Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional disorder of the gastrointestinal system, and is character- ized by abdominal pain, diarrhea (IBS/D), constipation (IBS/C), and alternating diarrhea and constipation (IBSC/A). The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a four week kiwifruit intervention on bowel function in patients diagnosed with IBS/C. Fifty-four patients with IBS/C and 16 healthy adults participated in this study. All subjects participated in the 6 week, three phase study, which included a baseline phase (1 week), a dietary intervention period (4 weeks), and a post-intervention phase (1 week). Forty-one IBS/C patients and all healthy adults consumed two Hayward green (Actinida deliciosa var) kiwifruits per day for 4 weeks. Thirteen IBS/C patients in the control group took two placebo capsules per day for 4 weeks. Colon transit time was meas- ured immediately prior to and following the intervention period. All subjects completed daily defecation records. After the 4-week intervention, weekly defecation frequency significantly increased in the IBS/C group of par- ticipants who consumed kiwifruit (p<0.05). Colon transit time significantly decreased (p=0.026) in the IBS/C group that consumed kiwi fruit. These findings suggest that kiwifruit consumption for 4 weeks shortens colon transit time, increases defecation frequency, and improves bowel function in adults diagnosed with IBS/C.
Objective: The current recommendations on dietary energy requirements in China have been based on total energy expenditure (TEE) derived from theoretical factorial calculations expressed as multiples of basal energy expen- diture (BEE). Few direct measurements of TEE and BEE have been conducted in Chinese people. This study was designed to measure the TEE and BEE of healthy, light active women of normal body weight living in China, and to evaluate the recommendations on dietary energy requirements by comparing the data correspond- ingly. Design: 16 healthy female adults aged 22.1±1.2 y with a body mass index (in kg/m2) of 20.4±1.7 were se- lected. Under well-controlled conditions, TEEs were determined by using the doubly labeled water method. At the same time, BEEs were measured by using indirect calorimetry. Results: Measured TEE was 1380±118 kcal/d, which was close to the value of energy intake (1382±96 kcal/d). Comparing the measured TEE with the recom- mended (Chinese recommended value for this group is 2100 kcal/d), the recommended was substantially higher than the measured by 15% or so. Meanwhile, the calculated BEE (1230±65 kcal/d) by using the adjusted Schofield equation proposed by the Chinese Nutrition Society was significantly higher (p <0.001) than the measured BEE (1130±110 kcal/d), by 9% or so. Conclusion: Current recommended energy intake for young adult women may need to be revised on the basis of measured TEE and BEE.
In Western countries the increasing prevalence of obesity in young people is a major public health concern. While the focus has been on reducing obesity, paradoxically the success of these campaigns may result in unhealthy nutritional practices. The aim of this study was to investigate the use and impact of weight control techniques on the health of adolescent females. Using Analysis of Variance we compared physiological and biochemical markers of health against responses to a modified, Schools Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey (SPANS) in 482 ado- lescent females (14-17 yrs) from secondary schools in the northern Sydney and Central Coast regions of New South Wales, Australia. Participants who ‘often’ used weight control methods had, on average, a healthy BMI of 22.5 (SD=3.7). However, comparison of blood derived markers between participants who ‘never’, ‘occasionally’ or ‘often’ used weight reduction techniques showed that, those who ‘often’ used weight control methods had sig- nificantly lower haemoglobin (p<0.05), alkaline phosphatase (p<0.001), bilirubin (p<0.05), albumin (p<0.05), total protein (p<0.05), and calcium (p<0.05), but higher blood levels of creatinine (p<0.05) and potassium (p<0.05). These data suggest that the use of common weight control techniques by healthy weight adolescent females can produce a metabolically divergent group whose biochemical markers are consistent with subtle levels of chronic under-nutrition.
A longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the relation between the changes of bone mineral density (BMD) over a seven-year period and A1330V polymorphism of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) gene or lifestyle factors. The subjects were 113 premenopausal female employees from a large- scale integrated manufacturing facility in Japan aged 25.6±4.2 years (mean ± standard deviation) at baseline. BMD was measured at the radius by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Lifestyle information was obtained by a questionnaire. The genotype frequencies of LRP5 gene polymorphism were 52%, 39%, and 9% for AA, AV, and VV, respectively. After seven years, BMD showed a significant decrease (from 0.463±0.045 to 0.456±0.046 g/m2) in subjects with the AV or VV genotypes, but not in subjects with the AA genotype. Analysis of covariance with adjustment for age and body mass index showed that subjects who drank alcohol displayed a significantly greater change of BMD if they had the AV or VV genotype than if they had the AA genotype (F=4.547, p=0.036). Investigation of LRP5 A1330V polymorphism may be useful for identifying individuals who are susceptible to osteoporosis, allowing early preventive measures to be provided.
The purpose was to determine intake of phytoestrogens in a sample of older Australian women, and to investi- gate associated lifestyle factors. Subjects were an age-stratified sample of 511 women aged 40-80 y, randomly selected from the electoral roll and participating in the Longitudinal Assessment of Ageing in Women at the Royal Brisbane and Women’s Hospital. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess isoflavone and lignan intake over the past month from food and supplements using a 112-item phytoestrogen frequency questionnaire. Data were also collected on nutrient intakes, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, non-prescription supplements, hormone therapy, education and occupation. Logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between demographic and lifestyle variables and soy/linseed consumption while controlling for age. Isoflavone intakes were significantly higher in the younger compared to older age groups (p<0.001); there were no age-related dif- ferences in lignan intake. Forty-five percent of women consumed at least one serve of a soy and/or linseed item and were defined as a soy/linseed consumer. Median (range) intakes by consumers for isoflavones and lignans (3.9 (0-172) mg/d and 2.4 (0.1-33) mg/d) were higher than intakes by non-consumers (0.004 (0-2.6) mg/d and 1.57 (0.44-4.7) mg/d), respectively (p<0.001). Consumers had higher intakes of dietary fibre (p=0.003), energy (p=0.04) and polyunsaturated fat (p=0.004), and higher levels of physical activity (p=0.006), socio-economic po- sition (p<0.001), education (p<0.001) and supplement use (p<0.001). Women who consumed soy or linseed foods differed in lifestyle and demographic characteristics suggesting these factors should be considered when investigating associations with chronic disease outcomes.
Australians are eating far more salt than is good for health. In May 2007, the Australian Division of World Ac- tion on Salt and Health (AWASH) launched a campaign to reduce population salt intake. A consumer survey was commissioned to quantify baseline aspects of awareness and behaviour related to salt and health amongst Australians. A total of 1084 individuals aged 14 years or over were surveyed by ACA Research using an estab- lished consumer panel. Participants were selected to include people of each sex, within different age bands, from major metropolitan and other areas of all Australian states and territories. Participants were invited via email to complete a brief questionnaire online. Two-thirds knew that salt was bad for health but only 14% knew the rec- ommended maximum daily intake. Seventy percent correctly identified that most dietary salt comes from proc- essed foods but only a quarter regularly checked food labels for salt content. Even fewer reported their food pur- chases were influenced by the salt level indicated (21%). The survey showed a moderate understanding of how salt effects health but there was little evidence of action to reduce salt intake. Consumer education will be one part of the effort necessary to reduce salt intake in Australia and will require government investment in a tar- geted campaign to achieve improvements in knowledge and behaviours.
Information on nutritional adequacy and inadequacy of dietary patterns is useful when making practical dietary recommendations. We examined nutritional inadequacy of dietary patterns among 3756 Japanese female dietetic students aged 18-20 years. Diet was assessed with a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ). Dietary patterns were determined from intakes of 33 food groups summarized from 147 foods assessed with DHQ, by cluster analysis. Nutritional inadequacy for the selected 21 nutrients in each dietary pattern was exam- ined using the reference values given in the Dietary Reference Intakes for the Japanese (DRIs) as the gold stan- dard. Four dietary patterns identified were labeled ‘fish and vegetables’ (n=697), ‘meat and eggs’ (n=1008), ‘rice’ (n=1041), and ‘bread and confectionaries’ (n=1010) patterns. The ‘fish and vegetables’ pattern, character- ized by high intakes of vegetables, potatoes, pulses, fruits, fish, and dairy products, showed significantly the lowest percentage of subjects with inadequate intakes for 15 nutrients, except for the highest prevalence in sodium. In contrast, ‘bread and confectionaries’ pattern, characterized by high intakes of bread, confectionaries, and soft drinks, showed the highest prevalence of inadequate intakes for nine nutrients. The median number of nutrients not meeting the DRIs as a marker of overall nutritional inadequacy was five in ‘fish and vegetables’ pattern. It was significantly lower than nine both in 'meat and eggs' and ‘rice’, and 10 in ‘bread and confectionaries’ patterns (p<0.001). A dietary pattern high in vegetables, fruits, fish, and some others showed better profile of nutritional adequacy except for sodium in young Japanese women.
Purpose: To investigate whether a high salted food intake increases the risk of gastrointestinal tract cancer mor- tality. Methods: We conducted a prospective study of 6830 Japanese inhabitants to evaluate the association be- tween salted food consumption and the risk of gastrointestinal tract cancer mortality. Data were obtained from a prospective cohort study in Japan. Salted food consumption, determined from a baseline questionnaire, was clas- sified into the two categories of ‘low intake’ and ‘high intake’. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Findings: Total of 174 gastrointestinal tract cancer deaths (47 esophagus cancer, 87 stomach cancer, 23 colon cancer and 17 rectal cancer) were observed during 94996 person-years of follow-up, with a mean follow-up period of 8.9 years. After adjustment for age, body mass index, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, history of diabetes mellitus and dietary items, including vegetables, fruit, tea, red meat and processed meat, the HR for stomach cancer in males with high salt intake was 2.05 (95% CI:1.25 - 3.38) whereas that of rectal cancer was 3.58 (95% CI: 1.08 - 11.89). In contrast, no associa- tion was seen in females. Further, no association was seen between higher salted food consumption and esopha- gus and colon cancer in either sex. Conclusions: A significant association was seen between higher salted food consumption and stomach and rectal cancer mortality in men, but not in women. No association was seen be- tween higher consumption and esophagus and colon cancer mortality in either men or women.
To investigate the relationship between dietary intake of minerals and the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a case-control study was conducted in central Japan. A total of 278 referred patients (244 men and 34 women) aged 50-75 years with COPD diagnosed within the past four years and 340 community-based controls undertook spirometric measurements of lung function. A structured questionnaire was administered face-to-face to obtain information on demographics and habitual food consumption. Dietary intakes of six major minerals were derived from the Japanese food composition tables. The COPD patients had lower habitual en- ergy-adjusted intakes of calcium, phosphorus and iron than controls, but not sodium. A significant reduction in prevalence of COPD was observed for calcium, with adjusted odds ratio 0.65 (95% confidence interval: 0.37- 0.98) for the highest level versus lowest level of intake. A high iron intake was also inversely associated with the COPD risk. In conclusion, an inverse association was evident between dietary calcium intake and the risk of COPD for Japanese adults.
A nationwide cross-sectional school-based survey was undertaken among children aged 8-10 years old to deter- mine the current iodine deficiency status in the country. Determination of urinary iodine (UI) and palpation of the thyroid gland were carried out among 18,012 and 18,078 children respectively while iodine test of the salt samples was done using Rapid Test Kits and the iodometric method. The results showed that based on WHO/ ICCIDD/UNICEF criteria, the national median UI was 109 μg/L [25th, 75th percentile (67, 166)] showing border- line adequacy. The overall national prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) with UI<100 μg/L was 48.2% (95% CI: 46.0, 50.4), higher among children residing in rural areas than in urban areas. The highest pre- valence of UI<100 μg/L was noted among the aborigines [(81.4% (95% CI: 75.1, 86.4)]. The national total goi- tre rate (grade 1 and grade 2 goitre) was 2.1%. Of 17,888 salt samples brought by the school children, 28.2% (95% CI: 26.4, 30.2) were found to have iodine content. However, the overall proportion of the households in Malaysia using adequately iodised salt as recommended by Malaysian Food Act 1983 of 20-30 ppm was only 6.8% (95% CI: 5.1, 9.0). In conclusion, although a goitre endemic was not present in Malaysia, almost half of the states in Peninsular Malaysia still have large proportion of UI level <100 μg/L and warrant immediate action. The findings of this survey suggest that there is a need for review on the current approach of the national IDD prevention and control programme.
Background: Obesity is a strong risk factor for hyperglycemia. However, the performance of waist-to-height ra- tio (WHtR), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) in predicting hy- perglycemia was inconclusive; and ethnic differences may exist in the associations. Objective: The objective was to compare WHtR, WC, WHR and BMI in predicting hyperglycemia among Chinese adults and identify optimal cut-off points. Design: A community-based prospective cohort study was conducted during 2004-2007 in Nan- jing China. WHtR, WC, WHR, BMI, fasting capillary blood glucose, covariates and potential confounders were assessed at baseline and third year of follow-up. Results: The overall cumulative incidence of hyperglycemia was 8.6% (8.0% in men, 9.0% in women). Relative risks across quartiles of WHtR, WHR, WC and BMI were 1.00, 1.33, 1.67, 3.40; 1.00, 2.38, 2.53, 3.87; 1.00, 1.29, 1.75, 2.90; and 1.00, 1.45, 1.49, 2.41 in men, and 1.00, 1.24, 1.99, 2.87; 1.00, 1.14, 2.28, 2.66; 1.00, 1.32, 1.80, 3.14; and 1.00, 1.39, 1.50, 2.08 in women, respectively. p for trend was <0.01 for each marker and gender. Adjustment for potential confounders did not change such dose-response relationships materially. ROC analysis indicated that WHtR had the best sum of sensitivity and specificity compared to the other measures .Optimal cut-offs for WHtR, WHR, WC and BMI were 0.51, 0.92, 85 and 24 for men, while 0.55, 0.86, 82 and 25 for women, respectively. Conclusion: WHtR, WHR, WC and BMI were positively associated with subsequent hyperglycemia. WHtR and WC best predicted hyperglycemia among Chinese adults.
Diarrhea commonly occurs in surgical critically ill patients, especially septic patients and fiber formulas have been reported to improve diarrhea. Most reports have used soluble or insoluble fiber exclusively, while the ef- fects of a mixed fiber diet remain unclear. This study compares diarrhea scores between mixed-fiber and non- fiber diets in surgical septic patients receiving broad spectrum antibiotics. We conducted a prospective random- ized control double blind study in a general surgical ICU. Patients who received broad spectrum antibiotics and no contraindication to enteral feeding were randomly allocated to a fiber or non-fiber diet for up to 14 days. Nu- tritional delivery and diarrhea scores were recorded daily. Intention to treat analysis was performed. Thirty-four patients were enrolled in the study, 17 in the fiber group and 17 in non-fiber group. These two patients groups were similar in demographics, disease severity, nutritional status, cause of sepsis and total feeding per day. The proportion of patients with diarrhea score ≥12 was higher in the non-fiber group than in the fiber group, but the difference was not statistically significant [8/17 (47.06%) vs. 4/17(23.53%); p=0.15]. However, the fiber group had a lower mean diarrhea score (fiber vs. non-fiber = 3.6 ± 2.3 vs. 6.3 ± 3.6; p=0.005), as well as a lower global diarrhea score from the generalized estimation equation model for repeated measurement [Coefficient -3.03 (95%CI= -5.03 to -0.92); p=0.005]. In summary, a mixed fiber diet formula can reduce the diarrhea score in sur- gical critically ill septic patients who received broad spectrum antibiotics.
To clarify the growth pattern of body composition by body part for the management of childhood obesity, we measured body fat and muscle using BIA (bioelectrical impedance analysis) in 685 Japanese elementary school- children (aged 6-11 years). The growth patterns of percentage body fat (%BF), fat mass (FM), and muscle mass (MM) were examined throughout the whole body and in various body parts. The %BF of the whole body was greater in females than in males, and this difference widened with age. The %BF, FM, and MM in each body part showed similar growth patterns and gender differences to those of the whole body. The mean %BF of the left limbs was higher than that of the right limbs at all age groups. BMI was strongly correlated with %BF in both sexes. In conclusion, the compositions of all body parts change similarly with age, and gender differences are also similar in childhood. The effect of one's dominant arm on body composition is seen at a young age. The accumulation of body composition data according to body part is indispensable for understanding childhood body composition and managing obesity.
Vitamin D deficiency is common among children and adolescents in India, in spite of abundant sunshine. We conducted a pilot; double blind randomised controlled trial to investigate the effect of vitamin D supplementa- tion on bone mineral content in underprivileged adolescent girls, in Pune, India. Fifty post-menarcheal girls aged 14 to 15 years were randomised to receive 300,000 IU (7.5 mg) of ergocalciferol or placebo orally, 4 times/year. All participants received 250 mg elemental calcium (calcium carbonate) daily. Outcome measures included change in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, size adjusted bone area and bone mineral content at total body and lum- bar spine. Post supplementation, the median serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was 75.2 (64.2-85.5) nmol/L in the intervention group and 28.1 (16.7-34.0) nmol/L in the placebo group. Increment in bone outcome measures was not different in the two groups. However, there was a positive effect of intervention in the size ad- justed total body bone area (p<0.05), total body bone mineral content (p<0.05) and lumbar spine bone mineral content (p<0.05), and positive trend in lumbar spine bone area (p=0.07) in girls who were within 2 years of men- arche. We conclude that vitamin D supplementation did not have a beneficial effect on skeletal mineralization in girls who were more than 2 years post menarcheal. However, there was a significant positive effect of the inter- vention on size adjusted total body and lumbar spine bone mineral content and a positive trend in lumbar spine bone area, in girls who were ≤ 2 years of menarche.
Development of new infant formulas aims to replicate the benefits of breast milk. One benefit of breast milk over infant formulas is greater gastrointestinal comfort. We compared indicators of gastrointestinal comfort in infants fed a whey-predominant formula containing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, galacto-oligo- saccharides and fructo-oligosaccharides, and infants fed a control casein-predominant formula without additional ingredients. The single-centre, prospective, double-blind, controlled trial randomly assigned healthy, full-term infants (n=144) to receive exclusively either experimental or control formula from 30 days to 4 months of age. A group of exclusively breast-fed infants served as reference (n=80). At 1, 2, 3, and 4 months, infants’ growth pa- rameters were measured and their health assessed. Parents recorded frequency and physical characteristics of in- fants’ stool, frequency of regurgitation, vomiting, crying and colic. At 2-months, gastric emptying (ultrasound) and intestinal transit time (H2 breath test) were measured, and stool samples collected for bacterial analysis. Compared to the control (n=69), fewer of the experimental group (n=67) had hard stools (0.7 vs 7.5%, p<0.001) and more had soft stools (90.8 vs 82.3%, p<0.05). Also compared to the control, the experimental group’s stool microbiota composition (mean % bifidobacteria: 78.1 (experimental, n=17), 63.7 (control, n=16), 74.3 (breast- fed, n=20)), gastric transit times (59.6 (experimental, n=53), 61.4 (control, n=62), 55.9 (breast-fed, n=67) min- utes) and intestinal transit times (data not shown) were closer to that of the breast-fed group. Growth parameter values were similar for all groups. The data suggest that, in infants, the prebiotic-containing whey-based formula provides superior gastrointestinal comfort than a control formula.
Background: In developing countries, complementary foods are often introduced earlier or later than appropriate and the quality is frequently insufficient, particularly in rural areas where complementary foods have tradition- ally been based on starchy gruels. Adequate intakes of a number of nutrients are recognized to be problematic in traditional complementary feeding regimens in developing societies. Aim: To determine the contribution of the complementary feeding nutrients to the estimated total nutrient intake in Guatemalan infants. Methods: Three non-consecutive 24-hr recalls were collected from a convenience sample of mothers of 64 infants, aged 6-12 month on enrolment, in the rural Guatemalan highland village of Santo Domingo Xenacoj. Additional informa- tion on early introduction of pre- and post-lacteal feeds and on first foods and beverages was included. Human milk intakes were estimated by a model based on assumptions regarding satisfaction of weight-based daily en- ergy needs by the combined diet. The 2004 WHO/FAO recommended nutrient intakes were used as the standard for adequate nutrient consumption. Results: We observed that exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 month is rare. Mean nutrient intakes and densities were above recommended intakes for all nutrients examined, except calcium, iron and zinc. Intakes of most nutrients were greater from the complementary feeding component of the diet. Vi- tamin A intake was excessive due to consumption of fortified sugar. Conclusions: We conclude that intakes of most micronutrients were near recommendation levels, unusual within the complementary feeding experience in scientific literature. Calcium, iron and zinc were identified as “problem nutrients” as persistently reported in de- veloping countries.
Recently, the bitter receptor gene (TAS2R38) was identified to be responsible for phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) bitter sensitivity. Its two predominant haplotypes at three Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) are found to be definitive for the PTC status, which the ProAlaVal and AlaValIle haplotypes are associated with tasters and non-tasters, respectively. TAS2R38 haplotypes have been reported to influence food preferences (like cruciferous vegetables and fat foods) and cardiovascular disease risk factors. We examined, in 215 Malaysian subjects (100 males, 115 females), the association of the P49A SNP of TAS2R38 with anthropometric measurements and aversion to a list of 36 vegetables, 4 soy products, green tea and 37 sweet/fat foods. The subjects were successfully geno- typed as 110 PA, 81 PP and 24 AA (with the A49 allelic frequency of 0.37), by Polymerase Chain Reaction- Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Ethnicity (Malay, Chinese or Indian), but not gender, was associated with the P49A TAS2R38 genotypes (p<0.001). However, no significant differences in terms of Body Mass Index, Total Body Fat, waist circumference and Waist-Hip Ratio were found between the genotypes (p<0.05). Only aversions to green tea, mayonnaise and whipped cream, but not soy products, vegetables, and other sweet/fat foods, were associated with the P49A genotypes (p<0.05). Therefore, the P49A SNP of the bitter receptor gene TAS2R38 could not serve as a predictor of anthropometric measurements and aversion to vegeta- bles or sweet/fat foods in the sampled Malaysian subjects, and this suggests the existence of other possible fac- tors influencing food selection among Malaysians.
Omega 3 fatty acids have healthcare benefits, but their absorption characteristics are not well defined, particu- larly for strategies to improve their bioavailability. We performed a double blind study comparing the bioavail- ability of 20% eicosapentaenoic acid in 4.5 grams of: natural triglyceride, reconstituted triglyceride, enzymati- cally synthesized triglyceride, monoglyceride and diglyceride. Seven healthy volunteers were given the supple- ments on five occasions while repeated measurements of eicosapentaenoic acid were taken to calculate the area under the curve for the next 24 hours. There was a significant difference between the mean of calculated area under the curve of eicosapentaenoic acid from reconstituted triglyceride (30.2) and that of the enzymatically syn- thesized triglyceride (11.9) and monoglyceride (13.4), z=-2.36 and -2.19, respectively, p<0.05. In summary, ei- cosapentaenoic acid bioavailability of chemically reconstituted triglycerides was better than that obtained from enzymatically synthesized triglyceride and monoglyceride.
Objective: Heterogeneity in circulating lipid concentrations in response to different dietary fat intakes may be due, in part, to gene polymorphism of cytokine related to inflammation. The objective was to determine whether dietary n-3 PUFAs intake influenced the effects of IL-6 -572 polymorphism on plasma lipids and apolipopro- teins. Study Design: This cross-sectional study included 195 men and 386 women aged 40–65 y. DNA was iso- lated from white blood cell to determine the IL-6 -572 C-G polymorphisms by the polymerase chain reaction- logation detection reaction (PCR-LDR) method. Dietary fatty acids were assessed by measuring erythrocyte membrane fatty acids, and fasting plasma was collected to determine blood lipids and apoproteins. Results: The frequency of the G allele was 0.214. There were no significant differences in plasma lipids across genotypes (all p>0.05). When men and women were grouped into tertiles by the erythrocyte membrane n-3 PUFAs composi- tion; in the lowest group, men with G allele had 18% higher HDL-cholesterol concentrations than did C/C geno- type (p <0.05). Similar effects were observed for apo A. Adjusting for age, BMI and total PUFA did not alter this association. The interaction was not significant in women. Conclusion: Dietary n-3 PUFA intake influenced the effects of IL-6 -572 genotype on HDL-c concentrations in males.
Background: Iron and vitamin A deficiencies impact anemia and the immune system. Objective: to investigate the effect of iron combined with retinol supplementation on iron status, IL-2 level and lymphocyte proliferation. Methods: a double-blind randomized trial conducted over 2 months. We randomly allocated 186 anemic preg- nant women with 80≤Hb<110 g/L into four groups. Group I (n=47) was supplemented daily with 60 mg iron as ferrous sulfate, IF (n=46) with 60 mg iron and 0.4 mg folic acid, IR (n=46) with 60 mg iron, 2.0 mg retinol and 0.4 mg folic acid and C (n=47) was the placebo group. Results: after the 2 months trial, there were considerable increases of iron status in Hb, plasma iron and ferritin in the I, IF and IR groups compared with Group C. In- creases in plasma iron and ferritin in the IR group were also significantly greater than in Groups I and IF. Com- pared with group C, increases of IL-2 levels were 119, 184 and 206 ng/L; and lymphocyte proliferation in- creased by 0.095, 0.112 and 0.219 in Groups I, IF and IR, respectively. Increases of IL-2 were 65.3 ng/L and 87.5 ng/L in Groups IF and IR, greater than in Group I (both p values <0.01); and lymphocyte proliferation in Group IR were 0.124 and 0.107, also greater than in Groups I and IF, respectively. Conclusion: iron combined retinol supplementation was more beneficial to improving iron status and lymphocyte proliferation during preg- nancy than iron alone.