BACKGROUND: Malnutrition remains a public health problem and a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality among children less than 5 years, in spite of global efforts at improving nutrition. OBJECTIVE: To ex- amine the impact of nutritional status, by measured anthropometric indices and derived body composition, on disease outcomes in under-5 children hospitalised in an emergency unit. METHODS: All (n=164) consecutive children aged 12–59 months admitted into the Children Emergency Ward of the University College Hospital, Ibadan over a 3 month period (May to July, 2007) had weight, length/height, mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) and skin fold thicknesses recorded. The BMI, Rohrer index, z-scores for weight-for-height and weight- for-age were calculated. Malnutrition was defined as z scores < –2. Other derived parameters included Arm-Fat- Area (AFA), Arm-Muscle-Area (AMA), Upper-Arm-Muscle-Estimate (UME), and Total-Upper-Arm-Area (TUA). Relative risk was calculated and logistic regression was used to determine which variables independently predict death. RESULTS: There were 153 survivors and 11 deaths giving an overall death rate of 6.7%. The mean age of survivors (26.7 ± 12.5 months) compared with those who died (23.1 ± 12.1 months) were similar (p>0.05). The risk of death was significantly higher among the malnourished compared with the well nourished. The TUA, AMA and UME of those who died were significantly lower than survivors’ (p<0.05). MUAC re- mained an independent predictor of death among other measured and derived anthropometric indices. CON- CLUSIONS: MUAC remains a useful anthropometric measurement for nutritional assessment and an independ- ent predictor of survival among hospitalised under-5 children in Nigeria.
The primary objective of this study was to determine the variables associated with intention to consume soy products and identify key variables that could be used as targets in soy nutrition education and consumption promotion. A pre/post-test survey was used during a three session class focused on diabetes that discussed and introduced soy foods. The Theory of Planned Behavior framed the questions and variables examined. Subjective norms and behavioral control were most important in predicting intention to consume soy foods. Specifically, health experts and providers were important subjective norms; accessibility and ability to prepare were key be- havioural control determinants. While most participants tried soy during the program, taste and texture percep- tions did not impact intention to buy soy in adults concerned about diabetes.
The purpose of this study was to determine trends in body physique among Tongan adults, between the late 1970s and the 2000s. Two areas were studied: Kolofo’ou town (as an urban area) and ‘Uiha village (as a rural area). Measurements of body weight and height were taken 4 times for all residents in both areas in 1977/79, 1983, 1990, and 2001. The number of the subjects in 1977/1979, 1983, 1990, 2001 were 130, 138, 102, 71 in the urban area and 92, 89, 90, 66 in the rural area respectively. The mean body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) values of males in the rural area increased significantly, from 28.0 kg/m2 in 1977 to 31.0 kg/m2 in 2001 (p = 0.001); in fe- males, mean BMI values were 30.6 kg/m2 in 1977 and 33.3 kg/m2 in 2001, this change was not statistically sig- nificant. However, the BMI values did not significantly change in males or females in the urban area. The pro- portion of rural males with a BMI ≥30 kg/m2 had increased from 24.5% in 1977 to 55.5% in 2001 (p = 0.012). Although the mean BMI values for males and females were higher in the urban area than in the rural area until 1990, the differences between the two areas were not observed in 2001, due to an increase of BMI in the rural area. Changes of the mean BMI values in the rural and urban areas studied, between the late 1970s and 2000s, were 10% and 4%, respectively.
The prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased globally, and population data suggest that it is also in- creasing among ethnic Fijian youth. Among numerous behavioural changes contributing to overweight in youth residing in nations undergoing rapid economic and social change, meal skipping has not been examined as a po- tential risk factor. The study objectives were to assess the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and breakfast skip- ping and examine their cross-sectional association in a community sample of school-going ethnic Fijian adoles- cent girls (n=523). We measured height and weight, and assessed dietary patterns, eating pathology, dimensions of acculturation, and other socio-demographic and cultural data by self-report. We observed a high prevalence of both overweight (41%, including 15% who were obese) and breakfast skipping (68%). In addition, in multivari- able analyses unadjusted for eating pathology, we found that more frequent breakfast skipping was associated with greater odds of overweight (odds ratio (OR)=1.15, confidence interval (CI)=1.06, 1.26, p<0.01) and obesity (OR=1.18, CI=1.05, 1.33, p<0.01). Regression models adjusting for eating pathology attenuated this relation so that it was non-significant, but demonstrated that greater eating pathology was associated with greater odds of both overweight and obesity. Future research is necessary to clarify the relation among breakfast skipping, eating pathology, and overweight in ethnic Fijian girls, and to identify whether breakfast skipping may be a modifiable risk factor for overweight in this population.
Despite carbohydrate hypothesis related to breast cancer development, the inter-relationships of carbohydrate measures with risk of breast cancer are unclear. We evaluated the association between the risk of breast cancer and total carbohydrate intake, glycemic load, and glycemic index, and types of rice in a hospital-based case- control study. Cases were 362 women aged 30-65 years old who were histologically confirmed to have breast cancer. Controls visiting the same hospital were matched to cases according to their age (±2 years) and meno- pausal status. Food intake was estimated by a quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) with 121 items. Conditional and unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to obtain the odds ratios (ORs) and corre- sponding 95% confidence intervals. There were no associations between risk of breast cancer and carbohydrate intake and glycemic load. A positive association with white rice (OR=1.19 per 100 g/d increment, 95% confi- dence interval (CI)=1.01-1.40), no association with mixed white rice (OR=0.95 per 100 g/d increment, 95% CI=0.80-1.13), and an inverse association with mixed brown rice (OR=0.76 per 100 g/d increment of mixed brown rice, 95% CI=0.61-0.95) was found. Additional analysis showed a positive association for white rice and an inverse association for mixed brown rice with breast cancer risk among overweight, postmenopausal women. These results do not support an association between breast cancer and diets high in carbohydrate, glycemic index, or glycemic load. However, a higher consumption of mixed brown rice may be associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer, especially in overweight, postmenopausal women.
The imbalance of oxidant/antioxidant plays an important role in the development of chronic obstructive pulmo- nary disease (COPD). There is increasing evidence that individuals with high antioxidative nutrient levels in the diet or in blood tend to maintain better lung function. This study was conducted to determine whether COPD pa- tients in Taiwan have lower plasma concentrations of antioxidative nutrients than do healthy people, and whether the dietary habits of COPD patients in Taiwan affect their intake of vitamin C and carotenoids. Thirty-four COPD patients and 43 healthy persons (with normal lung function) aged 50 years or older were recruited. Fast- ing venous blood was collected to measure concentrations of vitamins A, C, and E and carotenoids. Endogenous and H2O2-induced additional DNA damage (markers of oxidative stress) in white blood cells were assayed. Die- tary intakes of vitamin C and carotenoids were assessed by a food-frequency questionnaire. Compare to the healthy controls, COPD patients had significantly lower plasma concentrations of vitamins A, C, and E; α- and β-carotene; and total carotenoids but significantly higher endogenous and H2O2-induced white blood cell DNA damage. Intakes of vitamin C and several carotenoids were lower in the COPD group, and COPD patients con- sumed significantly fewer vegetables and fruits than did the healthy controls. In conclusion, COPD patients in Taiwan have lower levels of antioxidative nutrients in their plasma and diet than do healthy people. Intakes of vitamin C and carotenoids are correlated with dietary habits.
The modern food system has evolved into one with highly inefficient activities, producing waste at each step of the food pathway from growing to consumption and disposal. The present challenge is to improve recyclability in the food system as a fundamental need for food and health security. This paper develops a methodological ap- proach for a Food Recycling Index (FRI) as a tool to assess recyclability in the food system, to identify opportu- nities to reduce waste production and environmental contamination, and to provide a self-assessment tool for participants in the food system. The urban Taipei framework was used to evaluate resource and nutrient flow within the food consumption and waste management processes of the food system. A stepwise approach for a FRI is described: (1) identification of the major inputs and outputs in the food chain; (2) classification of inputs and outputs into modules (energy, water, nutrients, and contaminants); (3) assignment of semi-quantitative scores for each module and food system process using a matrix; (4) assessment for recycling status and recy- clability potential; (5) conversion of scores into sub-indices; (6) derivation of an aggregate FRI. A FRI of 1.24 was obtained on the basis of data for kitchen waste management in Taipei, a score which encompasses absolute and relative values for a comprehensive interpretation. It is apparent that a FRI could evolve into a broader eco- system concept with health relevance. Community end-users and policy planners can adopt this approach to im- prove food and health security.
In order to assess secular trends in growth of the Vietnamese population following a period of rapid economic growth, a follow-up study on physical growth and nutritional status of adults was carried out in a rural section of the Red River delta, Vietnam 30 years after the original study. The initial study in 1976 found that average height and weight of Vietnamese adults was similar to data collected by French experts Huard and Bigot in 1938. Hence, no noticeable secular trends were observed in almost 40 years. However, the 2006 follow-up study re- vealed a positive secular trend in growth of adults, aged 16-60 years. The average increased rate in height of males was up to 1.1 cm/decade in the age group 26-40 years and up to 2.7 cm/decade in the age group 16-25 years. Nutritional status, as indicated by body mass index, increased in both sexes and in all age groups between 1976 and 2006.were observed. In 2006, average dietary intake of fat and animal protein was higher than that found in 1976. The percentage of energy from fat in the diet increased from 6% in 1976 to 16% in 2006. This study shows that Vietnam is entering the nutrition transition period.
Carotenoids, especially lutein and β-carotene, offer benefits to human health in general and to eye health in particular. However, more data on the contribution of plant foods to carotenoid intake is of importance for developing strategies for promoting eye health in regions where cataract is highly prevalent such as in South India. The most frequently consumed 5 uncultivated and 5 commercially grown South Andhra Pradesh leafy vegetables were selected based on interviews with 100 local women. The lutein and β-carotene contents of fresh and cooked samples were determined using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Lutein values ranged from 53 to 143 μg/g and 58 to 175 μg/g in fresh and cooked samples, respectively. β-carotene contents were found to range from 45 to 119 μg/g in fresh samples and from 40 to 159 μg/g in cooked samples. No significant difference was observed between the carotenoid contents of wild and commercially grown species. According to their reported frequency of consumption, the 10 species considered in this study contribute 40% of the daily recommended intake of β-carotene. This is the first report of lutein content in fresh samples of Celosia argentea L., Rumex vesicarius L., Digera muricata (L.) Mart., and Amaranthus cruentus L. as well as in cooked samples of all species included in this study.
Obesity is a global epidemic, and measures to define it must be appropriate for diverse populations for accurate assessment of worldwide risk. Obesity refers to excess body fatness, but is more commonly defined by body mass index (BMI). Body composition varies among populations: Asians have higher percent body fat (%BF), and Pacific Islanders lower %BF at a given BMI compared to Europeans. Many researchers thus propose higher BMI cut-off points for obesity among Pacific Islanders and lower cut-offs for Asians. Because of the great ge- netic diversity in the Asia-Pacific region, more studies analyzing associations between BMI and %BF among di- verse populations remain necessary. We measured height; weight; tricep, subscapular, and suprailiac skinfolds; waist and hip circumference; and %BF by bioelectrical impedance among 546 adult Melanesians from Vanuatu in the South Pacific. We analyzed relationships among anthropometric measurements and compared them to measurements from other populations in the Asia-Pacific region. BMI was a relatively good predictor of %BF among our sample. Based on regression analyses, the BMI value associated with obesity defined by %BF (>25% for men, >35% for women) at age 40 was 27.9 for men and 27.8 for women. This indicates a need for a more nuanced definition of obesity than provided by the common BMI cut-off value of 30. Rather than using popula- tion-specific cut-offs for Pacific Islanders, we suggest the World Health Organization’s public health action cut- off points (23, 27.5, 32.5, 37.5), which enhance the precision of assessments of population-wide obesity burdens while still allowing for international comparison.
Introduction: There is little evidence regarding the effects of dairy product intake on bone mineralization among late adolescents, especially in Asians. The aim of this study was to determine the association between dairy product intake and bone strength as measured by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) in a large Japanese population. Methods: Subjects were 38,719 high school students (14,996 males and 23,723 females) across 33 prefectures in Japan. Bone stiffness of the calcaneus was measured by QUS densitometry (AOS-100, Aloka). Subjects were given a self-administered questionnaire, which included questions on gender, age, height, weight, consumption of dairy products, and levels of physical activity. Intake of milk and yogurt were classified as none, 1-99, 100- 199, 200-399, and ≥400 ml/day. Results: The proportion of subjects who consumed milk 400 ml/day or more was 21% in males and 7.3% in females, while 24% of males and 41.1% of females did not consume milk. After adjusting for physical activity, weight, gender, age, and area of residence, milk intake (R2=2.8%, p<0.001) and yogurt intake (R2=0.1%, p<0.001) were independently associated with the QUS measurement. Similar associa- tions were found in males and females when a gender-stratified analysis was conducted. Conclusion: We found a positive dose-effect relationship between milk intake and bone strength in late adolescents, to whom we recom- mend milk intake of 400 ml/day or more to obtain greater bone mass.
Introduction: Neonatal hypernatermic dehydration (NHD) is a potentially very serious condition, which has been reported to occur in infants who have breast feeding problems in the first week of the life. This study looked at the incidence, risk factors, clinical symptoms and complications of NHD in healthy breastfed term neonates. Methods: A prospective case-control study was conducted on 53 neonates with serum sodium concentrations of ≥ 150 mmol/L (as the case group) who were recruited between June 2006 and June 2007 from the Ghaem hospi- tal (Mashhad, Iran) to investigate the relationship between NHD and breastfeeding. Fifty-three healthy breastfed full-term neonates (serum sodium <150 mmol/L) from the same hospital were also recruited as the control group. Result: The results showed an average weight loss of 1.6% in the healthy neonates vs. 16.2% in infants with NHD (p<0.001). The frequency of feeds received per day was 10.2 for the healthy neonates vs. 7.6 in the NHD group (p<0.001). The NHD group had mothers who had a higher frequency of breast problems (23 vs. 7, p<0.001). Mean serum sodium concentration was significantly lower in the control group compared with the cases (137.80 vs.160.06 mmol/L, p<0.001). The main presenting features of the infants with NHD were fever, lethargy and jaundice. Conclusion: Breastfeeding problems are associated with the presence of NHD. Therefore, more breast examination during prenatal and postnatal periods and careful neonatal weight watch during the first week of life could decrease the incidence of NHD.
Nutrition screening is a process used to quickly identify those who may be at risk of malnutrition so that a full nutrition assessment and appropriate nutrition intervention can be provided. While many nutrition screening tools have been developed, few have been evaluated for use in older adults in the community setting. The aim of this paper is to determine the most appropriate nutrition screening tool/s, in terms of validity and reliability, for identifying malnutrition risk in older adults living in the community. Electronic databases MEDLINE, PUBMED, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library were searched for nutrition screening tools to identify malnutrition or under- nutrition for adults greater than 65 years living in the community. Ten screening tools were found for use in community-dwelling older adults and subjected to validity and/or reliability testing: Mini Nutritional Assess- ment-Short Form (MNA-SF), Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), Nutrition Screening Initiative (NSI), which includes the DETERMINE Checklist and Level I and II Screen, Australian Nutritional Screening Initiative (ANSI), Seniors in the Community: Risk Evaluation for Eating and Nutrition (SCREEN I and SCREEN II), Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire (SNAQ©), Simplified Nutritional Appetite Question- naire (SNAQ), and two unnamed tools. MNA-SF appears to be the most appropriate nutrition screening tool for use in community-dwelling older adults although MUST and SCREEN II also have evidence to support their use. Further research into the acceptability of screening tools focusing on the outcomes of nutrition screening and ap- propriate nutrition intervention are required.
While there are many books about vegetarianism, they are mostly written from a particular philosophical or religious point of view. A new edition of that by Leitzmann and Keller is welcome since it proceeds principally from a science or evidence-base, the authors coming from the cradle of nutrition science at the University of Giessen in Germany where they have worked in the field for a gen- eration. This is not to say there is no philosophical ap- proach in their writings, which have, at least, to do with the sustainability and affordability of the global food sup- ply. How we eat is now arguably one of the most critical factors, not only in personal, but also in societal and planetary survival.
The authors acknowledge the critical nutrients and some other concerns for vegetarians, especially vegans, particularly for the vitamins B-2, B-12 and D and for long –chain n-3 fatty acids; there are strategies which do not necessarily require recourse to supplements or forti- fied foods, but they need careful implementation. In the case of vitamin D, climate change itself makes it neces- sary to minimise sun exposure because of actinic damage, just when more UV light is required to make Vitamin D in the skin, and since vitamin D is mainly obtained from animal-derived foods. For these and other reasons, the general trend in public health nutrition is to encourage more plant-based diets rather than strictly vegetarian ones. Leitzmann and Keller enable the interested and concerned to make some well-grounded decisions for themselves about these matters.
By Mark L Wahlqvist
Extrusion cooking and amylase addition are two processing methods used for the preparation of high energy dense (ED) gruels of suitable consistency. A quantitative study of energy and nutrient intakes of 67 infants aged 6 to 10 months in rural areas in Vietnam was carried out to compare the effects of these processes used alone or in combination. Twice a day, for a period of four days each, infants successively ate four gruels prepared from different flours based on a blend of rice, sesame and soybean: an instant flour obtained by extrusion cooking (gruel A), a ready-to-cook flour obtained by extrusion cooking plus α-amylase addition (gruel B), a flour pro- duced by milling crude rice, sesame and roasted soybean plus α-amylase addition (gruel C) and without amylase (control gruel D). Gruels A, B and C had a high ED of respectively 94, 122 and 124 kcal/100 g while the control gruel D had a low ED (59 kcal/100 g). The intakes of the four gruels were inversely linked to their ED. However, despite the fact that gruels B and C had similar ED, larger intakes were obtained with gruel B, which was attrib- uted to better acceptability. The average energy intakes of high ED gruels A, B and C, respectively 112, 134 and 117 kcal/meal, were significantly higher than that of gruel D (81 kcal/meal). Of the three processing methods, the one combining extrusion cooking and amylase addition gave the best results in terms of gruel acceptability and energy intake.
The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors of childhood obesity among infants and toddlers from low-income families from three cities in México. This is a cross-sectional study of mothers and their infants and toddlers attending a vaccination centre at three primary care clinics in Tijuana, Tuxtla, and Reynosa. Anthro- pometric measurements of the mothers and children were conducted at the clinic and a questionnaire was admin- istered to the mother. Eight-hundred and ten mothers and their 5 to 24 months old infants participated in the study. Average age for the mothers was 24 (21-28) years, and 57% of them were either overweight or obese. The children’s average age was 12.7 (5-24) months. Overall overweight prevalence in this sample was 11% and obe- sity 8%, these increased with age, from 3% for overweight and 6 % for obesity before 6 months, to 13 and 10% between 12 to 24 months respectively. Thirty-five percent of infants were breastfed ≥6 month and 92% were in- troduced to other solid foods before 6 months. Introduction of high-fat content snacks (HFS) and carbonated and non-carbonated sweetened (CSD) drinks starts before 6 months and more than sixty percent of the children be- tween 12 to 24 months of age were eating HFS and CSD sweetened drinks at least once a week. Consumption of snacks and CSD sweetened drinks (≥1 week) was associated with being overweight and obese (crude), OR, 1.82; 95% CI=1.24-2.65 (p=0.002). These results suggest that preventive programs should be initiated during preg- nancy and continued.
Adequate intake of calcium is important for skeletal growth. Low calcium intake during childhood and adoles- cence may lead to decreased bone mass accrual thereby increasing the risk of osteoporotic fractures. Our aim was to study dietary calcium intake and sources of calcium in adolescents from lower and upper economic strata in Pune, India. We hypothesized that children from lower economic strata would have lower intakes of calcium, which would predominantly be derived from non-dairy sources. Two hundred male and female adolescents, from lower and upper economic stratum were studied. Semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to evaluate intakes of calcium, phosphorus, oxalic acid, phytin, energy and protein. The median calcium intake was significantly different in all four groups, with maximum intake in the upper economic strata boys (893 mg, 689- 1295) and lowest intake in lower economic strata girls (506 mg, 380-674). The median calcium intake in lower economic strata boys was 767 mg (585-1043) and that in upper economic strata girls was 764 mg (541-959). The main source of calcium was dairy products in upper economic strata adolescents while it was dark green leafy vegetables in lower economic strata adolescents. The median calcium intake was much lower in lower economic strata than in the upper economic strata both in boys and girls. Girls from both groups had less access to dairy products as compared to boys. Measures need to be taken to rectify low calcium intake in lower economic strata adolescents and to address gender inequality in distribution of dairy products in India.
Investigation into phytochemicals from foods for disease prevention has increased substantially in the last few decades. However, a clear strategy on the selection of the most promising foods for research has been lacking. An ethnobotanical approach represents an effective method which may improve the outcomes of phytochemical research. Research on the health properties of native Australian plants is limited. The vast number of edible plants used as foods and medicines by the Australian Aboriginal population creates opportunities for the discov- ery of novel physiologically active compounds. Within this review, we propose an ethnobotanical approach to accelerate research towards the utilisation of native Australian plants for foods with health-enhancing properties.
Maternal vitamin B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia predict poor pregnancy outcome, foetal adiposity and insulin resistance. In India amongst practicing clinicians and policy makers there is little appreciation of widespread vitamin B12 deficiency. We investigated 163 (86 rural, 77 urban) pregnant women attending antena- tal clinics in a rural health centre and a referral hospital in the city of Pune, at 17, 28, and 34 weeks gestation for vitamin supplements, and circulating concentrations of vitamin B12, folate, and total homocysteine. At enrolment 80% rural and 65% urban women had low vitamin B12 but only two rural women had low folate concentrations. During pregnancy 85% rural and 95% of urban women received folic acid; 12% rural and 84% urban women also received vitamin B12. In women receiving no supplementation (n=17) plasma vitamin B12 and folate did not change from 17 to 34 weeks gestation, but homocysteine increased (p<0.05). Homocysteine concentrations at 34 weeks gestation in women receiving only folic acid (n=71, mean 8.4 (95% CI 7.8, 9.1) μmol/L) were compara- ble to the unsupplemented group (9.7 (7.3, 12.7), p=0.15), but women who received a total dose of > 1000 μg of vitamin B12 up to 34 weeks (n=42, all with folic acid) had lower concentrations (6.7 (6.0, 7.4), p<0.001). In- creasing dose of vitamin B12 (rs=-0.31, p=0.006) but not folic acid (rs=-0.19, p=0.11) was associated with lower plasma total homocysteine concentration. In vitamin B12 insufficient, folate replete pregnant women, vitamin B12 supplementation is associated with a reduction of plasma total homocysteine concentration in late pregnancy.
This study was designed to investigate the amino acids composition of lactating mothers’ milk and their con- finement diet in a town in Northern China, as well as to assess the relation of amino acids content in human milk and diet. Forty lactating mothers age 19 to 35 years participated in the study. They were 4 to 180 days postpar- tum. A 24-hour dietary recall was done and amino acids content of maternal milk was analyzed. The main find- ings are as follows: (1) The protein content of human milk is 1.58 g/dL and the ratio of EAA to NEAA is about 1:2. The most abundant amino acids in human milk are GLU (16.0%), PRO (10.2%), LEU (8.67%) and the low- est two are MET (1.76%) and TRP (0.91%). (2) The diet contains enough energy and protein, but lacks vitamins A, B and C, indicating that it is a characteristic confinement diet. Grain and eggs are the main source of protein, and soy and fish were consumed less frequently. (3) Amino acids composition in diet and milk are similar; and the correlation of the amino acids patterns between diet and milk is 0.989, demonstrating that the amino acid composition of diet is the foundation of that in human milk. However, almost no relation is found between the amino acids concentration in maternal diet and milk, suggesting that the amino acids content of the diet does not have a direct relation with that of human milk.
Background: Validity and reliability of skinfold equations in estimating body fat in Chinese Children has not been documented. Objective: Using Air Displacement Plethysmography (ADP) as a criterion, the validity and re- liability of skinfold (SKF) measurement in predicting percent body fat (%fat) of Chinese children in Hong Kong were evaluated. Design: 230 Chinese children in Hong Kong were recruited to participate in measurements of ADP, body height and weight, waist and arm circumferences, and skinfold (SKF) from different body sites. A sub-sample of 41 participants was asked to take an additional measurement of Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiome- try (DXA). %fat was measured from ADP, DXA, and estimated from Slaughter SKF equations. Results: internal consistency of SKF and ADP measurements were very high (r≥0.988). Significant difference was found between %fatSlaughter and %fatADP (p<0.05). The Slaughter equations slightly underestimate %fat (boys: 1.52%; girls: 1.84%). The slope of the regression line for boys and both the slope and intercept of regression line for prepu- bescent girls were significantly different from the line of identity. Subsequent stepwise regression found the best model for boys includes predictors of height, and ∑3SKF (triceps, calf, and suprailiac) (R2=0.88, SE=3.70), and that for girls includes height, ∑2SKF (triceps and calf), and waist circumference (R2=0.71, SE=3.38). The most convenient model for both genders required only triceps and age (boys: R2=0.81, SE=4.67; girls: R2=0.63, SE=3.77). Conclusions: Skinfold measurements provide valid and reliable %fat estimation in Chinese children. However, the application of Slaughter equations in Chinese children is questionable. Alternative skinfold models are proposed.