Excess dietary salt is a well established cause of high blood pressure and vascular disease. National and interna- tional bodies recommend a significant reduction in population salt intakes on the basis of strong evidence for health gains that population salt reduction strategies could achieve. The Australian Division of World Action on Salt and Health (AWASH) coordinates the Drop the Salt! campaign in Australia. This aims to reduce the average amount of salt consumed by Australians to six grams per day over five years through three main implementation strategies targeting the food industry, the media and government. This strategy has the potential to achieve a rapid and significant reduction in dietary salt consumption in Australia. With industry and government engage- ment, this promises to be a highly effective, low cost option for preventing chronic disease.
In recent years there is growing interest on the role of long chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 LC-PUFA) in pregnancy and the growth and development of the offspring. We aim to characterize and provide baseline data on the intake of LCPUFA (ω-3 and ω-6) in a prospective cohort of 829 pregnant Indian women and report asso- ciations between LCPUFA intake and erythrocyte membrane phospholipid fatty acid concentration in a sub- group at baseline (1st trimester), the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy. The dietary intake of all the macronutri- ents and of α-linolenic acid(ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) significantly increased over the 3 trimesters of pregnancy while that of ω-6 fatty acids (FA) remained unchanged. Median ω-3 FA intakes of ALA, EPA and DHA, however, were on average low at 0.56, 0.003 and 0.011 g/d, respectively while LA was 14.6 g/d during pregnancy. Consequently, the intake ratio of ALA to LA in the women in the pre- sent study was very low at 1:26. A significant decline in erythrocyte membrane arachidonic acid (AA) concen- tration but not of DHA was observed throughout pregnancy. This might be due to increased efficiency in terms of elongation of parent ω-3 FA. Dietary methods for improving the consumption of ω-3 FA need to be consid- ered in the diets of young women as well as during pregnancy. As newborns primarily depend on placental trans- fer of ω-3 FA there is need to examine the ω-3 LC-PUFA concentration in infants of mother’s with low intakes of ω-3 FA.
It is important to detect and treat malnutrition in hospital patients so as to improve clinical outcome and reduce hospital stay. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a nutrition screening tool with a simple and quick scoring system for acute hospital patients in Singapore. In this study, 818 newly admitted patients aged above 18 years old were screened using five parameters that contribute to the risk of malnutrition. A dietitian blinded to the nutrition screening score assessed the same patients using the reference standard, Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) within 48 hours. Sensitivity and specificity were established using the receiver opera- tor characteristics (ROC) curve and the best cut-off scores determined. The nutrition parameter with the largest area under the ROC curve (AUC) was chosen as the final screening tool, which was named the 3-Minute Nutri- tion Screening (3-MinNS). The combination of the parameters weight loss, intake and muscle wastage (3- MinNS), gave the largest AUC when compared with SGA. Using 3-MinNS, the best cut-off point to identify malnourished patients is three (sensitivity 86%, specificity 83%). The cut-off score to identify subjects at risk of severe malnutrition is five (sensitivity 93%, specificity 86%). The 3-Minute Nutrition Screening is a valid, sim- ple and rapid tool that identifies acute hospital patients at risk of malnutrition in Singapore. It is able to differen- tiate patients at risk of moderate malnutrition and severe malnutrition for prioritization and management pur- poses.
The association between body mass index (BMI) and body fat in young people differs among ethnic groups. Consequently, BMI thresholds for defining childhood overweight may not represent an equivalent level of adi- posity in multiethnic populations. The objectives of this study were to characterise the relationships between BMI and percentage body fat (%BF) and to determine the appropriateness of universal BMI standards for pre- dicting excess fatness in girls from five ethnic groups. The BMI and %BF of 1,676 European, Maori, Pacific Is- land, East Asian, and South Asian girls aged 5-16 years were determined using anthropometric and bioim- pedance measurements. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were prepared to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the International Obesity Taskforce (IOTF) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) BMI thresholds for detecting %BF >85th percentile. Compared with European girls, South and East Asians averaged 4.2% and 1.3% more %BF at a fixed BMI and age, whereas Pacific Islanders averaged 1.8% less %BF. Areas under the ROC curves ranged from 89.9% to 92.4%, suggesting that BMI is an acceptable screening tool for identifying excess adiposity. However, the IOTF and CDC thresholds showed low sensitivity for predicting excess %BF in South and East Asian girls, with low specificity in Pacific Island and Maori girls. The development of an ethnic-specific definition of overweight improved diagnostic performance. We conclude that BMI can be an acceptable proxy measure of excess fatness in girls from diverse ethnicities, especially when ethnic-specific BMI reference points are implemented.
This paper reports on the presence of dual burden households in Orang Asli (OA, indigenous people) communi- ties and its associated factors. A total of 182 OA households in two districts in Selangor with the required criteria (182 non-pregnant women of child bearing age and 284 children aged 2-9 years old) participated in the study. Height and weight of both women and children were measured. Energy intake and food variety score (FVS) were determined using three 24-hour diet recalls. While 58% were underweight and 64% of the children were stunted, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in women were 31% and 20% respectively. The percentage of dual burden households (overweight mother/underweight child) was 25.8% while 14.8% households had normal weight mother/normal weight child. The mean food variety score (FVS) was similar for women (7.0+2.1) and children (6.9+1.9). Dual burden households were associated with women’s employment status (OR: 3.18, 95% CI: 2.65-5.66), FVS of children (OR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.51-0.95) and FVS of women (OR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.02- 1.89). The FVS of children (OR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.25-0.89) and women (OR: 1.92, 95% CI: 1.64-2.77) remained significant even when dual burden households were compared to only households with normal weight mother/normal weight child. In these OA communities, food variety may predict a healthier diet in children, but may increase the risk of overweight and obesity in adults. Efforts to address households with dual burden malnu- trition should consider promotion of healthy diets and lifestyle for all members.
Background: A clinical significant improvement in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is one of the main goals of weight control. Objective: To reveal the extent of weight loss on changes of HRQOL in obese Chinese. Design: A total of 119 motivated obese adults (BMI: 33.5 ± 0.4 kg/m2) completed a 6-month weight loss inter- vention program by following either low calorie diet suggestions (LCDS; n=18), LCDS plus sibutramine (SG; n=27), LCDS plus orlistat (OG; n=41), or very low calorie diet (VLCD; n=33). Changes in body composition (TBF-410GS, Tanita Co., Tokyo, Japan) and HRQOL (36-item Short-Form (SF-36) questionnaire) were meas- ured accordingly. Results: After 6-months, the greatest weight loss (p<0.001) was found in VLCD group (14.1 ± 1.2 kg, 15.1%), followed by OG (10.6 ± 0.9 kg, 11.5%), SG (9.6 ± 1.3 kg, 10.2%) and LCDS alone (8.7 ± 1.2 kg, 11.1%). The physical component score of SF-36 were significantly improved at 6-month follow-up (p<0.001), but not the mental component score. Improvements in general health score of SF-36 (Δ mean: 6.1 ± 2.8, p<0.05) were greater in females than males. Subjects with weight loss ≥ 15 % had the greatest improvements in SF-36 scores whereas no changes in SF-36 scores were found with weight loss < 5%. Conclusions: The extent, not the type of intervention, of weight loss is highly correlated with the favorable changes in HRQOL at 6-months. Weight loss above 5% of baseline values is necessary to show significant improvements in HRQOL in motivated obese Chinese.
Mongolia is experiencing changes in its unique nomadic lifestyle and dietary habits in the last two decades with accompanying increase in obesity rate. The dietary pattern approach, which investigates the overall diet in rela- tion to obesity risks, has become appealing in nutrition epidemiology. The aim of this study was to identify ma- jor dietary patterns of the Mongolian adults in relation to the risk of having obesity. Dietary intake of a total 418 adults aged ≥ 25 years was assessed by using a food frequency questionnaire with 68 items. An exploratory fac- tor analysis resulted in three dietary patterns: transitional high in processed meat and potato, traditional rich in whole milk, fats and oils and healthy with greater intake of whole grains, mixed vegetables and fruits. Individu- als in the upper quintile of the transitional pattern had significantly greater risk of obesity (BMI≥25kg/m2: OR=2.47; 95% CI=1.04-5.86) while subjects in the highest quintile of the healthy dietary pattern were found to have significantly decreased risk of obesity (OR: 0.49; 95% CI=0.25-0.95). Men in the highest quintile of the transitional pattern had greater risk of abdominal obesity WC≥90cm: OR= 4.08; 95% CI=1.11-14.97) than those in the lowest quintile. Women in the top quintile of the traditional pattern had a greater odds of having abdomi- nal obesity (WC≥80cm: OR=4.59; 95% CI=1.58-13.30) than those in the lowest quintile. The study suggests that public health efforts be targeted at adults in Mongolia to address the undesirable aspects of the transitional and the traditional dietary patterns.
Our previous studies in developing countries have indicated that gender differences in intake of luxury foods in- cur risk of micronutrient deficiencies among women. As the next step, we examined the causes of gender differ- ences in food intake by comparing eating patterns, including meal frequency (skipping) and temporal distribu- tion of food consumption throughout the day among adults of Hindu communities in lowland Nepal. A total of 321 adults (126 men and 195 women) aged 20 years and above were randomly selected from 94 households in three rural communities. A face-to-face questionnaire-based 24-hour dietary recall interview was conducted whereby foods eaten throughout the six eating occasions (morning snack, breakfast, lunch, daytime snack, dinner, and evening snack) were recorded and analyzed. Results shows that men frequently skipped lunch (p <0.001), they also frequently consume daytime snack (p <0.001), and consumed purchased luxury foods such as tea with sugar and milk (p = 0.008) and samosa (p = 0.049) as daytime snack. The six-eating occasion analysis revealed that gender differences in food intake of rural Nepalese adults occurred during lunch and daytime snack, attribut- ing to gender differences in daily activity patterns.
Soft drink and fast food are energy dense foodstuffs that are heavily marketed to adolescents, and are likely to be important in terms of risk of obesity. This study sought to examine the influences on soft drink and fast food consumption among adolescents as part of a cross-sectional survey of 2,719 adolescents (aged 11-16) from 93 randomly selected schools in New South Wales, Australia. Students provided information on soft drink and fast food consumption, and responded to statements examining influences over consumption. Over half of the boys and more than one third of the girls reported drinking soft drink daily, and consumption peaked in Grade 8 stu- dents. A quarter of students reported choosing soft drinks instead of water or milk, and around 40% agreed that soft drink was usually available in their homes. Availability in the home and drinking soft drinks with meals was most strongly associated with consumption in all age groups. Fast food consumption was higher among boys than girls in all age groups. Convenience and value for money yielded the strongest associations with fast food consumption in boys, while preferring fast food to meals at home and preferring to “upsize” meals were most strongly associated with consumption in girls. Interventions to reduce consumption of soft drinks should target availability in both the home and school environment by removing soft drinks and replacing them with more nu- tritive beverages. Fast food outlets should be encouraged to provide a greater range of healthy and competitively priced options in reasonable portions.
Although the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Australia has increased during the past 30 years, little is known about the dietary and behavioural antecedents of body mass index (BMI). We examined changes in mean BMI, diet, and other lifestyle behaviours between 1976 and 2005 and described the cross-sectional associations between these factors and BMI. A series of biennial biomedical surveys by Sydney Adventist Hospital from 1976 to 2005 allowed examination of BMI trends, while the selection of three surveys enabled detailed examina- tion of likely dietary and lifestyle associations. Subjects included in this study were: 384 men and 338 women in 1976; 160 men and 146 women in 1978; 166 men and 141 women in 1980; 164 men and 142 women in 1982; 177 men and 13 women in 1984; 239 men and 227 women in 1986; 210 men and 225 women in 1988; 165 men and 148 women in 1990; 138 men and 167 women in 1992 and 270 men and 62 women in 2005. Height and weight were measured by hospital staff. Mean BMI increased in the early 1990s. Salt, coffee, cola, alcohol and meat consumption, dieting to lose weight and eating between meals were positively associated with BMI while physical activity, food variety, large breakfasts and consumption of spreads were negatively associated. Food consumption and daily activities have important associations with BMI, though their specific associations differ by sex. “Affluent” lifestyle patterns appear to contribute to higher BMI, while a more “prudent” lifestyle seems to protect from such increases.
The purpose of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel comparison study was to evaluate the lipid-lowering effect of orally administrated nattokinase and nattokinase combined with red yeast rice (RYR) ex- tract on blood lipids in patients with hyperlipidemia. A total of 47 patients with hyperlipidemia were assigned to one of three groups: 1. nattokinase-mono formula (50 mg/capsule), 2. combined formula of nattokinase with RYR (300 mg of extract/capsule) and 3. placebo. Subjects received a twice daily dose of two capsules for six months. The mono formula showed no effects on blood lipids until month six, while the combined formula ame- liorated all of measured lipids starting from month one. In the combined group significant decreases were found with regard to: triglycerides (TG) by 15%, total cholesterol (TC) by 25%, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) by 41%, TC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio by 29.5%, and increases in HDL-C by 7.5%. These changes were sustained until the end of study. After controlling for baseline levels, only the com- bined group, but not mono group, showed a significant difference (p<0.0001) in TC, LDL-C and TC/HDL-C ra- tio when compared with the placebo group. In summary, this study provides long-term efficacy of nattokinase supplementation and shows that the combined formula has relatively more potent effects than the mono formula on lowering of blood lipids, suggesting that combined nattokinase with RYR will be a better neutraceutical for patients with hyperlipidemia than nattokinase alone.
Undernutrition in early childhood has long-term physical and intellectual consequences. Improving child growth should start before the age of two years and be an integrated effort between all sectors, covering all aspects such as diet and nutrient intake, disease reduction, optimum child care, and improved environmental sanitation. To discuss these issues, the Indonesian Danone Institute Foundation organized an expert meeting on Child Growth and Micronutrient Deficiencies: New Initiatives for Developing Countries to Achieve Millennium Development Goals. The objective of the meeting was to have a retrospective view on child growth: lessons learned from pro- grams to overcome under-nutrition in the developed countries and to relate the situation to the Indonesian con- text, as well as to discuss implications for future programs. Recommendations derived from the meeting include focus intervention on the window of opportunity group, re-activation of the Integrated Health Post at the village level, improvement of infant and young child feeding, expand food fortification intervention programs, strengthen supplementation programs with multi-micronutrient, and strengthening public and private partnership on food related programs.
Land and its role in human and planetary affairs is a per- ennial, inescapable and growing dilemma. Of all of the ways this may tax our ingenuity, morality and anthropo- genicity, its place in human development through pov- erty and hunger alleviation and the quest for equity ,with due regard to sustainability, must be paramount. Land reform to reduce poverty and gross inequality is the main goal that Michael Lipton addresses in his new book. In so doing it confronts the first and foremost of the United Nations System’s MDGs (Millennium Development Goals) to ‘Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger’ by 2015 which, on present record, is unlikely to even halve the numbers of poor and hungry.
Lipton’s work is extraordinary for its coverage, depth and analysis and unquestionably the most authoritative treatise on land reform available. But it is more than that since it requires the reader to consider what attaches us to land as home, food source, livelihood and ecological niche. It is clear that there are many different situations in which reform is needed, and that the feasibility of doing so is dependent on many factors ranging from perceived value , to the nature of ownership and tenure, the histori- cal, contemporary and prospective socio-cultural milieu , the systems of governance available and the political situation. All of these are dealt with in sufficient detail to allow the arguments for the merits of different approaches to be understood and evaluated. For example, the debate about small land-holdings and larger agribusinesses, for food production, is clarified when systematic identifica- tion, inter alia, of local resources and needs and of effi- ciencies and overall productivity occurs and allows the best negotiated ‘fit’ in the circumstances. The book is by no means prescriptive, but provides analytical frame- works and tools for policy-makers.
What is also impressive is the extent of information about particular localities, be they in Africa, South, South-East or North-East Asia, Meso or South America., Russia or Eastern Europe. This means that it is possible to reflect on changing systems of land usage and tenure in regard to food and human security.
Of particular value is the interest the author displays in
the role of science and technology in land reform. Can
there be another green revolution or will the next techno-
logical step towards food security require a ‘blue revolution’ where irrigation is far more water efficient and food plants and animals more water resistant ones? Will, in some way, food production be less land dependent alto- gether?
There are several major emerging or re-emerging chal- lenges to land equity. First, there is that of the competing pressures on arable land for ‘development’ for housing, industry, recreation, fuel production (biofuels), mining and even biopharmaceuticals. Then there is the growing food insecurity of the Middle East, India and China be- cause of greater unmet expectations with affluence and because of limited water. There are the ‘land grabs’ by increasingly more prosperous, but more food insecure countries, of land in poor and poorly governed countries. There are rising food prices because of and as well as those of energy, fertilisers and water; together with finan- cial systems which are speculative and fragile.
Perhaps most threatening of all is that populations will need to move from heretofore food productive areas to new areas because of rising sea levels or the increasing inhospitability of mountainous areas with more torrential rain, mud and rock slides, and loss of traditional land. Taiwan is an example of where land tenure is under threat for both climate change reasons and where fish stocks for a high per capita fish-eating population are threatened both by unsustainable aquaculture (excessive ground- water usage or more frequent typhoons) and less edible fish species with rising ocean or Taiwan Straits’ tempera- tures. The legacy of contaminated arable land from rapid industrialisation in recent history compounds the problem. Curiously, Taiwan has also been a major player in open- ing up a new kind of real estate, that of cyberspace, but its ability to meet the needs met by land which is now shrinking is questionable, unless by some new intelli- gence!
Not only is the changing competition for land a source of conflict, but, as “Land Reform in Developing Coun- tries” shows, reform itself may generate conflict. It will increasingly be a joint resource contest about land, water, energy and minerals. It is worth noting that the fertilisers, along with plant breeding, which drove the green revolu- tion, nitrogen from the petrochemical industry as urea and phosphorus are no longer inexhaustible. As a matter of fact, global phosphorus supplies, on which all life de- pends, are already scarce and its price is a significant con- tributor to food prices.
These shifting paradigms in land reform are canvassed to varying extents by Michael Lipton. By assimilating his insights, his readers may be able to grapple more effec- tively with one of the most important matters of our time, land reform
By Mark L Wahlqvist
Observational epidemiological studies have shown that a high consumption of lutein-containing foods is associ- ated with decreased risk of chronic diseases. However, results are inconsistent, suggesting the possibility that confounders may impact serum lutein concentration after consumption. The present study aimed to determine the factors affecting serum lutein status and to characterize dynamic changes of lutein concentration in serum during lutein supplementation in healthy Chinese subjects. After baseline characteristics were determined, thirty- seven healthy participants were randomized to receive 6 mg lutein/d, 12 mg lutein/d, or placebo for 12 weeks, as well as to be observed for 6 additional weeks after the cessation of supplementation. Serum levels of lutein and β-carotene were measured by HPLC at weeks 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18. Dietary intake was estimated by food- frequency questionnaires. No significant sex differences were found in serum concentration of lutein. Serum lu- tein level positively correlated with dietary lutein, retinol equivalents, vitamin C, vitamin E, β-carotene and fat intake after adjustment for caloric intake, but not with BMI. After 12-weeks of supplementation, lutein levels in- creased approximately 1.8-fold and 2.3-fold for the 6-, and 12-mg dose groups respectively, approaching a pla- teau at week 9, and then decreased to baseline values at week 18. No adverse events or reductions in serum β- carotene were observed throughout the study. Our findings indicate that increasing the consumption of lutein- rich fruit and vegetables can be considered as a long-term, sustainable and safe approach to reach and maintain high serum levels of lutein.
This is a follow-up study to an investigation on the prevalence of malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies among Vietnamese primary schoolchildren. A total of 454 children aged 7 to 8 years attending three primary schools in the Northern delta province of Vietnam were either provided with regular milk, milk fortified with vi- tamins, minerals and inulin or served as a reference control group. Children were monitored for anthropometrics, (micro)-nutritional status, faecal microbiota composition, school performance, and health indices. Both weight- for-age (WAZ) and height-for-age (HAZ) significantly improved during 6 months of milk intervention; and un- derweight and stunting dropped by 10% in these groups. During intervention the incidence of anemia decreased and serum ferritin levels increased significantly in all groups. Serum zinc levels increased and consequently the incidence of zinc deficiency improved significantly in all three groups. Serum retinol levels and urine iodine lev- els remained stable upon intervention with fortified milk whereas in the control group the incidence of iodine de- ficiency increased. Bifidobacteria composed less than 1% of the total faecal bacteria. After three months of milk intervention total bacteria, bifidobacteria and Bacteroides sp. increased significantly in both milk and inulin for- tified milk groups. Children in the milk consuming groups had significantly better short-term memory scores. Parent reported that health related quality of life status significantly improved upon milk intervention. In conclu- sion, (fortified) milk consumption benefited the children in rural Vietnam including lowering the occurrence of underweight and stunting, improving micronutrients status and better learning indicators as well as improving the quality of life.
The present study aimed to determine whether there is excessive mean daily intake of phosphorus in 3- to 5- year-old Japanese children and to ascertain relationships between phosphorus intake and various food and bever- age groups. Subjects comprised of 90 children, with 15 boys and 15 girls in each age group from 3 to 5 years. The duplicate-diet technique was used to ascertain total dietary intake, including snacks and beverages over a 24-h period on 3 separate days from summer 1999 to winter 2000. After wet ashing food samples, phosphorus was quantified by colourimetry using a spectrophotometer. Median and 25th-75th percentile daily phosphorus intake for 3- to 5-year-old Japanese children was 674 mg (534-890 mg), and phosphorus intake correlated with the intake of many food groups and was closely correlated with total daily intake of food and beverage (rs=0.64). In addition, phosphorus intake correlated with the intake of magnesium and calcium (rs≥0.6, p<0.001). When as- sessed based on dietary reference intakes for the US, maximum intake did not exceed the tolerable upper intake level in any of the young children, but phosphorus intake was not more than the estimated average requirement (EAR) in 4.4% of subjects, which exceeded the target of 2.5% for the US EAR. We concluded that there is a risk of insufficient phosphorous intake, rather than excessive intake, for 4.4% of 3- to 5-year-old Japanese children.
The purpose of this study was: 1) to collect baseline data on nutrient intake in order to advise athletes about nu- trition practices that might enhance performance, and 2) to evaluate the dietary iron intake and blood iron status of Japanese collegiate soccer players. The subjects were 31 soccer players and 15 controls. Dietary information was obtained with a food frequency questionnaire. The mean carbohydrate (6.9 g・kg-1 BW) and protein (1.3 g/kg) intakes of the soccer players were marginal in comparisons with recommended targets. The mean intakes of calcium, magnesium, vitamin A, B1, B2, and C were lower than the respective Japanese recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) or adequate dietary intakes in the soccer players. The mean intakes of green and other vege- tables, milk and dairy products, fruits, and eggs were lower than the recommended targets. Thus, we recom- mended athletes to increase the intake of these foodstuffs along with slight increase in carbohydrate and lean meat. The mean intake of iron was higher than the respective RDA in the soccer players. A high prevalence of hemolysis (71%) in the soccer players was found. None of the soccer players and controls had anemia. Two soc- cer players had iron depletion, while none was found in the controls. In those players who had iron deficiency, the training load need to be lowered and/or iron intake may be increased.
A double blind clinical trial was carried out to clarify the effects of oil with medium- and long-chain triglyceride (MLCT) on body fat and blood lipid profiles in hypertriglyceridemic subjects. One-hundred-and-twelve subjects were enrolled and divided into two groups; those that consumed MLCT oil and those that consumed long-chain triglyceride (LCT) oil for 8 weeks. All subjects were requested to consume 25-30 g of the oils daily and maintain a fixed level of energy intake and exercise. Anthropometric and blood biochemical parameters were measured when the study was initiated and completed. The LCT group consisted of 50 subjects (34 men and 16 women), while the MLCT group consisted of 51 subjects (33 men and 18 women) who completed the study. Larger de- creases in body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, body fat, total fat area and subcutaneous fat area in the abdomen and serum triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, C2, C3 and E were observed in male subjects in the MLCT group than those in the LCT group. However, no significant differ- ences in these parameters between the female subjects in the two groups were observed. Data from this study in- dicate that consumption of medium-and long-chain triglycerides can reduce body weight and body fat and im- prove blood lipid profiles in male hypertriglyceridemic subjects.
Objective: We examined cross-sectional associations of total, hydrogenated, and natural trans fatty acid intake with selected metabolic risk factors in young Japanese women. Methods: Subjects were 1136 Japanese female dietetic students aged 18-22 years. Dietary intake was estimated using a validated, self-administered diet history questionnaire. Associations between trans fatty acid intake and metabolic risk factors were examined with mul- tivariate linear regression analysis, with control for potential covariates. Dietary covariates included intake of energy, total fat, and saturated fatty acids (model 1); monounsaturated fatty acids instead of saturated fatty acids (model 2); and polyunsaturated fatty acids instead of saturated fatty acids (model 3). Results: Mean (standard deviation) total trans fatty acid intake was 0.90% (0.30%) of total energy. Hydrogenated trans fatty acids con- tributed 77% of total trans fatty acid intake. Total trans fatty acid intake was significantly and positively associ- ated with waist circumference, triacylglycerol, and glycated hemoglobin, except in the analysis of triacylglycerol with adjustment for monounsaturated fatty acids. No associations were found between total trans fatty acid in- take and body mass index, cholesterol, or glucose. Hydrogenated trans fatty acid intake was significantly and positively associated only with waist circumference and glycated hemoglobin. No association was observed for natural trans fatty acid intake. Conclusion: hydrogenated trans fatty acid intake was positively associated with several metabolic risk factors among free-living young Japanese women with relatively low intake.
Vitamin D is an important factor for bone health. It is uncertain which lifestyle is associated with vitamin D status, especially in healthy middle aged Asian men. A cross-sectional analysis was performed in 149 men aged 40–69 years who visited a health check-up center in Korea. Serum vitamin D (25-OHD3) was measured and smoking, alcohol, exercise, occupation, frequency of fish and dairy intake were estimated by self-administered questionnaire. The mean (±SD) 25-OHD3 concentration was 96.5±30.7 nmol/L. Higher and lower 25-OHD3 groups were generated with the median concentration as the cut-off point. By univariate analysis, exercise status and fish intake frequency were significantly different between two 25-OHD3 groups (p=0.012, 0.019 respec- tively). After multivariable logistic regression, higher fish intake frequency and regular exercise were associated with higher levels of 25-OHD3 (p for trend=0.017 and 0.02 respectively). In conclusion, frequent fish intake and regular exercise are positively associated with serum 25-OHD3 concentrations in healthy Korean men.