Soyfoods have long been a part of traditional Asian diets; they provide plentiful amounts of high-quality protein and have a favourable fatty acid profile. In addition, provocative research suggests soyfoods offer health benefits independent of the nutrients they provide. However, there is a widely-held belief among Asian health profes- sionals and the public that soyfoods increase risk of gout and potentially precipitate acute attacks in patients with this disease. To examine the veracity of this belief, this review critically evaluated the relevant clinical and epi- demiologic data. In addition, background information on the etiology and prevalence of hyperuricemia and gout in Asia is provided along with the results of a small survey of Asian healthcare professionals about their attitudes toward soyfoods. Among the healthcare professionals who responded to the survey, 95% considered soyfoods to be somewhat or very healthy and nutritious. In contrast, 48% expressed the view that soyfoods are likely to cause gout. However, none of the six epidemiologic studies identified provided any evidence that soy intake was associated with circulating uric acid levels, hyperuricemia or gout. Data from the five human intervention studies evaluated indicate soy protein does elevate serum uric levels, but in response to amounts comparable to Asian in- take, the expected rise would almost certainly be clinically irrelevant. Although there is a need for long-term re- search, on the basis of the existing data there is no reason for individuals with gout or at risk of developing gout to avoid soyfoods.
The present study was performed to develop regression based prediction equations for fat mass from skinfold thickness in Japanese children, and to investigate the cross-sectional and longitudinal validity of these equations. A total of 127 healthy Japanese prepubertal children aged 6-12 years were randomly separated into two groups: the model development group (54 boys and 44 girls) and the cross-sectional validation group (18 boys and 11 girls). Fat mass was initially determined by using DXA (Hologic Delphi A-QDR whole-body scanner) to provide reference data. Then, fat thickness was measured at triceps and subscapular using an Eiken-type skinfold calipers. Multiple anthropometric and DXA measures were obtained one year later for 28 of the original 127 subjects (longitudinal validation group: 14 boys and 14 girls). Strong significant correlations were observed between total fat mass by DXA measurement and the skinfold thickness × height measures by caliper in the model develop- ment group of boys and girls (R2=0.91-0.92, p<0.01). When these fat mass prediction equations were applied to the cross-sectional and longitudinal validation groups, the measured total fat mass was also very similar to the predicted fat mass. In addition, there were significant correlations between the measured and predicted total fat mass for boys and girls, respectively, although Bland-Altman analysis indicated a bias in cross-sectional valida- tion group. Skinfold-derived prediction equations underestimate for obese children but are generally useful for estimating total fat mass in field research.
The objective of this study is to track body mass index (BMI) in obese or thin adolescents from adolescence to childhood on an individual basis. This was performed at a single school with a 12-year combination education system in an urban city in Japan. A total of 617 students in the 3rd grade of senior high school (17 years old) during 2005-2009 were enrolled. Based on the Japanese BMI reference in childhood adjusted for age and gender, obesity and thinness were defined as ≥90th percentile and ≤5th percentile, respectively. Sixty-three (10.2%) and 84 (13.6%) students were found to be obese and thin, respectively. Complete annual tracking of BMI back to the 1st grade of elementary school (6 years old) (1994-1998) was possible in 47 obese (74.6%) and 67 thin students (80.0%). The most common ages when obesity was first detected were 6-8 years for males, and 12-14 years for females, and the most common ages when thinness was first detected were 12-14 years for males, and 15-17 years for females. Once obesity or thinness started, these conditions remained until 17 years old in most students. Obese students whose obesity started earlier tended to have higher BMIs at 17 years old in both genders. This will be the first tracking study of BMI in obese and thin adolescents on an individual basis. A longitudinal study of BMI during childhood is useful for establishing intervention programs to prevent obesity or thinness in ado- lescence.
The Danone Institutes are not-for-profit organizations, independent of the Danone business, and whose programs are independent and contain no commercial information. The mission of the Danone Institutes is to develop knowl- edge about the links between nutrition, diet and health, and to disseminate that knowledge to the general public. To date, there are 18 Danone Institutes worldwide.
In supporting the above mission, the Danone Institutes of Indonesia, Japan and China organized jointly a half- day pre-congress seminar in conjunction with the XI Asian Congress of Nutrition (ACN) and held in Singa- pore on July 12, 2011, with the theme “Progress of Die- tary Guidelines in Asia”. Facing a double burden of nutri- tion, the countries in economic transition in Asia need regularly to re-visit their dietary/nutrition guidelines so that they can be implemented and beneficial for the popu- lation at large. Learning from the experiences of other countries may help to make the messages more effective. The seminar was attended by 211 delegates from at least 139 institutions and 18 countries (Asia: China, Korea, Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Japan, Sin- gapore, Vietnam; and other countries from South and North America, Europe, and Australia). About one-third (35%) of the participants were from Indonesia, followed by Singapore (16%) and China (11%).
Eight experts were invited to present the experiences of their respective countries. They were:
China promulgated her first food based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) in 1989. It was proposed by the standing board of Chinese Nutrition Society. The guidelines consisted of 8 items, each followed by a paragraph of expla- nation words. The second FBDGs came out in 1997, was expanded to include 3 parts i.e. guide lines for general population, for 7 particular population groups (infants, toddlers and preschool children, school-age children, ado- lescents, pregnant women, lactating mothers and the aged) and a newly formed food guide pagoda (FGP). The last version of the Chinese FBDGs was compelled by Chinese Nutrition Society in 2007, and proclaimed by the Ministry of Health in early 2008. The new guidelines kept the skeleton of three parts, but expanded remarkably in volume and coverage. The guidelines for the general population consisted of 10 items, each containing: core information, a discussion and reference materials. The guidelines for particular groups contained more subgroups, and more detailed recommendations. The revised pagoda kept the previous food grouping and placement but al- tered the amount of some food groups. An image of a walker and a cup of water were added to the side of the pagoda. Guidelines-2007 called for more coarse grains and less cooking oil consumption. Physical activity is al- so strongly recommended.
Nutrition history in Indonesia began in 1887, when Christiann Eijkman discovered the relationship between vi- tamin B-1 deficiency and beri-beri. In the 1950’s, the socialization of nutrition messages started with the intro- duction of “Healthy Four Perfect Five” (Empat Sehat Lima Sempurna-ESLS). For the next 25 years after that, ESLS became a favorite in nutrition education and was nationally known. Although the ESLS was never eva- luated, food consumption pattern of Indonesians are never balanced. Undernutrition is rampant and overnutrition emerged. In 1995 the Indonesian food-based dietary guidelines was launched by the Ministry of Health, and formally incorporated into the nutrition policy. The Guide has 13 messages. Again, the guidelines were never evaluated; in 2010 undernutrition persists and the prevalence of degenerative diseases increased. Thus, it is ur- gent for Indonesia to have concrete Nutrition Guidelines (Gizi Seimbang) covering messages like: (1) consume a variety of foods; (2) keep clean; (3) be active, exercise regularly; and (4) monitor body weight. The guidelines shall be developed for all age groups. The guidelines were tested to over 300 audiences and the responses were promising. Dissemination of the messages widely within the formal channels is compulsory. The new Nutrition Guideline messages are an open concept ready to be revised accordingly. It is evident that nutrition sciences and its application had undergone rapid changes over time and Indonesia need to adopt accordingly and timely. Al- though, outcomes may not be seen in a short time, longer term output will benefit future generations.
The national government settled on "Healthy Japan 21" as the premier preventive policy of lifestyle related dis- eases in 2000. In 2005, the effectiveness of the campaign was conducted, but the results did not turn out as ex- pected. The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare made the “Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top (JFG-ST)” as a practical and easy way to improve eating habits for all of the people. The JFG-ST falls down when the balance of the diets worsens and expresses a stable thing in what a turn (exercise) does. Eyes down quantity to take out of each group per day is shown in the basic form by the 5 distinction from grain dishes, vegetable dishes, fish and meat dishes, milk, and fruits. In 2005, the Basic Law on Dietary Education was enacted to promote the die- tary education about the importance of eating proper meals in order to solve problems such as inappropriate eat- ing habits and nutrition intake, disturbances in diets, increases in lifestyle-related diseases, a fall in the rate of food self-sufficiency and so forth. The Ministry of Education and Science started a program to train people to become "diet and nutrition teacher” in primary school. JFG- ST is developed in a dietary education campaign as a standard method of the dietary education. In May, 2011, the government has announced the second dietary education promotional basic plan to assume five years.
Development and promotion of dietary guidelines is one of the key activities outlined in the National Plan of Ac- tion for Nutrition of Malaysia for the prevention of nutrition-related disorders. The first official Malaysian Die- tary Guidelines (MDG) was published in 1999 and was thoroughly reviewed and launched on 25 March 2010. The new MDG 2010 is a compilation of science-based nutrition and physical activity recommendations. These guidelines form the basis of consistent and scientifically sound nutrition messages for the public. There are 14 key messages and 55 recommendations, covering the whole range of food and nutrition issues, from importance of consuming a variety of foods to guidance on specific food groups, messages to encourage physical activities, consuming safe food and beverages and making effective use of nutrition information on food labels. The MDG also has an updated food pyramid. Various efforts have been made to ensure that the revised MDG is dissemi- nated to all stakeholders. The Ministry of Health has organised a series of workshops for nutritionists and other health care professionals, and the food industry. In collaboration with other professional bodies and the private sector, the Nutrition Society of Malaysia has been promoting the dissemination and usage of the MDG to the public through a variety of formats and channels. These include the publication of a series of leaflets, education- al press articles, educational booklets, as well as through educational activities for children. It is imperative to monitor the usage and evaluation of these dietary messages.
This paper reviews the formulation of positive, practical and culturally sensitive food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) to help Filipinos choose an adequate diet and foster wholesome food and nutrition practices to promote good health; and provide those concerned with a framework and reference for their task of educating the public on proper nutrition practices. An evidence-based approach to evaluate the scientific report used to develop the Nutritional Guidelines for Filipinos (NGF) was published summarizing the scientific bases for its formulation. It highlights the findings of controlled and epidemiological studies and review in scientific journals. The results of the nutrition surveys which depict the food and nutrition situation, data on dietary patterns and practices related to food, food availability and statistics on nutrition-related health problems serve as background for the guide- lines. While the 2000 NGF may have created awareness of the link between nutrients and foods to health, the contribution of these guidelines to outcomes and impact on health and nutrition has been limited. The policy makers and stakeholders involved with FBDGs development should recognize that the process does not end when the messages are formulated. A comprehensive plan that includes implementation, assessment, monitoring and reformulation must be developed. Formulation of a strategy on how the guidelines should be implemented to improve the dietary patterns of Filipinos, combined with the development of a protocol for evaluation of imple- mentation and impact of the guidelines will now be adopted for its revision.
The 2011 Dietary Guidelines were developed with the aim of providing guidance on what dietary strategies can best address increasing rates of obesity and non-communicable chronic disease in Singapore. This set of dietary guidelines was developed with a local expert committee based on a review of scientific literature and data on current dietary patterns from the 2010 National Nutrition Survey. Projected nutrient intakes from a diet adhering to the 2011 Dietary Guidelines were calculated using a local food composition database (FOCOS) and validated against nutrient recommendations. Acknowledging that dietary requirements differ between age groups, different sets of dietary guidelines have been developed and customised for different segments of the population. To date, Singapore has produced dietary guidelines for children and adolescents (focusing on establishing healthy life- long eating patterns), adults (focusing on preventing obesity and reinforcing healthy eating patterns), and most recently, guidelines for older adults (>50 years of age) that address the issue of potential dietary insufficiency caused by age-related increases in nutrient requirements combined with a reduction in energy requirements. In Singapore, dietary guidelines have been used to inform and direct public policy and promote dietary patterns that meet nutrient requirements while reducing the risk of non-communicable chronic diseases. Examples of public policy include: national guidelines on food advertising and standards for food served in nursing homes; exam- ples of public health promotion programmes include: the Healthier Choice Symbol Programme for packaged food products and programmes encouraging provision of healthier meals in hawker centres, restaurants, and school or workplace canteens.
Dietary guidelines based on 5 food groups was used as a main nutrition education tool until 1996 when food based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) were promoted after 2 years of formulation and development. These FBDGs for the general population were designed to promote desirable and culturally acceptable eating behavior. The nine qualitative guidelines of Thai FBDGs include: 1. eat a variety of foods from each of the five food groups and maintain proper weight, 2. eat adequate rice, or alternate carbohydrate, 3. eat plenty of vegetables and fruits regularly, 4. eat fish, lean meats, eggs, legumes and pulses regularly, 5. drink sufficient amount of milk every day, 6. take moderate amounts of fat, 7. avoid excessive intake of sweet and salty foods, 8. eat clean and uncon- taminated foods, and 9. avoid or reduce consumption of alcoholic beverages. In 1998, the quantitative part of Thai FBDGs or food guide model was established as “Nutrition Flag” after rigorous test for understanding and acceptability among consumers. Promotion and dissemination of the Thai FBDGs have been carried out at na- tional and community levels through basic health, agricultural and educational services and training activities, as well as periodic campaigning via multiple communication channels and media. Recently in 2009, the FBDGs for infant and preschool children were introduced to replace the previous infant and young child feeding guidelines. There has been no formal evaluation on the impact of promotion of the Thai FBDGs but some periodic testing of knowledge and practices have shown positive results.
Sub-optimal infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices are likely a significant contributor to high undernu- trition rates in Viet Nam. To date, however, there has been no comprehensive review of IYCF practices in Viet Nam. The objectives of this paper were to review: 1) patterns/trends in IYCF in Viet Nam; 2) the barriers and fa- cilitators to IYCF practices; and 3) interventions and policies and their effectiveness. Methods used include re- viewing and analyzing existing data, summarizing and organizing the evidence into broad themes based on a pre-defined conceptual framework. Findings show that the proportion of children ever breastfed is almost uni- versal and the median duration of breastfeeding is 13-18 months. However, exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months is low (8-17%) and appears to be declining over time. Information on complementary feeding is lim- ited, but two key challenges are: early introduction, and low nutrient quality of complementary foods. Facilitators of optimal IYCF were support from 1) government progressive policies, 2) non-profit organizations and 3) family members. Barriers to optimal IYCF included 1) the lack of enforcement of, and compliance with the code of marketing breast milk substitutes, 2) inadequate knowledge among health care providers; and 3) maternal poor knowledge. These findings indicate that the evidence base on complementary feeding is weak in Viet Nam and needs to be strengthened. The review also reinforces that program and policy actions to improve IYCF in Viet Nam must target multiple stakeholders at different levels: the family, the health system and the private sector.
Dietary Guidelines are sets of advisory statements that give dietary advice for population to promote nutritional well-being. They contain information on foods or behaviors that are encouraged and cautionary messages de- rived from scientific evidence-based reviews and specific local conditions. The Indonesian Dietary Guidelines consisting of 13 messages that were publicized by the Ministry of Health in 1995 and have not been reviewed af- terward in relation to nutritional status and health outcome of the population. By reviewing studies on different age groups in the past 10 years and comparing the results with the recommended guidelines, this paper aims to identify if messages have been successfully applied and if there are relevant issues not yet covered in the guide- lines. The reviews covered 29 out of 33 provinces, representing studies from sub-district or higher levels (district, provincial, national). Results showed that some messages have been better implemented than others; also that in- formation for some messages was not available for which to conclude of its implementation. In addition, some practices were identified which are prevalent in several age groups and have important public health conse- quence, but not yet included in the 13-guidelines. These include: smoking, increased intakes of fruit and vegeta- bles, limited intakes of salt and sugar, increased intakes of foods rich in zinc and calcium (besides iron), hand- washing before food preparation and eating, and weight-monitoring. For infants and young children, nutrient density, feeding responsiveness and stimulation should be specifically highlighted. Based on the results, several recommendations in revising the guidelines were given.
The food based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) is a crucial tool for nutrition education and communication in Viet- nam. Together with the changes of socio-economic situation, Vietnam needs to deal with different nutritional problems including malnutrition, overweight and undiversified diets at the same time. From 1995 to the present, three versions of FBDGs have been developed and revised in a period of every 5 years. The FBDGs, Food Guide Pyramid and Food Square made a good set of nutritional education tool which were disseminated through a wide range of activities and communication channels. The evaluation of FBDGs will be carried out before its revi- sions to reflect eating patterns and lifestyles of consumers whom the nutritional education programs wish to reach. In developing countries like Vietnam, the socio-economic situation is changing over short period of time. Therefore, the assessment of appropriateness and implementation progress of the FBDGs is necessary and should be done after a period of every 5 or 10 years. The implementation of the FBDGs should be closely con- nected with the activities of the National Plan for Nutrition and should have involvement from multi-sectoral or- ganizations. Training, monitoring and evaluation for implementation of the FBDGs are essential for the success of guiding consumers to convert advices into action. The lessons learned from previous FBDGs’ implementation can be used to develop a new version of FBDGs that is more appropriate.
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was carried out to investigate the effects of micronutrients supplementation on immunity and the incidence of common infections in type 2 diabetic outpatients. A total of 196 type 2 diabetic outpatients were randomized to receive tablets of micronutrients (n=97) or placebo (n=99) for 6 months. Individualized dietary energy intake and daily physical activity were recommended. Anthropomet- ric measurements, blood biochemical variables and the incidence of common infections were measured at base- line and at 6 months. Data on diet, exercise and infection (upper respiratory tract infection, skin infection, uri- nary and genital tract infections, other infections) were recorded 1 month before the study and every month dur- ing the study. Blood concentrations of total protein, iron (Fe), folic acid and hemoglobin increased and unsatu- rated iron-binding capacity(UIBC) levels were decreased in the micronutrients supplementation group compared to the placebo group at 6 months. Moreover, at 6 months, compared to the placebo group, the blood concentra- tions of IgE, CD4+, CD4+/CD8+, WBC, lymphocyte counts, basophilic leukocyte increased and CD8+ count de- creased in the supplementation group, and the levels of IgA, IgM, IgG and complements C3 and C4 did not dif- fer. The incidence of upper respiratory infection, whitlow, dermapostasis, vaginitis, urinary tract infection, gin- givitis and dental ulcer were lower and body temperature and duration of fever greatly improved in the supple- mentation than the placebo group. These data indicated that supplementation of micronutrients might increase immune function and reduce the incidence of common infections in type 2 diabetic outpatients.
Background: Soy drink replacement in the diet might have beneficial effects on anthropometric and blood pres- sure values for overweight and obese subjects. Therefore, we are going to determine the effects of soy drink re- placements on the weight, waist circumference and blood pressure among overweight and obese female youths. Patients and Methods: This was a cross-over randomized clinical trial on 23 overweight and obese female sub- jects. All patients were on a weight reducing diet. There were two trial periods for six weeks (soy drink period and cow’s milk period) and a washout period for 3 weeks. In the soy drink period only one glass of soy drink (240 cc) was consumed instead of one glass of cow’s milk. Results: The mean age of the patients was 22±2 years. Mean of BMI was 28.1±0.5. Weight and waist circumference did not changed significantly after the soy drink period compared to the cow’s milk period. Systolic blood pressure reduced significantly following the soy drink period (mean percent change in soy drink period: -4.0±0.9 vs -1.7±0.5 in the cow’s milk period; p<0.05). Dia- stolic blood pressure also reduced in the soy drink period (-0.4±0.1 vs 0.4±0.1; p<0.05). Conclusion: Soy drink replacement could reduce both systolic and diastolic blood pressure among overweight and obese female youths. However, this replacement had no significant results on weight and waist circumference.
Objective: To determine protein requirement of Chinese young female adults on habitual Chinese diet through indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) technique. Design: Twenty women with a mean (SD) age of 21.6 (0.9) years were healthy based on questionnaire, physical examinations and screening tests. There were three consecu- tive periods of 7 days each with six different intakes of protein (0.70, 0.78, 0.86, 0.94, 1.02 and 1.10 g/kg·d) within Chinese habitual diets (proportions of good-quality protein were 40 to 45%). Subjects were randomly al- located equally into two groups (1.10, 0.86, 0.78 g/kg·d for group 1 and 1.02, 0.94, 0.70 g/kg·d for group 2 from period 1 to period 3 in turn). Adaptation days were from day 1 to day 6 and the isotope study day was day 7 in each period. Amino acid kinetics was measured in non-menstrual periods, based on the IAAO technique. Two indicators (rate of release of 13CO2 and rate of leucine oxidation) were used to estimate protein requirement by breakpoint analysis with a two-phase linear regression crossover model. Results: Mean and population safe pro- tein requirements of Chinese habitual diets in non-menstrual periods from the rate of release of 13CO2 were 0.91 and 1.09 g/kg·d, respectively. And from the rate of leucine oxidation were 0.92 and 1.10 g/kg·d, respectively. Conclusions: The protein requirement of young women on Chinese habitual diets in non-menstrual period was lower than the current protein reference intake for Chinese females. Further studies are necessary to explore fe- male protein requirements during the whole menstrual cycle.
Migration to industrialised countries poses a “double whammy” for type 2 diabetes among sub-Saharan African migrant and refugee adults. This population group has been found to be at an increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes, which may be further aggravated by inadequate vitamin D status. Thus, this study aimed to describe the demographics of vitamin D insufficiency, obesity, and risk factors for type 2 diabetes among sub-Saharan Afri- can migrants and refugees aged 20 years or older living in Melbourne, Australia (n=49). Data were obtained by a questionnaire, medical assessment, and fasting blood samples. The mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was 27.3 nmol/L (95% CI: 22.2, 32.4 nmol/L); with 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels <50 nmol/L occurring in 88% of participants. Participants displayed a cluster of risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease: 62% were overweight or obese, 47% had insulin resistance (HOMA-IR ≥2), 25% had low density lipoprotein choles- terol levels ≥3.5 mmol/L, 24.5% had high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels ≤1.03 mmol/L, 34.6% had bor- derline or high levels of total cholesterol (≥5.2 mmol/L), 18.2% had borderline or high levels of triglyceride (≥1.7 mmol/L), and 16% had hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg). These findings suggest that sub-Saharan African migrants and refugees may be at risk of type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis-related diseases such as ischemic heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. Well- designed vitamin D interventions that incorporate lifestyle changes are urgently needed in this sub-population.
The purpose of the present study was to assess the risk of the metabolic syndrome (MS) with vegan, pescovege- tarian, lactovegetarian and nonvegetarian diets in Taiwan. The design was a retrospective cohort study using secondary data analysis from a Taiwan longitudinal health check-up database provided by MJ Health Screening Center during 1996–2006. A total of 93209 participants were classified as vegans (n=1116), pescovegetarians (n=2461), lactovegetarians (n=4313) and nonvegetarians (n=85319) by food frequency list of self-administered questionnaire at baseline. The association between MS or MS components and different dietary groups was eva- luated using Cox proportional-hazards regression models with adjustment for confounders. During the mean 3.75 years of follow up, a total 8006 MS incident cases occurred and the incidence of MS was 229 (95% CI, 224, 234) per 10000 person year. Compared with vegans, hazard ratios of MS for nonvegetarians, pescovegetarians, lactovegetarians were 0.75 (95% CI, 0.64, 0.88), 0.68 (95% CI, 0.55, 0.83) and 0.81 (95% CI, 0.67, 0.97) after adjusting for sex, age, education status, smoking status, drinking status, physical activity at work and leisure, re- spectively. As for MS components, nonvegetarians and pescovegetarians had 0.72 (95% CI, 0.62, 0.84), 0.70 (95% CI, 0.57, 0.84) times risk of developing low high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), while nonvege- tarians had 1.16 (95% CI, 1.02, 1.32) times risk of developing high fasting plasma glucose. Our data suggest that the vegan diets did not decrease the risk of metabolic syndrome compared with pescovegetarian, lactovegetarian and nonvegetarian diets in a Taiwanese cohort.
Phosphorus and calcium are essential for bone health. There is a concern that a low calcium/phosphorus intake ratio resulting from low calcium intake coupled with high phosphorus intake may have a negative effect on bone mineral status, especially in Western countries. The objective of this study was to examine cross-sectionally the influence of habitual phosphorus and calcium intake and the calcium/phosphorus intake ratio on the bone min- eral density (BMD) in 441 young Japanese women (aged 18-22) whose calcium/phosphorus intake ratio was as- sumed to be lower than young Western women. We also ascertained the relationship between dietary intake and serum or urinary measurements of phosphorus and calcium. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 25-hydroxy vita- min D (25(OH)D) were also examined for 214 of the 441 subjects. Phosphorus and calcium intake and the cal- cium/phosphorus intake ratio had significant positive correlations with urinary phosphorus. Calcium intake and the calcium/phosphorus intake ratio independently had positive and significant associations with BMD in the distal radius adjusted for postmenarcheal age, body mass index, and physical activity. There were no significant associations with BMD in the lumbar spine and femoral neck. These results indicate that in young Japanese women, phosphorus intake did not have a significantly negative effect on bone mineral density, and calcium in- take and calcium/phosphorus intake ratio had a small but significant association only in a site-specific manner with BMD.
Many constitutional indices, used as screening parameters in public health, have been explored (in-vivo) and ap- plied for many years, but as yet there is no consensus on a universal index. This reflects confusion, or at least lack of agreement, about what a constitutional index should represent. The aim of this study was to explore the direct relationship of frequently used, unexplored and newly designed indices with adipose tissue masses and trunk adipose tissue distribution, on an anatomical 5-component model. Whole body and trunk composition, of 28 white Caucasian cadavers (aged 78.4±6.9 years), were determined at the anatomical tissue-system level by di- rect dissection. In the male group, the body mass index, the height/3√body volume index and the weight/height- waist circumference-depth index showed good to excellent significant correlations with all adipose tissue masses (r-values between 0.75 and 0.92) and with the internal adipose tissue/adipose tissue ratio (r-values between 0.59 and 0.78). In the female group, the body mass index, the height/3√body volume index and the weight/height- waist circumference index showed moderate to excellent significant correlations with all adipose tissue masses (r-values between 0.58 and 0.87) and with the internal adipose tissue/adipose tissue ratio (r-values between 0.52 and 0.80) and the internal adipose tissue/subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio (r-values between 0.48 and 0.78). The findings suggest that the newly designed indices (e.g. weight to height-waist circumference-depth index in males and weight to height-waist circumference index in females) are better correlates of whole body adipose tissue masses and trunk adipose tissue distribution than the frequently used indices.