India is often thought of as a development paradox with relatively high economic growth rates in the past few years, but with lower progress in areas of life expectancy, education and standard of living. While serious ine- qualities in growth, development and opportunity explain the illusion of the paradox at the country level, still, a significant proportion of the world's poor live in India, as do a significant proportion of the world's malnourished children. Poverty and undernutrition coexist, and poor dietary quality is associated with poor childhood growth, as well as significant micronutrient deficiencies. Food security is particularly vulnerable to changes in the eco- nomic scenario and to inequities in wealth distribution. Migration from rural to urban settings with a large infor- mal employment sector also ensures that migrants continue to live in food insecure situations. While food produc- tion has for the most part kept pace with the increasing population, it has been with regard to cereal rather than of pulses and millet production. Oil seeds, sugar cane and horticultural crops, along with non-food crops are also be- ing promoted, which do not address nutrition security, and, coupled with the increase in the consumption of pre- prepared food, may indeed predispose towards the double burden of malnutrition. Access to food is also particu- larly susceptible to poverty and inequality. Many strategies and policies have been proposed to counter undernu- trition in India, but their implementation has not been uniform, and it is still too early to assess their lasting im- pact at scale.
This study is a secondary data analysis from the National Health Morbidity Survey III, a population-based study conducted in 2006. A total of 7,749 children between 7 and 12 years old were recruited into the study. This study seeks to report the prevalence of overweight (including obesity) children in Malaysia using international cut-off point and identify its associated key social determinants. The results show that the overall prevalence of over- weight children in Malaysia was 19.9%. The urban residents, males, Chinese, those who are wealthy, have over- weight or educated guardians showed higher prevalence of overweight. In multivariable analysis, higher likeli- hood of being overweight was observed among those with advancing age (OR=1.15), urban residents (OR=1.16, 95% CI: 1.01-1.36), the Chinese (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 1.19-1.77), boys (OR=1.23, 95% CI: 1.08-1.41), and those who came from higher income family. In conclusion, one out of five of 7-12 year-old-children in Malaysia were overweight. Locality of residence, ethnicity, gender, guardian education, and overweight guardian were likely to be the predictors of this alarming issue. Societal and public health efforts are needed in order to reduce the burden of disease associated with obesity.
Migration, chiefly from rural to urban areas has been linked to precursor conditions of cardiovascular dis- eases. We estimated the odds of overweight/obesity (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) associated with different patterns of internal migration, using data from the National Family Health Survey 3, a cross-sectional survey that covered 29 states of India in 2005/06. A total of 56,498 non-pregnant women, aged 15 to 49 years, and 42,190 men, aged 15 to 54 years, with BMI >18.5 kg/m2 were included in the final analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) for over- weight/obesity were computed for different groups of migrants after adjusting for age, socioeconomic status and parity using binomial logistic regression models. All analyses were performed separately for men and women and weighted using national sampling weights. Rural to urban migrant women but not men, had higher odds of being overweight/obese (adjusted OR (AOR): 1.50, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.36-1.65) com- pared to non-migrant rural residents. Increased odds were also noted among women migrating from one ur- ban area to another, compared to non-migrant urban women (AOR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02-1.19). Women mi- grating from urban to rural areas, however had decreased odds (AOR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.67-0.83) of over- weight/obesity. Thus, apart from confirming rural to urban migration as a risk factor for overweight, this study finds that other patterns of migration are also associated with overweight/obesity.
Poor nutritional status is a common problem among ovarian cancer patients. In order to detect changes in nutri- tional status and body composition this study investigates anthropometrical and biochemical parameters among these patients. This study included women with ovarian cancer and woman without cancer. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), anthropometrically, and with DXA scan, and total serum protein, albumin, transferrin, hemoglobin, hematocrit levels and total lymphocyte count was also measured. Data from DXA scan and body composition as assessed by BIA was collected from thirty-one women. Student t-test was used to compare differences in means between groups. This study included 120 women, 57 with ovarian can- cer and 63 with benign tumors. Both groups of women were overweight. Body fat by skin-fold thickness, arm circumference, serum albumin, total lymphocytes count, as well as transferrin levels were significantly lower in the ovarian cancer group (p<0.05). Ovarian cancer women had lower fat reserves by skin-fold thickness and low- er serum proteins even though they were overweight. However, further studies need to use a body composition assessment on all subjects to confirm these results.
Excessive intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) could reduce the fat density of human milk and impair the desatura- tion of essential fatty acids. Because the mammary glands are unable to synthesize TFA, it is likely that the TFA in human milk come from dietary intake. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the sources of TFA intake for lactating mothers in one of the urban areas in Selangor. In this cross-sectional study, anthropometric meas- urements, FFQ including 7 food groups and dietary consumption data were collected from 101 lactating mothers. Five major TFA isomers (palmitoelaidic acid (16:1t9), petroselaidic acid (18:1t6), elaidic acid (18:1t9), vaccenic acid (18:1t11) and linoelaidic acid (18:2t9,12) in human milk were measured by gas chromatography (GC). The relationship between food consumption and TFA levels was assessed using the non-parametric Spearman’s rho test. The TFA content in human milk was 2.94±0.96 (SEM) % fatty acid; this is considered low, as it is lower than 4%. The most abundant TFA isomer was linoelaidic acid (1.44±0.60% fatty acid). A sub-experiment (ana- lyzing 3 days of composite food consumption) was conducted with 18 lactating mothers, and the results showed that linoelaidic acid was the most common TFA consumed (0.07±0.01 g/100 g food). Only 10 food items had an effect on the total TFA level and the isomers found in human milk. No association was found between TFA con- sumption and the TFA level in human milk.
This study aimed to investigate the rate of breastfeeding at discharge and associated influencing factors in rural China. A prospective cohort study of infant feeding practices was undertaken during 2010-2011 in Jiangyou city, Sichuan Province of China. Logistic regression analysis was performed to ascertain pertinent factors affecting the prevalence of any breastfeeding at discharge. The participants consisted of 695 mothers aged 18-44 years. The breastfeeding rate at discharge was 93.5% (95% CI: 91.7-95.3). Perceived paternal breastfeeding preference was positively associated with actual breastfeeding at discharge (OR=4.46, 95% CI: 2.15-9.28). Other significant de- terminants were ‘receiving breastfeeding support’ from staff during hospital stay (OR=3.41, 95% CI: 1.58-7.34) and making the decision on feeding method during pregnancy or after childbirth (OR=0.46, 95% CI: 0.22-0.93). In conclusion, provision of comprehensive breastfeeding support in hospital and education programs targeting expectant and future parents are recommended to further increase the rate of breastfeeding at discharge in rural areas of China.
Childhood malnutrition remains a public health issue in Indonesia with a national prevalence of wasting of 13% and stunting of 36%. In rural areas nutritional status depends on local agriculture and may fluctuate in relation to harvest time. The aim of this study was to characterise seasonal variations in nutritional status in two resettlement villages in the Oesao district, Nusa Tenggara Timur. A cross sectional study was conducted in a convenience sample of children after the wet season (March). Children aged 6 to 60 months were assessed for nutritional sta- tus using anthropometric and biochemical measures. A subset of these children was re-assessed for anthropome- try after the dry season (November). Weight-for-height z scores improved significantly from mean±SD of -1.7± 0.9 in March to -1.3±0.9 in November (p<0.001). There was no significant change in height between seasons. Prevalence of wasting, (weight-for-height z score <-2), was 42% in March and 19% in November (p<0.001). However, stunting rates increased significantly from 42% in March to 45% in November (p<0.001). Thirty six per cent of children were anaemic (Hb level <11 mg/100 mL), 68% were vitamin A deficient (plasma vitamin A level <0.8 μmol/L) and 50% were zinc deficient (plasma zinc <9.94 μmol/L). All children except one were posi- tive for intestinal parasites. These data indicate seasonal changes in anthropometry with inconsistent effects de- pending on the anthropometric index measured. Wasting and stunting were higher than the national average, alongside high rates of anaemia, zinc and vitamin A deficiencies.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between dietary factors and sleep-wake regularity in the Japanese population. We analyzed 1368 eligible subjects (931 men and 437 women) aged 35-69 years who had participated in the baseline survey of a cohort study in Tokushima Prefecture, Japan. Information on indi- vidual lifestyle characteristics, including dietary habits and sleep-wake regularity, was obtained by a self- administrated questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate adjusted associations of the intake energy ratios of macronutrients, as well as intake frequency, and the amount of staple foods with sleep- wake regularity. The lowest quartile of protein intake as well as the highest quartile of carbohydrates showed significantly higher multivariable-adjusted odds ratios of 2.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.3) and 2.1 (1.3-3.5), respectively, for poor sleep-wake regularity compared with the respective second quartile that is thought to be moderate intake. Regarding intake of staple foods, low weekly intake frequency at breakfast (<5 times/week), the lowest intake amount (<1 bowl or slice/roll) at breakfast, and the highest intake amount (≥2 bowls or slic- es/rolls) at lunch and dinner exhibited significantly high adjusted odds ratios for poor sleep-wake regularity. Ad- ditionally adjusting for sleep duration, these results did not substantially alter. Our results suggested that low in- take energy ratio of proteins and high intake energy ratio of carbohydrates, skipping intake of the staple foods at breakfast, and excessive intake amount of the staple foods at lunch and dinner may be associated with poor sleep-wake regularity.
Objectives: to describe the trend in gender disparities of overweight/obesity and underweight, as well as height, among Chinese adolescents. Methods: the study is based on population-based data from annual health checks of approximately 7,000 students finishing high school each year between 2004-2011. Height and weight were meas- ured. Overweight/obesity and underweight were defined using International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria. School level socioeconomic status (SES) was constructed based on real-estate prices near each school. Results: there was a slight increase in the prevalence of obesity between 2004 and 2011; 3.7% to 4.7% in boys and 1.1% to 1.5% in girls. The prevalence of overweight was quite stable in both genders (boys: 12%-15%; girls: 7%-10%). In most years, the prevalence of underweight was above 10%. The prevalence of underweight in girls born after 1991 increased dramatically. However, the opposite trend was seen in boys. School SES was positively associat- ed with overweight and inversely associated with underweight among boys. There was a significant increase in height in both genders. Height and BMI was positively associated in boys but this relation was inversely associat- ed in girls. Conclusion: between 2004 and 2011, the prevalence of overweight/obesity was plateauing among ado- lescents finishing high school. A substantial increase in the prevalence of underweight was observed among girls born after 1991 but this seemed to be positively associated with high SES.
INTRODUCTION: Stroke accounts for approximately 10% of all deaths. We examined whether energy intake in- fluences the survival rate of severely ill stroke patients. METHODS: We analyzed 86 consecutive severely ill stroke patients. Patients’ background was compared between survivors and non-survivors. Average energy in- takes in seven different periods from day one to seven following neurosurgical care unit (NCU) admission were compared between two groups, to examine which period is proper to show an energy difference. Groups were stratified by average total energy intake (group E-I, -II, -III, and -IV; ≤8.25, 8.25-16.5, 16.5-25, and >25 kcal/kg/day, respectively), and cumulative survival rate for 90 days after NCU admission was analyzed. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to examine the effect of confounder factors. RE- SULT: Patients’ background did not differ significantly between the two groups. Average daily energy intake for the first seven NCU days of non-survivors was significantly lower than that of survivors (p=0.034). The survival rate of group E-II was significantly higher than that of group E-I, which was set as a reference (p=0.030). The ad- justed HR of E-II was also significantly lower than that of group E-I (HR=0.19, p=0.047), although E-III did not show significance (HR=0.52, p=0.279). CONCLUSION: Energy intake assessment should be conducted for at least seven days following NCU admission. An average total energy intake ranging from 8.25 to 16.5 kcal/kg/day and enteral feeding increases survival rate in severely ill stroke patients.
The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet has been proven to effectively lower blood pressure (BP), and associate with a lower cardiovascular disease and stroke risk in mainly non-Asians. Further, it is un- clear if adhering to the DASH target nutrients has similar BP impact as adhering to the recommended DASH food groups. Associations between adherence to DASH foods or nutrients and BP or stroke risk were assessed in 1420 and 2061 Taiwanese adults from 1989 to 2002, respectively. The DASH food score (p=0.053), dairy (p=0.030) and calcium (p=0.020) intake were significantly and inversely associated with follow up systolic BP change in univariate analyses. Both dairy (p=0.020) and calcium (p=0.001) also showed a consistent inverse as- sociation with systolic BP change in multivariate analysis. None of the factors examined was associated with di- astolic BP change. Both DASH nutrient score and magnesium intakes were significantly associated with the haz- ard ratio (HR) for total stroke in an inverse relationship. The HR of total stroke comparing the highest to the lowest tertile was 0.63 (95% CI: 0.41-0.98, p=0.037) for the DASH nutrient score, and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.40-0.97, p=0.030) for magnesium intake. Similar findings were observed for DASH nutrient score (p=0.011) and magne- sium intake (p=0.043) with the HR for ischemic stroke. The HR for total and ischemic stroke for calcium intake also showed a borderline trend (p=0.071 and 0.051, respectively). In conclusion, adhering to the DASH diet is beneficial for long term BP control and reduction of stroke risk in this Chinese population.
The present review aims to highlight the magnitude of iron status of Pakistani population and possible remedies to address iron deficiency among vulnerable groups. A computer-based search was carried out on “PubMed”, “Google Search” and “Sciencedirect.com” to retrieve relevant scientific literature published in the last two decades. The search yielded 193 articles, of which 64 were culled and further screening was performed based on the type of vulnerable population groups, age, sex and pregnancy. A thorough review of current literature reveals that iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) widely persist in Pakistan and necessitate immediate remedial actions. Females of reproductive age and children under 5 years have been shown to be the most IDA affected population segment. Fortification of wheat flour has been suggested as the most viable approach aptly matching Pakistan’s needs for combating IDA. The present review further stresses the need for global involvement to scale up efforts for mitigating ID and IDA to achieve Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that are fundamentally based upon improving nutritional wellbeing of populations in developing economies by 2015.
Coronary artery calcification is a recognised risk factor for ischaemic heart disease and mortality. Evidence is now strong that Mönckeberg’s arteriosclerosis, a form of vascular calcification, can be attributable to vitamin K deficiency, but that vitamin K-2, especially the MK-4 form from foods like cheese can be protective. Warfarin blocks the recycling of hepatic and peripheral vitamin K leading to secondary vitamin K deficiency with adverse effects on vasculature, bone, kidneys, brain and other tissues and systems (inflammatory, immune function and neoplasia at least). There is individual susceptibility to vitamin K deficiency and warfarin sensitivity, partly expli- cable in terms of genetic polymorphisms, epigenetics, diet and pharmacotherapy. The emergence of extensive coronary calcification in a man with atrial fibrillation treated for a decade with warfarin is described by way of il- lustration and to raise the present clinical management conundrums. Finally, a putative set of recommendations is provided.
We reported the cases of 3 obese children who presented variously with costochondral beading, numbness of both hands and feet, and hypochromic-microcytic anemia. Serum ascorbic acid concentration, erythrocyte thiamin py- rophosphate effect, and serum hepcidin concentration were done to investigate these symptoms, respectively, with findings of ascorbic acid insufficiency, thiamin deficiency, and iron deficiency anemia from poor iron ab- sorption due to a hyper-inflammatory state, respectively. This report indicated that obese children not only have energy excess but may also risk being micronutrient deficiencies; therefore, weight management with special at- tention to an adequate intake of vitamins and minerals should be provided.
Attention to “Food, Mind and Body” has been the foundation of spiritual and meaningful lives in all of the different civilizations throughout history. Clinical nutrition can contribute to the healthy relationships between these axes throughout life.
Health can be advanced through good eating habits in any society. Eco-friendly and sustainable agriculture, fisheries and forestry can provide healthy foods for all. Natural and minimally processed foods have additional functions beyond known nutrients. Brown rice and soy in a varied diet are good examples of how to achieve complete nutrition and better health outcomes.
A paradigm change is necessary from eating as much as we want to modest portions of food and not wasting the food, considering those who starve, the limited resilience of the environment and the shortage of natural resources. Minimal nutritional requirements for humans should be emphasized, so that we share the available food with all living things.
We can do this more effectively, if food, health and development are understood by all clinicians and public health workers to be ecosystem- dependent.
The main objective of this paper was to determine the utility of various anthropometric measures to assess total and regional body fatness using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the criterion in 454 adolescent boys and girls aged 12-19 years. Multivariable regression analyses of gender-specific and gender-combined models were used to determine anthropometric measures on DXA-derived body fatness models, after adjusting for known confounding biological factors. Partial correlation analyses, after adjusting for age, pubertal growth status and ethnicity in boys and girls, showed that body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ra- tio (WHR), and waist-height ratio (WhtR) were significantly correlated with total body fat (TBF), percent body fat (%BF), android region fat (ARF) and trunk fat (TF) (all p<0.0001). BMI was the greatest independent deter- minant, contributing 43.8%-80.9% of the total variance for DXA-derived body fatness models. Results confirmed that a simple anthropometric index such as the BMI is a good surrogate indicator of body fat levels in Malay and Chinese adolescents.
A 12-month randomized double blind controlled trial was conducted among 182 Indonesian postmenopausal women aged 47 to 60 years to determine the effect of 100 mg/day soy isoflavone supplementation on vascular endothelial function such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), nitric oxide (NO) and malondialde- hyde (MDA) as oxidative stress marker. The subjects were randomized to the intervention group receiving tablets consisting of 100 mg soy isoflavones and calcium carbonate 500 mg, and to the control group receiving 500 mg calcium carbonate. The concentrations of VCAM-1, NO and MDA were measured at baseline, and post- supplementation at 6 months and 12 months. After supplementation, the MDA concentrations were significantly lower in the soy isoflavone group compared with the control group (p=0.001). The concentrations of VCAM-1 and NO were not affected (p=0.992 and p=0.759, respectively). In all group the MDA concentration increased compared with baseline concentrations but the relative change of MDA concentrations was significantly lower in the soy isoflavone group compared with the control group. This study demonstrates that supplemental intake of soy isoflavones for 6 months and 12 months had an effect on oxidative stress by decreasing MDA concentration, but did not improve vascular endothelial function.
Background: Korean red ginseng is one of the most popular herbs worldwide due to the belief that it contains in- gredients that possess a variety of health enhancing effects including anti-diabetic effects. The objective of this study was to determine whether Korean red ginseng supplement has an effect on insulin sensitivity in healthy overweight or obese adults without overt diabetes and hypertension. Methods: In a double-blinded, placebo- controlled, randomized trial, a total of 68 participants (BMI ≥23 kg/m2) received either 6 g of Korean red gin- seng rootlets (n=34) or a placebo each day over a 12 week period. Results: Similar insulin levels and insulin sen- sitivity index were observed at baseline in the Korean red ginseng and control groups. Korean red ginseng had no significant effect on improving the insulin sensitivity over time. Korean red ginseng does not improve the in- sulin sensitivity of overweight and obese subjects who do not have diabetes or hypertension.
Rice is a staple carbohydrate throughout much of the world. Previous work indicated that resistant starch (RS) content of rice consumed in India varied with rice variety and cooking method. This study quantified RS in 4 white rice varieties (jasmine, long grain, medium grain, and short grain) cooked in three manners (oven baked, conventional rice cooker, and pressure cooker), and analyzed for RS content immediately after preparation or af- ter 3 days of refrigeration at 4°C. The rice varieties with the highest and lowest RS content were selected for a pi- lot-scale trial to characterize postprandial glycemic response and appetite ratings in healthy adults (n=21). Refrig- erated long-grain rice cooked in a conventional rice cooker had the highest RS content (HRS, 2.55 g RS/100 g) and refrigerated short-grain rice cooked in a pressure cooker had the lowest RS content (LRS, 0.20 g RS/100 g). These rice samples were served reheated in the clinical trial. Glucose area under the curve (AUC) were signifi- cantly lower with HRS and LRS compared to glucose beverage; however, there was no difference between HRS and LRS. Glycemic indices did not differ significantly between HRS and LRS. Subjects reported an overall in- creased feeling of fullness and decreased desire to eat based on incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for both HRS and LRS compared to control. This study found that RS naturally occurring in rice had minimal impact on the postprandial glycemic response and appetite.
This study investigated the effect of high- and low-energy density preloads on gastrointestinal and metabolic fac- tors, which act to regulate acute energy intake. Sixteen overweight and obese men (BMI range: 27.2-36.5 kg/m2) each received 3 oral preloads in randomised order: i) high-energy-density, high-fat (1.5 kcal/g), ii) low-energy- density, high-fat (1.1 kcal/g), and iii) low-energy-density, high-protein (1.1 kcal/g). Over 180 min, gastric empty- ing, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 concentrations, and diet-induced thermogenesis were assessed, and subse- quent energy intake was determined. Total energy intake did not differ between preloads (high-energy-density, high-fat, 2059±72 kilocalories (kcal); low-energy-density, high-fat, 1876±91 kcal; and low-energy-density, high- protein, 1867±63 kcal). Gastric emptying was slower following the high-energy-density, high-fat preload (158±8 min) compared with the low-energy-density, high-protein preload (130±9 min) (p=0.05), but did not differ be- tween the high-energy-density, high-fat and low-energy-density, high-fat (147±8 min) preloads. Plasma gluca- gon-like peptide-1 did not differ substantially between preloads. Diet-induced thermogenesis was lower following high-energy-density, high-fat (10.4±0.7 %) than low-energy-density, high-fat (14.9±1.2 %) and low-energy- density, high-protein (18.1±1.1 %) preloads (p<0.01 for both). We conclude that an increased energy density slows gastric emptying and reduces thermogenesis, but that a high fat content overrides the effect of energy den- sity on gastric emptying. The counter-regulatory modulation of these gastric and metabolic factors may explain, at least in part, the lack of differences in subsequent energy intake in response to oral preloads with increasing energy density.
Ultraviolet B sunlight exposure is a primary source of vitamin D. There have been reports of low vitamin D status amongst the Malaysian population despite it being a tropical country. This study was conducted to determine the influence of sun exposure on 25(OH)D concentrations in urban and rural women in Malaysia and factors predict- ing 25(OH)D concentrations. Women aged above 45 years were recruited from urban (n=107) and rural areas (n=293). Subjects were interviewed regarding their outdoor activities and usual outdoor attire over the previous week. 25(OH)D concentrations were analyzed using the vitamin D3 (25-OH) electrochemiluminescence immu- noassay. Median (Q1-Q3) age of the participants was 57 (53-61) years old. Median (Q1-Q3) 25(OH)D concentra- tion of rural women was significantly higher [69.5 (59.0-79.1) nmol/L] compared to urban women 31.9 (26.1- 45.5) nmol/L. Rural women spent more time in the sun compared to urban women (7.83 (3.67-14.7) vs 2.92 (1.17-4.92) hours, p<0.001), although the fraction of body surface area (BSA) exposed to sunlight was significantly higher in the urban group [0.21 (0.21-0.43) vs 0.12 (0.07-0.17), p<0.001]. The calculated sun index (hours of sun exposure per weekfraction of BSA) was significantly higher in rural [0.89 (0.42-1.83)] compared to urban women [0.72 (0.26-1.28)], p=0.018. In the stepwise linear regression, rural dwelling increased the serum 25(OH)D by 31.74 nmol/L and 25(OH)D concentrations increased by 1.93 nmol/L for every unit increment in sun index. Urban women in Malaysia had significantly lower vitamin D status compared to rural women. Rural dwelling and sun index were key factors influencing vitamin D status in Malaysian women.
Ferritin concentrations in circulation reflect iron stores in healthy individuals. However, elevated serum ferritin (SF) concentrations have recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). We aim to investigate factors associated with elevated SF and to evaluate the association between SF and risk of MetS in Taiwanese adults. Data was collected from 2654 healthy individuals aged ≥19 years old, who participated in the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT Adults 2005-2008). Mean concentrations of SF were 173±282 ng/mL (men 229±349 ng/mL and women 119±180 ng/mL). Prevalence proportion of MetS was 34.6% (men 43.1% and women 26.5%). Prevalence proportion of iron overload was 18.6% (men 21.5% and women 15.8%) and iron deficiency anemia was 5.2% (2.0% for men and 8.3% for women). Individuals with the highest SF tertile (T3) were more likely to consume higher amount of animal protein (p=0.001), betel nuts (p=0.004), and lower amounts of carbohydrates (p<0.0001), compared with the lowest SF group (T1). After adjustments, individuals with the highest SF tertile were associated with risk of MetS compared with those with the lowest (OR=1.724, 95% CI: 1.21-2.45). Serum ferritin concentrations showed a gradient relationship with individual components of MetS (all p<0.0001). Individuals with the highest SF tertile were significantly associated with fasting serum glu- cose (OR=2.16, 95% CI: 1.75-2.65) and serum triglyceride (OR=2.58, 95% CI: 1.07-3.22) than those with the lowest. In conclusions, our results highlight the crucial role of serum ferritin in the pathogenesis of the MetS in healthy Taiwanese adults.