, and 25.0% at forearm in females, respectively. The prevalence rates of osteoporosis at any site were 23.9% in males and 38.3% in females, respectively. The prevalence rates of low bone mass at lumbar spine, femoral neck, and fore-arm were 28.8%, 57.5%, and 22.7% in males and 34.7%, 45.9%, and 26.1% in females, respectively. Effective measures to maintain bone health and/or to reduce excessive bone loss may be important in the prevention of os-teoporotic fractures in Taiwanese adults.
Key Words: NAHSIT, bone mineral density, osteoporosis, lumbar spine, femoral neck
 

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臺灣地區19歲以上成人骨密度狀況分析
骨質疏鬆是一種系統性骨質流失的現象,導致骨礦物密度(bone mineral density)降低,骨骼的微細結構遭到破壞而增加發生骨折的危險性,是老年人常見的疾病之一。此次2005-2008年的臺灣營養健康家戶調查(NAHSIT)中,在第三調查年度以雙能量X-光骨密度儀(DXA)對1121位19歲(含)以上之參與民眾進行骨密度掃描並分析。結果顯示,男女兩性在全身及各部位骨礦物密度之年齡趨勢有差異。男性在50歲以前,在腰椎及股骨頸之骨密度隨年齡增長而降低之趨勢較50歲以後顯著;而前臂之骨密度則在50歲以上者有顯著隨年齡增加而降低的情形。女性方面,股骨頸骨密度明顯隨著年齡越大而降低,至於全身、腰椎及前臂骨密度隨年齡增長而降低的情形在50歲以上者較為顯著。此外,參考世界衛生組織所訂定之骨質疏鬆症診斷標準以及國際臨床骨密度儀學會(ISCD)的建議,以236位50歲以上有腰椎、股骨頸、及前臂三部位骨密度掃描者之資料分析顯示,在上述三部位有骨質疏鬆者分別為腰椎:男性4.3%、女性12.6%;股骨頸:男性12.0%、女性18.1%;前臂:男性11.6%、女性25.0%。有任一部位為骨質疏鬆者,男性有23.9%、女性為38.3%。未達骨質疏鬆但已屬「低骨密度(low bone mass)」者,在腰椎有28.8%的男性及34.7%的女性、股骨頸部位男性為57.5%、女性45.9%;前臂則有22.7%的男性及26.1%的女性。骨質疏鬆與年輕時骨量的累積及中老年期骨質流失的速率有關;國人應注意骨骼保健,並預防因跌倒而引發骨質疏鬆性骨折。
關鍵字:骨質疏鬆、骨礦物密度、腰椎、股骨頸、DXA、臺灣營養健康家戶調查
 

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Time trend of obesity, the metabolic syndrome and related dietary pattern in Taiwan: from NAHSIT 1993-1996 to NAHSIT 2005-2008
CHIH-JUNG YEH, HSING-YI CHANG AND WEN-HARN PAN

Obesity and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) are challenging public health issues as globesity popularizes. The present study illustrates the trend of obesity and MetS for the last 12 years in Taiwan based on the analysis of Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan. Between the two surveys, a large growth on MetS prevalence was ob-served, from 13.6% to 25.5%. In NAHSIT 2005-2008, the prevalence of MetS in females exceeded that of males in people older than the age of 45. With regard to regional differences, the growing prevalence of obesity and the metabolic syndromes alleviated in the northern area level one, the most urbanized and dense area. Prevalence of obesity and MetS in Hakka, central, and southern areas increased rapidly. Aboriginal areas had the highest prevalence, which increased modestly. Prevalence of MetS rose fast among males, but much slower among fe-males. Comparing the Taiwanese data with other countries, obesity prevalence in Taiwan was higher than in many of Asian countries, but less than in the West. The prevalence of MetS in Taiwanese females reached levels close to that of the West. Reduced rank regression analysis was used to extract a risk reducing dietary pattern in women, featured by not only more vegetables, fruit, lean meat, and fish, but also some specific Taiwanese die-tary items including mushrooms, seaweed, and soybean. No apparent increase in intake of certain healthy foods including lean meat, milk, dark-green vegetables, and fruit in the last 12 years, challenges future strategies to promote health.
Key Words: obesity, metabolic syndrome, prevalence, dietary pattern, reduced rank regression
 

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臺灣肥胖、代謝症候群與相關飲食型態之變遷趨勢:從NAHSIT 1993-1996到NAHSIT 2005-2008
肥胖及代謝症候群,隨著全球之盛行,為廣受重視及亟待處理之公共衛生議題。本研究以1993-1996年及2005-2008年之臺灣營養健康調查(NAHSIT)的資料進行分析,探討臺灣代謝症候群及相關飲食型態之變遷趨勢。兩次調查之間,代謝症候群盛行率大幅增加,由13.6%上升至25.5%。NAHSIT 2005-2008顯示,女性代謝症候群盛行率之年齡趨勢於45歲與男性之盛行率年齡趨勢交叉,而隨後高於男性。由地區差異來看,都市化程度及人口密度最高之北一地區,肥胖與代謝症候群盛行率之增加趨勢減緩;客家、中部及南部地區,肥胖與代謝症候群盛行率仍快速增加。原住民(山地)地區之肥胖與代謝症候群盛行率仍高居臺灣各地區及族群之首位。男性代謝症候群盛行率近十二年增加快速,而女性之盛行率增加趨勢較緩和。將臺灣之數據與國際間比較,臺灣之肥胖盛行率較亞洲許多國家高,但低於西方國家。但臺灣女性之代謝症候群盛行率相當接近西方國家。減維度迴歸分析顯示在女性中,降低代謝症候群罹患風險之飲食型態,其特徵除蔬菜、水果、瘦肉及魚類之高攝取頻率外,亦包含臺灣特性飲食項目之黃豆類、蕈菇類、海藻類等的高攝取。某些與代謝症候群相關之健康飲食項目,如瘦肉、奶類、深綠色蔬菜、及水果等,在十二年間之攝取頻率未見增加,值得後續健康促進及教育上來努力。
關鍵字:肥胖、代謝症候群、盛行率、飲食型態、減維度迴歸
 

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Trends in hyperuricemia and gout prevalence: Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan from 1993-1996 to 2005-2008
SHAO-YUAN CHUANG, SHU-CHEN LEE, YAO-TE HSIEH AND WEN-HARN PAN

Hyperuricemia is a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This study investigated trends in uric acid levels, hyperuricemia and gout among adults in Taiwan from 1993-1996 to 2005-2008, using data collection from, Nutrition and health surveys in Taiwan (NAHSIT) conducted in 1993-1996 and 2005-2008. Information on food frequency, medical history, physical measures and fasting blood parameters were analyzed. Mean uric acid levels decreased between 1993-1996 and 2005-2008 in both genders (6.77 vs 6.59 mg/dL in men and 5.33 vs 4.97 mg/dL in women) and the prevalence of hyperuricemia declined from 25.3% to 22.0% in men (p<0.0001) and from 16.7% to 9.7% in women (p<0.0001). However, the prevalence of gout (self-reported) increased (4.74% vs 8.21% in men and 2.19% vs 2.33% in women, p<0.0001). Reduced rank regression was used to iden-tify dietary patterns that explained significant amounts of variance in uric acid. Frequency of consumption of lean meat, soy products and soymilk, milk, eggs, vegetables, carrots, mushrooms, fruit and coffee were nega-tively associated with hyperuricemia, whereas consumption of organ meats, bamboo shoots, and soft drinks were positively associated with hyperuricemia. The dietary factor score (DFS) composed of the frequency of above food items decreased from -5.40 to -6.00 between the two surveys (p<0.0001). In conclusion, uric acid levels and prevalence of hyperuricemia both declined, whilst self-reported gout increased between 1993-1996 and 2005-2008. Changes in dietary patterns may in part explain the decrease in uric acid levels between the two national surveys.
Key Words: uric acid, dietary patterns, trend, national survey, reduced rank regression
 

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高尿酸血症與痛風盛行率的趨勢: 臺灣營養健康家戶調查,1993-1996至2005-2008
高尿酸血症已經被認為是心血管疾病的重要危險因子之一。本研究的目的為探討臺灣人民血中尿酸濃度、高尿酸血症與痛風盛行率及相關飲食生活型態因子的變遷狀況。兩次的營養健康家戶調查顯示,近十幾年來臺灣人民血中尿酸濃度有下降的趨勢,男性的平均值從6.77 mg/dL 下降到6.59 mg/dL;女性的平均值從5.33 mg/dL 降到4.97 mg/dL。高尿酸血症(男性 ≥7.7 mg/dL; 女性 ≥6.6 mg/dL)的盛行率也同樣有下降趨勢,在男性從25.3%下降到22.0%;女性則從16.7%下降到9.7% (p<0.0001)。但是自述的痛風盛行率反而增加,男性從4.74% 上昇至 8.21% ,女性從 2.19% 增至 2.33% (p<0.0001)。本研究亦探討血中尿酸濃度的下降與飲食型態改變的關係。以減維度回歸法,發現一飲食型態因子與尿酸濃度有負相關,此飲食型態為食用較多的家畜瘦肉、黃豆製品、蛋類、蔬菜、胡蘿蔔、蕈菇類、水果與咖啡,且食用較少的臟類食物、竹筍與含糖飲料。進一步將此飲食型態轉換為可比較的分數,結果發現在兩次營養健康家戶調查間,此飲食型態分數,從 -5.40下降到 -6.00 (p<0.0001)。將此飲食型態分數分為四等分;以飲食型態分數最低組為參考組,第二組的高尿酸血症相對風險為1.18,第三組的相對風險為1.50,第四組為1.92。傳統觀念認為黃豆製品與蕈菇類食物可能會導致血中尿酸濃度上升,但本研究顯示,黃豆製品與蕈菇類食物攝取與尿酸濃度呈現負相關,顛覆過去的傳統認知。國人應儘量減少內臟類食物的攝取,增加蔬果(包含胡蘿蔔與蕈菇類)、黃豆製品、海藻類的攝取,以避免尿酸濃度的上昇。
關鍵字: 尿酸、飲食型態、趨勢、臺灣營養健康家戶調查、減維度回歸法
 

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2005-2008 Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan: the nutrition knowledge, attitude and behavior of 19–64 year old adults
WEI LIN, CHI-MING HANG, HSIAO-CHI YANG AND MING-HUI HUNG

The purpose of this study is to understand nutrition knowledge, attitude, and behavior in Taiwanese adults. Re-sults indicated that adults’ knowledge on “relationship between diet and disease” and “comparison of foods in terms of specific nutrients” is acceptable. However, they lack knowledge on “daily serving requirements” and “weight and weight loss”. Although they recognize the importance of nutrition, nutrition was not the major con-cern of food selection. Significant differences were found among gender and age groups. Females of most age groups are better than males in many aspects of nutrition knowledge, attitude and behavior except emotional and external eating behavior. Young (age 19–30) and prime (age 31–44) adults have better knowledge than that of middle adults (age 45–64), while prime adults hold a more positive attitude than young adults. As for nutrition behavior, prime and middle adults are better than young adults. Nutrition knowledge and attitude of adults in ur-ban areas is generally better than those in suburban and remote areas. However, adults in urban areas perform “emotional and external cued eating” more frequently than those in suburban and remote areas. There are sig-nificantly positive correlations among nutrition knowledge, attitude and behavior; and attitude has stronger cor-relation (r=0.42) with behavior than knowledge does (r=0.27). Therefore, to achieve desirable eating behaviors, the adult nutrition education program should include knowledge of what constitutes a balanced diet and what constitutes being overweight. Proper strategies to enhance the behavioral motivation of healthy food selection must also not be neglected.
Key Words: nutrition knowledge, attitude, behavior, adults, NAHSIT
 

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2005-2008臺灣營養健康家戶調查(NAHSIT):19-64歲成人飲食營養知識、態度及行為調查結果
本研究以「2005-2008臺灣營養健康家戶調查(NAHSIT)」之19至64歲成人,共1,706人之資料進行分析。結果發現:19-64歲成人在有關「疾病與飲食的關係」和「營養素含量比較」面向的知識尚可,但對於「食物份量建議」與「體重及減重」面向的知識則較欠缺。在飲食營養態度上整體尚稱正向,「正面及肯定飲食營養重要性」的態度較「關注/忽視飲食營養」與「負面及情緒性飲食」之態度更為正向。在飲食營養相關行為上,「選食與關心飲食營養行為」的表現略差,「外因及情緒性進食行為」的表現尚佳,顯示國人日常不甚關心與注意飲食營養的問題,但也不常受到外在或是情緒性因素而影響進食。針對不同年齡層、性別之成年人比較,發現在各年齡層多以女性的知識、態度、行為較男性佳,僅「外因及情緒性進食行為」是男性較佳。青壯年(19-30歲)及壯年(31-44歲)的營養知識較中年人(45-64歲)為佳,飲食營養態度則為壯年較青壯年佳。飲食營養行為則是壯年及中年較青壯年佳。城市地區成人的飲食營養知識與態度優於鄉鎮及較偏遠地區成人,但是城市地區成人比鄉鎮及較偏遠地區更常有「外因性及情緒性進食」行為。相關性分析結果顯示,成人的飲食營養知識、態度與行為兩兩之間均有顯著正相關性,飲食營養行為與態度之相關(r=0.42)大於其與知識的關係(r=0.27)。故在改善國人飲食策略上,不僅要加強飲食營養的知識,更要提升健康飲食的態度。
關鍵字:飲食營養知識、態度、行為、成年人、NAHSIT
 

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Use of supplements by Taiwanese adults aged 19-44 during 2005-2008
JIA-RONG LIN, YI-SHIN LIN, MEI-DING KAO, YI-HSIN YANG AND WEN-HARN PAN

The aim of the study was to understand the use of supplements in Taiwan. Data used in this study came from the 2005-2008 Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan. The total sample available for analysis of supplement use in-cluded 973 adults (485 men and 488 women), aged 19-44 years. Survey data were weighted to adjust for the sur-vey design effect and to make the sample nationally representative. Our results showed that 33.2% of Taiwanese adults aged 19-44 took supplements (26.6% of men and 40.0% of women). Gender was the only demographic factor found to be associated with the total number of supplement types taken. Men were more likely to take on-ly one supplement. In contrast, women were 2.6 times more likely than men to take two or more supplements. The most commonly taken supplements by adults were multivitamins and minerals (35.8%), followed by vitamin B group (20.6%) and calcium (9.3%). We found that in both men and women, nutrient intakes from supplements exceeded DRIs for vitamins A, D, E, B-1, B-2, B-6, B-12, pantothenic acid and biotin. Men were more likely than women to take excess iron. Women were more likely than men to take excess vitamin C and niacin. Our study results may be used by government agencies to develop policies regarding supplement use in Taiwan.
Key Words: supplements, 19-44 year old adults, gender, multivitamins and minerals, nutrient intakes from supplements
 

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臺灣19-44歲成年人膳食補充品使用概況
本研究目的在於了解臺灣19-44歲成年人膳食補充品使用狀況。本文依據「2005-2008國民營養健康狀況變遷調查」之資料庫,針對臺灣19-44歲成人膳食補充品使用狀況進行分析。總計樣本數為973位(男性485位,女性488位)。取樣所得數據皆經「問卷權數」加權處理以代表全國概況。結果顯示19-44歲成人平均補充品使用率為33.2%(男性為26.6%、女性為40.0%)。選擇補充品數量只受性別之影響,男性主要以使用單種補充品為主,女性則以使用多種補充品為主,女性使用多種補充品為男性的2.6倍。19-44歲成年人補充品使用種類以綜合維他命與礦物質(35.8%)最多,其次為維生素B群(20.6%)與鈣(9.3%)。審視19-44歲成人補充品營養素攝取量,發現男、女性超過臺灣膳食營養素每日建議量(DRIs)的共同營養素有:維生素A、D、E、B1、B2、B6、B12、泛酸及生物素;另外男性鐵攝取量超過建議量,女性則攝取過多的維生素C與菸鹼素。研究結果可供政府機構制定膳食補充品相關政策之參考。
關鍵字:膳食補充品、19-44歲成年人、性別、綜合維他命與礦物質、補充品營養素攝取量

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Dietary supplements usage among elderly Taiwanese during 2005-2008
SHIH-YING CHEN, JIA-RONG LIN, TZU-HSIU CHEN, SHIOU-GUEI GUO, MEI-DING KAO AND WEN-HARN PAN

This study describes dietary supplement consumption practices among the Taiwanese population over the age of 65. Data for the analyses were derived from the 2005-2008 Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan. Data from a total of 914 participants (456 men and 458 women) was collected in the study to delineate patterns of supple-ment usage. The results indicated that the percentage of individuals taking supplements was 45.7% for men and 52.2% for women. There were no significant differences in supplement use by gender, age group, geographic stratum, current employment status, household monthly income, self-reported health status or marital status, ex-cept for higher education and adequate perceived financial resources. Half of both men and women chose to take only one supplement. In addition, as the number of supplements taken increased, the number of people decreased. The elderly with higher education levels were more likely to take two kinds of supplements. The top five sup-plements consumed from highest to lowest were: glucosamine, multivitamins and minerals, calcium, fish oil and vitamin B complex. The major reason for supplements use for men was to supplement an unbalanced diet, and that for women was to prevent joint degeneration. The main factor influencing choice of supplements in the eld-erly was receiving the supplement as a gift from another person. Note that mean intakes of vitamins A, C, E, B-1, B-2, B-6, B-12, biotin, niacin, and pantothenic acid from supplements over-exceeded DRIs in Taiwan.
Key Words: dietary supplements, the elderly, Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT 2005-2008), consumption practices, dietary reference intakes (DRIs)
 

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2005-2008年臺灣65歲以上國人膳食補充品的使用狀況
本研究主要資料來源為「2005-2008年臺灣營養健康家戶調查(NAHSIT)」,藉由資料庫進行65歲以上老人膳食補充品使用狀況分析。問卷樣本數為914人,含男性456人與女性458人。結果顯示,男性老人服用補充品的比率為45.7%,女性為52.2%;除了高教育程度與感覺財務狀況足夠的老人,服用補充品比率顯著較高外,老人服用補充品比率不因性別、各年齡層、居住的地區層別、目前工作情況、全家每月收入、自覺健康狀況與婚姻狀況,而有顯著不同。男、女性皆有五成的人只選擇一種補充品,並且隨著選擇補充品的商品數增加而人數遞減;此外,教育程度越高的老人選擇兩種補充品比率越高。使用補充品前五大選擇分別為葡萄糖胺、綜合維生素與礦物質、鈣、魚油、維生素B群。男性主要服用目的為補充營養不均衡,女性為預防關節退化;補充品來源主要為他人贈送為主。值得注意的是,從補充品中攝取的維生素A、C、E、B1、B2、B6、B12、生物素、菸鹼酸、泛酸之平均攝取量,均遠超過國人膳食營養素參考攝取量(DRIs)。
關鍵字:膳食補充品、老年人、臺灣營養健康家戶調查(NAHSIT 2005-2008 )、消費行為、國人膳食營養素參考攝取量(DRIs)
 

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Practice to introduce complementary foods to infants in Taiwan – changes from 1997 to 2008
JIA-RONG LIN, MIN-SU TZENG, MEI-DING KAO, YI-HSIN YANG AND WEN-HARN PAN

The purpose of the study was to understand present infant complementary foods eating and compare trends over the past 10 years in Taiwan. We investigated the methods used to introduce infants to complementary foods, dif-ficulties encountered, sources of information and the principle caregiver’s knowledge about infant feeding. This study focused on findings from the 2005-2008 Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) and compared with those from the 1997-1999 Child NAHSIT. Interviews in both surveys were carried out by trained inter-viewers. In 2005-2008 survey, 50% of infants aged 7-12 months had started eating baby cereals or juice at age 4-6 months as recommended. The proportions of infants aged 10-12 months who were introduced to particular complementary foods at recommended periods varied from biscuits (51.1%) to tofu (1.1%). The proportions were higher in 2005-2008 than in 1997-1999 for only 3 items. In both survey, more than 80% of mothers were the one who made the decision to introduce their children to complementary foods. More than 75% of caregivers fed baby cereals to their babies from milk bottles. In 2005-2008, the most commonly encountered problem was that the child wouldn’t eat. Nutrition knowledge of the caregivers have improved since 1999, but still needs fos-tering. The timing to introduce complementary foods become later than ten years ago. Whether the delay will af-fect the normal dietary intakes of children after one year of age needs attention. The government should not only promote breastfeeding, but also reevaluate current evidence-based recommendation on complementary food in-troduction time.
Key Words: complementary foods, caregiver, encountered problem, nutrition knowledge, infant
 

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臺灣地區1997至2008年嬰兒副食品餵食狀況之變遷
本研究旨在了解目前臺灣嬰兒副食品餵食狀況並比較過去10年來的變遷。探討層面包括嬰兒副食品添加方式、嬰兒主要照顧者餵食副食品遭遇的問題、解決問題及嬰兒餵食知識資訊來源。研究方法以「2005-2008臺灣營養健康家戶調查」為探討主軸,並與「1997-1999臺灣地區嬰幼兒營養調查」結果比較,兩份調查皆由專業訓練訪員進行問卷訪談。結果顯示,2005-2008年間,7-12個月的嬰兒,於建議的4-6個月齡開始吃米(麥)糊或果(菜)汁者都佔約50%。10-12個月的嬰兒符合建議時間攝取的比例差異很大,從餅乾 (51.1%)到豆腐(1.1%)。與1997-1999年調查結果相比較,2005-2008年嬰兒符合建議時間攝取的比例中,只有糕餅、稀飯及果(菜)泥等三項高於1997-1999年。兩份調查中,副食品的添加超過80%由母親決定;超過75%嬰兒從奶瓶中攝取米(麥)糊。2005-2008年調查常遭遇的問題以「嬰兒不吃」最多。嬰兒主要照顧者在嬰兒餵養知識雖有提升,但部分觀念的改善仍有加強之必要。近十年來臺灣地區嬰兒副食品的添加有延遲的現象,是否會影響1歲以上幼兒食物的正常攝取值得注意。同時建議政府機關在推廣母乳哺育之餘,應適時考慮修正嬰兒副食品添加之時間。
關鍵字:副食品、嬰兒照顧者、營養知識、嬰兒
 

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Last Updated: June 2011