Hee Young Paik, ScD is a Professor in the Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Human Ecology, at the Seoul National University in Seoul, Korea. Dr Paik was born on September 30, 1950 in Seoul, Korea. She received the BS in food and nutrition from Mississippi University for Women in Columbus, Mississippi, the MS in food science from the University of California at Berkeley, and her ScD in nutrition from the Harvard School of Public Health in Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Dr Paik’s research interests have focused on dietary intake and the health and development of the Korean population. She developed computer software programs and questionnaires in the 1980s, which were utilized in large-scale surveys in Korea, including the first community-based health and nutrition survey which took place from 1993-1995. She continues to collect and analyze dietary data to understand the dietary and nutritional status of Koreans and related trends in Korea. Dr Paik also has a strong interest in the effects of long-term diet on bioavailability and metabolism of nutrients. She has investigated the effects of soy protein, phytate, high salt, and isoflavone—all of which are specific to the traditional Korean diet—on protein and mineral metabolism. She recently expanded her research interests, with studies of the dietary intake and nutritional status of Korean descendants living in China and the U.S., and in the cultural as well as health implications of changing dietary patterns which occur due to acculturation. Dr Paik was the President of the Korean Nutrition Society in 2005, and the Chair of the Committee for Dietary Reference Intakes of Koreans, 2002-2005, Chair of the Dietary Guidelines Committee in 2007 and 2009. She has served as President of the Korean Home Economics Association in 2003, and on various organizing committees of international meetings in nutrition and home economics held in Korea. She has also served on the editorial boards of the Korean Journal of Nutrition and the Korean Journal of Home Economics, and is currently on the editorial boards of Nutrition Today, Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition and Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism. Dr Paik is a four-time recipient of the Excellence in Research award granted by the Korean Nutrition Society, and received the Outstanding Research Award of the Korea Federation of Science and Technology Association in April, 2005. She was selected for the Humboldt Fellowship from 1990-1991 to visit the Institute of Social Medicine at the Free University of Berlin in Germany. She was among the Twenty Leaders of Science in Korea in 2005 and received the National Medal for Promotion of Science and Technology by Ministry of Science, Korea in 2008. Dr Paik was selected to be a member of the National Academy of Medicine of Korea in 2009. She currently serves as a Councillor of the International Union of Nutritional Sciences and plays a major role in nutrition leadership training in the Asia Pacific Region.
The Asia Pacific Clinical Nutrition Society makes an annual Award to persons who have made exceptional contributions to the health, wellbeing and nutritional status of peoples in the Asia Pacific region. In 2009, Professor Hee Young Paik joins an illustrious line of Awardees since the first recipient in 1993, Profesor Tu Giay of Vietnam.
Mark L Wahlqvist Editor-in-Chief APJCN
The purpose of this study was to test the suitability of Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002) among hos- pitalized patients and to determine the prevalence of nutritional risk, undernutrition, overweight, obesity, nutri- tional support and the changes of nutritional risk from admission to discharge or over a two-week period. A pro- spective descriptive design was used to describe patients’ data collected at three Beijing teaching hospitals. A to- tal number of 1500 consecutive patients, who met the inclusion criteria on admission and provided informed consent, were enrolled. The NRS 2002 was completed by 97.7% of all patients in this study. The overall preva- lence of nutritional risk was 27.3%, the prevalence of undernutrition, overweight and obesity was 9.2%, 34.8%, and 10.2%, respectively at admission. Only 24.9% of patients who were at nutritional risk received nutritional support while 6% of non-risk patients received nutritional support. The overall prevalence of nutritional risk changed from 27.3% to 31.9% (p < 0.05), and the prevalence of undernutrition, overweight and obesity changed from 9.2% to 11.7% (p < 0.05), from 34.8% to 31.8% (p > 0.05) and from 10.2% to 8.6% (p > 0.05), respec- tively during hospitalization. Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 was a feasible nutritional risk screening tool in se- lected Beijing teaching hospitals. The prevalence of nutritional risk observed was nearly 30%. Inappropriate use of nutritional support was observed in hospitalized patients. The prevalence of nutritional risk increased in surgi- cal patients during hospitalization.
The obesity epidemic appears set to worsen the morbidity and mortality from leading causes of death in Austra- lia – ischaemic heart disease, stroke and obesity-related cancers. The aim of this study was to compare hospital separations, deaths and direct health costs for middle-aged adults (45 to 54 years) in 2004/05 with those attaining age 45 to 54 years in 2024/25 who were born into an obesogenic environment. Using data from National Health Surveys, prevalence of obesity in 2004/05 was calculated for those born in 1950/51-59/60 and four scenarios were considered to project rates in 2024/25 for those born in 1970/71-79/80: an age-cohort model; a linear trend model; a steady state where rates increase to equal those of the older birth cohort at the same age; and a best case where rates remain at 2004/05 levels. Population attributable fractions were calculated by gender and disease us- ing relative risks of disease from the literature, and applied to hospital separations, deaths, and direct health sys- tem costs data to estimate the proportion of each attributable to obesity. In 2024/25 the projected number of hos- pitalizations of 45 to 54 year olds due to the diseases of interest could be more than halved, over 200 lives res- cued and $51.5 million (in 2004/05 dollars) saved if further gains in obesity in the younger birth cohort are halted. Instead, if the worst case scenario is realized there will be a more than doubling in costs (in 2004/05 dol- lars) compared with those born in 1950/51-59/60.
The objective of this study was to develop a physical activity assessment questionnaire for use in poorly edu- cated and low socio-economic rural communities in developing countries and assess the repeatability of the measurements over a one-year duration. Physical Activity Level, as a composite measure of daily physical activ- ity (PAL = estimated 24 hour energy expenditure / estimated basal metabolic rate) was derived from the semi- pictorial, interviewer based questionnaire assessing physical activity over the previous 1 week. PAL of both men and women was unchanged across the different seasons of the year. Correlations between the first physical activ- ity questionnaire and the mean of at least 4 questionnaires administered during the course of one year were gen- erally high (males: PAL ‘r’ = 0.69, individual domains ‘r’ between 0.57 and 0.82; females: PAL ‘r’ = 0.7, indi- vidual domains ‘r’ between 0.41 and 0.76, all p < 0.05). Within- individual % coefficient variations (CV) across 4 physical activity questionnaires were low for sleep duration and PAL (< 14%) but high for the other domains of physical activity (77-100%). The data, at least in this community, suggest that while within-individual varia- tions in specific domains of physical activity may be considerable, the questionnaire that we designed can rank individuals in terms of their PAL or individual domains of physical activity fairly consistently. A single physical activity assessment using this instrument may therefore be adequate to rank individuals.
The objective of this study was to validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used to estimate energy and se- lected nutrient intake in a Brazilian population with various ethnic backgrounds. Validity of intake estimated us- ing the FFQ was tested among 55 Brazilian women, namely 26 Caucasians, 15 of Japanese descent, and 14 oth- ers. The FFQ was originally developed for use in a case-control study of breast cancer conducted in São Paulo. Dietary records (DRs) recorded in two seasons were used as references. Intake of energy and 24 nutrients were calculated using the USDA and Japanese food composition tables. Validity and reproducibility were evaluated using Spearman’s correlation coefficients. Results showed that intake of chicken/poultry, eggs and legumes were overestimated by the FFQ compared to the DR, whereas that of pork and fat was underestimated. Further, intake of folate, fiber and isoflavones was overestimated by the FFQ whereas that of energy, fat, carbohydrate alpha- carotene and lycopene was underestimated. Energy-adjusted correlation coefficients between nutrient intakes es- timated with the FFQ and DR were high for isoflavones (0.76), calcium (0.50), and vitamin C (0.49). In contrast, validity varied from moderately high to low for energy and other nutrients. In conclusion, validity of the FFQ for estimation of the intake of selected nutrients among Brazilian women with varied ethnic background was moder- ately high.
The aim of this study was to investigate prevalences of hyperuricemia and the metabolic syndrome (MS) in the Hangzhou population, and the relationship between serum uric acid and the MS. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 4155 subjects (2614 men and 1541 women) aged 20-80 years, recruited through a health check program in Hangzhou, China. Biochemical and haematological parameters were measured by standard methods. The diagnosis of the MS is made when three or four of the following criteria are met: 1) body mess index (BMI) ≥ 25; 2) systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg; 3) fasting triacyglycerol ≥ 1.7 mmol/L (150 mg/dL), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) < 0.9 mmol/L (35 mg/dL) in men and <1.0 mmol/L (39 mg/dL) in women; 4) fasting glucose ≥ 6.1 mmol/L (109 mg/dL). Hyperuricemia is defined by cut-off values of > 420 μmol/L for men and > 360 μmol/L for women. Prevalences were 16.9% (N=702) for hy- peruricemia and 8.4% (N=349) for the MS. Serum uric acid concentration was significantly higher in males than in females (p<0.0001), and significantly higher in subjects with obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension com- pared with those without. In the partial correlation analysis, after controlling for gender, age and creatinine, se- rum uric acid concentration was significantly positively correlated with BMI (r=0.301, p<0.0001), systolic blood pressure (r=0.151, p<0.0001), diastolic blood pressure (r=0.168, p<0.0001), total cholesterol (r=0.144, p<0.0001) and triacyglycerol (r=0.234, p<0.0001). Results suggest that increased serum uric acid concentration is associ- ated with an increased prevalence of metabolic disorders such as obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension in the Hangzhou population.
Objective: To investigate the difference in the prevalence of obesity and the associations between the risk of obesity and socioeconomic factors with regard to working adults in China and Taiwan. Data: the 2000 China Health and Nutrition Survey and the 2001 National Health Interview Survey in Taiwan, which contains informa- tion from 20-60-year-old working adults in China (3,067 men and 2,998 women) and Taiwan (6,475 men and 6,341 women). Method: Variables were converted to cross-economy comparable forms, and the estimated preva- lence of obesity across socioeconomic groups was compared between China and Taiwan. Probit models were used to examine the associations between socioeconomic factors and the probability of being obese. Results: In China, the prevalence of obesity was higher in the higher income, more educated, and more sedentary occupa- tion groups, while it was higher in the lower income and less educated groups in Taiwan. Also, our results indi- cate that occupational types rather than income and education levels are more significantly associated with the probability of being obese in China, whereas income and education levels rather than occupational types are more significantly associated with the probability of being obese in Taiwan. These findings may indicate that, when an economy becomes more developed, the association between obesity risk and income and education lev- els becomes more significant and negative especially among women, while the association between obesity risk and occupational types decreases especially among men.
In order to evaluate the influence of masticatory movement on cranial bone mineral density (BMD) and osteo- cyte and osteoblast micromorphology, we conducted a study in rats fed with solid feed (n=10) and powdered feed (n=10). Cranial BMD was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Osteocyte morphology was evaluated by light microscopy. In addition, some of the tissue was treated with EDTA-KOH to digest the bone matrix and prepare osteocyte samples. Micromorphology of the osteocytes was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Bone mineral content (BMC) was significantly higher in the solid feed group (1.86 ± 0.11 g) than in the powdered feed group (1.63 ± 0.09 g) (p < 0.05). In the solid feed group, the maximum masseter mus- cle tension when crushing solid feed was 305 ± 46.0 N. Immunohistochemical staining with DMP-1 showed greater positive localization of DMP-1 in bone lacunae in the solid feed group than in the powdered feed group. On examination of cranial bone sections by SEM, the lacunar area was significantly larger in the solid feed group (0.64 ± 0.08 μm2) than in the powdered feed group (0.43 ± 0.10 μm2) (p < 0.01). In the solid feed group, adjacent osteocytes were connected through cytoplasmic branches and reticular cell processes to form a 3- dimensional structure. In the powdered feed group, connecting osteocyte processes were sparser. Results suggest that masticatory movement stimulates mediator substances involved in dynamic interactions between osteocytes, increases cranial bone mass during the developmental period and influences osteoblast, osteocyte, and lacunar micromorphology.
Criteria of obesity in the Chinese population with multiple metabolic risk factors remains unclear. The objective was to determine the best anthropometrical measurements with regard to the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and to propose optimal cut-off values. Between April and August, 2007, 3,704 men and 6,392 women aged 18-85 years were recruited from four community centers. Medical examinations included measurement of weight, height, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, fasting blood triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein choles- terol (HDL-C), glucose concentrations, and blood pressure (BP). Body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR), WC and waist to stature ratio (WSR) were calculated. Four metabolic risk factors were examined: 1) high BP; 2) high levels of TG; 3) low levels of HDL-C; 4) impaired glucose tolerance. The relationships be- tween studied indices and risk factors were analyzed using partial correlation analyses, analysis of variance (ANOVA), linear regression, and Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The optimal cut-off values of each obesity index were calculated using ROC analysis respectively. All obesity indices were posi- tively associated with metabolic risk factors. Area under curve (AUC) of WC was the largest for ≥ 2 risk factors after adjustment for age in both genders. Optimal cut-off points for WC were 89 cm in men, and 80.5cm, 82.5cm, and 89.5cm in < 40-yr, 40-60-yr, and > 60-yr women respectively. Waist circumference is best associated with metabolic risk factors among the studied indices in Chinese adults. Indices of abdominal obesity for older age groups tend to be higher than younger age groups in women.
The objective of this study was to determine whether overweight insulin resistant individuals who lost weight and improved cardiovascular risk factors during a 4-month lifestyle intervention could sustain these lifestyle changes in the long-term. Seventy-nine insulin resistant adults were randomised to a control group or either a modest or intensive lifestyle intervention group for 4-months. Thereafter the two intervention groups were com- bined and all participants were followed-up at 8, 12 and 24 months. Anthropometry, blood pressure, fasting glu- cose, lipids, insulin and aerobic fitness were measured and dietary intake was assessed. An interview was con- ducted to determine factors which participants perceived facilitated or hindered maintenance of healthy lifestyle habits. Seventy-two (91.1%), sixty-nine (87.3%) and sixty-two (78.5%) participants were retained at 8, 12 and 24-month respectively. At 4-months the adjusted difference in weight between the modest and control groups was -3.4 kg (95% CI -5.4, -1.3) p=0.002 and intensive and control groups was -4.7 kg (-6.9, -2.4) p=0.0001 re- spectively. At 2-years there were no significant differences for weight when the initial 3 groups were compared or when the combined intervention group was compared with the control group. At 2-years, 64% of participants reported that more frequent follow-up would have helped them to maintain healthy lifestyle habits. Even inten- sive counselling for 4-months with 4-monthly and then yearly monitoring were not enough for maintaining life- style changes sufficient to sustain weight loss. More frequent monitoring for an indefinite period was perceived by two-thirds of participants as necessary for them to maintain their initial lifestyle changes.
Objective: To investigate the effect of supplementation with multivitamin and mineral on blood pressure and C- reactive protein (CRP) in obese women with increased cardiovascular disease risk as having hypertension, hy- perglycemia or hyperlipemia. Subjects and Methods: 128 obese Chinese women aged 18-55 years with increased cardiovascular disease risk participated in a 26-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Sub- jects were randomized to four groups, and received either one tablet of high-dose multivitamin and mineral sup- plement (MMS), or one tablet of low-dose MMS (Low MMS), or calcium 162 mg (Calcium) or identical pla- cebo (Placebo) daily during the study. Diastolic blood pressure (DBP), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and serum concentrations of CRP were measured at baseline and end-trial. Results: At baseline, the subjects had an average age of 42.0±7.1 years and BMI of 30.9±2.8 kg/m2. There were no significant differences between the four groups in baseline characteristics. One hundred and seventeen subjects completed the study. After 26-week sup- plementation, both SBP and DBP were significantly lower in the MMS group compared to the placebo group (p < 0.05). There was also a non-significant trend of lower DBP at 26-week in the MMS and calcium groups com- pared to baseline (p < 0.08). At 26-week, the MMS group also had significantly lower serum concentrations of CRP compared with that of baseline and the placebo group (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Our results showed that supplementation with adequate multivitamin and mineral supplement could reduce blood pressure and serum CRP in obese women with increased cardiovascular disease risk.
From the perspective of human nutrition, the prevention of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) through diet control is feasible and desirable. We investigated the relationship between serum antioxidants and AMD in the community-dwelling older Japanese eating a typical Japanese diet. In this study, 722 subjects aged 65 years or older (297 males and 425 females) who had gradable fundus photographs were included. The subjects were divided into three groups of early or late AMD or non-maculopathy. Serum antioxidants (alpha-, gamma- tocopherols, retinol, beta-cryptoxanthin, alpha-, beta-carotenes, lycopene, and lutein and zeaxanthin) were meas- ured with high-performance liquid chromatography. To clarify the combined effect as the group of the antioxi- dants, we defined the carotene family (alpha-, beta-carotenes and lycopene) and carotenoid family (beta- cryptoxanthin, alpha-, beta-carotenes, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin). Tertiles of each serum antioxidant were obtained and the prevalence of early or late AMD was compared with univariate or multivariate analysis. The overall prevalence of early AMD was 4.4% (95% confidence interval: 3.1-6.2) and late AMD was 1.1% (0.5-2.2). Only alpha-tocopherol and beta-cryptoxanthin were related to late AMD as single antioxidants. On the other hand, the carotene and carotenoid families as a combination of antioxidants were protectively associated with late AMD. No relationship was found between serum antioxidants and early AMD. Our findings support the hy- pothesis that a combination of serum antioxidants obtained from the traditional Japanese diet is protective for late AMD, but not for early AMD.
Introduction: This study sought to determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, one of the major public- health challenges worldwide, and its influencing factors among 15 to 17 years old adolescent girls in Mashhad, Iran. Methods: A total of 622 high school adolescents participated in a cross-sectional study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess socio-demographic characteristics and dietary habits. Anthropometric assess- ments, blood pressure measurement and biochemical assessment were done. Results: Applying BMI Z-score for age and gender (WHO 2007), 14.6 % and 3.4 % of subjects were classified as overweight and obese, respec- tively. Enlarged WC (> 80 cm) was seen in 9.5% of subjects. The prevalence of combined hypertension was 6.1% which was increased by the severity of obesity. A total of 24.5% of subjects had hypertriglyceridemia and 57% of them had low level of HDL-cholesterol. Hyperglycemia was present in 16.7% of subjects. Based on the NCEP ATP III (2001) criteria, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 6.5% and increased to 45.1% in obese subjects. Increasing BMI or WC, led to significant increment in the number of metabolic syndrome fea- tures (p < 0.001). High socioeconomic status of family, medical history of parents and dietary habits especially high consumption of carbohydrates were influencing factors in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. Con- clusion: Approximately 6.5% of all and 45% of obese subjects met the criteria for the metabolic syndrome. Die- tary habits especially carbohydrate consumption, socioeconomic status of family and medical history of parents can be influential factors in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome.
The symposium on Diet, Nutrition and Immunity held in Singapore on April, 2008, reviewed the current scien- tific information on the development of the immune system particularly in infancy and the role of diet, exercise and aging on immunocompetence, together with the molecular processes involved. The importance of specific nutrients particularly zinc and iron, vitamins D and E and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on enhancing immunity, as well as the significance of maintaining a healthy microbiota in the gut leading to the concept of pro- and pre-biotics was discussed. Of interest was the presentation of studies on some common Asian foods such as soybeans, wolfberry, and mushroom that may have application in the prevention and treatment of disease involving inflammatory responses.
It is increasingly uncommon to have a scholarly book in a multidisciplinary realm like that of nutrition promotion, its science, social contexts and settings, and its educa- tional and behavioural dimensions, which is single author. Tony Worsley has achieved this with excellence. It is noteworthy that he has recently co-edited a multi-author textbook on Public Health Nutrition, also published by Allen and Unwin.
The present volume draws on an extensive career in the behavioural and nutritional sciences with a particular interest in food choice and health-seeking characteristics. It has methodological depth, provides much support for the conclusions and recommendations drawn, and con- tains numerous illustrations of relevant evidence and its applications. At times, as is the nature of any field which is scientifically active and indeed controversial, con- structs are offered where the basis is both evidential and deductive. But the reader is able, by and large, to discern the differences in derivations of the ultimate conclusions. This is typified by the approach to settings for nutrition promotion (communities, schools, worksites, hospital and health service programs, the retail sector and the me- dia).Relevant studies are reviewed and critically inte- grated into a policy framework. The book therefore has great utility for teachers, community and health workers and policy makers, and even individuals if they were in a position to find the book and read the gems of interest to themselves.
Perhaps the over-riding sense one has of the book is its optimism about what might be achieved through nutrition promotion, in an era when there seems to be gloom about trends in nutritional status.
By Mark L Wahlqvist
Previous studies showed better absorption of protein and catch-up growth with animal-based high protein (15% energy from protein) diets (AP) than plant-based diets. This study compared the intake and absorption of nutri- ents from a lentil-based high protein (15% energy from protein) diet (LenP), AP, and a low protein (7.5% energy from protein) diet (LP). A total of 31 moderately malnourished 24 to 59 month old children convalescing from shigellosis were randomised to these three diets: LenP (n=11), AP (n=9) and LP (n=11). After two weeks adapta- tion with the respective diets, a 72-hour metabolic balance study was performed. The children’s baseline charac- teristics were comparable among the groups (one exception: children of LP group were less stunted). The costs of 1,000 kcal from LenP, AP and LP diets were 0.15, 0.75 and 0.11 US dollar, respectively. Average daily en- ergy intake (115-119 kcal/kg/d), coefficients of carbohydrate (89-91%), fat (80-90%), and energy (87-89%) ab- sorption were similar in all groups. Mean±SD coefficient of nitrogen absorption (%) and nitrogen balance (g/kg/day) were 81±6 and 0.35±0.21 in LenP, 82±5 and 0.36±0.08 in AP, and 73±4 and 0.13±0.06 in LP groups, respectively (for both the nitrogen absorption and balance comparisons: LenP vs. AP, p>0.05; LenP vs. LP, p<0.05; AP vs. LP, p<0.05). The results showed higher absorption of nitrogen and its balance from high protein diets whether derived from lentil or animal source, which may enhance tissue protein deposition. A lentil-based high protein diet, which is less expensive, may be useful for nutritional rehabilitation of moderately malnour- ished children.
Objective: To assess stunting and zinc deficiency among primary school children in north rural area of Jiangsu Province with low soil zinc concentrations, eastern part of China. Methods: Two data collection rounds were conducted. In the first data collection round, 2268 primary school children aged 6-9 years were included by clus- ter sampling from three counties with low soil zinc concentrations. Anthropometric measures were assessed and stunting was defined as a z-score of height-for-age (HAZ) below -2 according to the WHO new Growth Stan- dards in 2006. For the second data collection round, the county with the highest prevalence of stunting was se- lected. From this county, 297 children aged 6-9 years were recruited by cluster sampling. Anthropometric meas- ures, serum and hair zinc, and haemoglobin were measured at this stage. Results: The total prevalence of stunt- ing (HAZ < -2) and mild stunting (-2 ≤ HAZ< -1) was 4.7% and 22.8% respectively, and Huaián had the highest prevalence of stunting (8.1%) among the three counties. In Huaián County the prevalence of zinc deficiency based on serum zinc concentration, hair zinc concentration, and both was 0.7%, 15.2% and 15.3%, respectively, and 32.3% of subjects were anaemic. Boys had a higher prevalence of zinc deficiency than girls (19.1 vs. 10.5%, p < 0.05), whereas the prevalence of anaemia in boys was lower than that in girls (28.2 vs. 37.3%, p = 0.07). Conclusion: Stunting and zinc deficiency were not highly prevalent among primary school children in rural counties with low soil zinc concentrations of Jiangsu Province.
There is evidence that alteration in plasma fatty acid composition may play a role in certain neurological disor- ders. This case control study was conducted to evaluate the association between plasma fatty acid levels and mental retardation in Korean children. Plasma phospholipid fatty acids, plasma lipids, dietary fatty acids and se- lected nutrients were measured in 31 mentally retarded boys (mean age 9.93 ±1.5 yrs) and matched controls. To- tal plasma omega-3 fatty acids (Σω3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) concen- trations were significantly lower and the Σomega-6/Σomega-3 ratio was significantly higher in cases than in con- trols. The odds in favor of mental retardation increased by 69 % for each unit increase in the Σomega-6/ Σomega-3 ratio (adjusted odds ratio = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.25-2.29). Significant variation in plasma Σomega-3 and the Σomega-6/ Σomega-3 ratio was explained by mental retardation and plasma HDL concentrations (45% and 37 % respectively). There was a significant inverse association between plasma DHA and mental retardation. For each unit increase in plasma DHA, odds of mental retardation decreased by 74 %. There was no significant difference in either total dietary fat or fatty acids intakes between cases and controls. The energy intake of cases was significantly higher than the controls. These results suggest that proportion of plasma Σomega-3 fatty acids, particularly, DHA, and the Σomega-6/ Σomega-3 ratio are associated with mental retardation in children in this study.
Objective: To determine the vitamin D status of Korean postmenopausal women during the winter months ac- cording to the intake of vitamin D supplements. Design: Cross sectional study of serum 25(OH)D levels accord- ing to the intake of vitamin D supplements in postmenopausal women. Method: Between November 2006 and February 2007, 254 postmenopausal women who visited our menopausal clinic for hormone therapy or osteopo- rosis medication were recruited. Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured with a radioimmunoassay kit and the re- sults were compared among groups that were classified according to the intake amount of vitamin D supple- ments. Results: The mean serum 25(OH)D level was 83.3 ± 32.8 nmol/L and it increased as the intake amount of vitamin D supplements increased. The mean serum 25(OH)D level was not significantly different between groups 1 (no vitamin D supplements) and 2 (daily 100-300 IU supplements). However, the mean serum 25(OH)D level was significantly higher in group 3 (daily 400 IU supplements) than in group 1. While the mean value of group 4 (daily 600 IU) was not significantly different from that of group 3, it was significantly lower than that of group 5 (daily 800-900 IU). Conclusion: Vitamin D supplementation is highly effective in improving vitamin D status and the vitamin D status in this study population was improved considerably when compared to previous studies. Therefore, it is concluded that the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency should be re-evaluated in postmenopausal women in most countries including Korea.
Objective: To assess the iodine nutrition and thyroid function of pregnant women, lactating women and infants residing in areas where the Universal Salt Iodization program is in place. Methods: Pregnant women, lactating women and infants were selected randomly in the regions where iodized salt coverage rate is more than 90% since 2000. Urine iodine levels of pregnant woman, lactating woman and infants, milk iodine of lactating woman, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free T4 of women were tested respectively. Results: Median Urinary Io- dine (MUI) of infants, three groups of pregnant women (first, second and third trimester) and two groups lactat- ing women (breastfeeding less than or more than six months) were 233, 174, 180, 147, 126 and 145 μg/L, re- spectively. Median milk iodine of lactating women was 163 μg/L. Percentage of milk iodine < 150 μg/L of early lactating women was 40% less than that of late lactating women (p < 0.01).There was a positive correlation be- tween urine iodine of infants and milk iodine of lactating women (r = 0.526, p = 0.000). T4 of two women were above or below the reference range. Total 15.4% women’s TSH were abnormal. Most of these women’s urinary iodine were lower than 150 μg/L. Conclusion: Iodine status of most of the target population for Universal Salt Iodization program is adequate, but iodine deficiency still existed in some. To assure every new life’s brain not be damaged by iodine deficiency, iodine status of targeted populations should be monitored and supplements provided according to the monitoring outcomes.
Background: Anemia is a major nutrition related problem in China. In addition to iron deficiency this may be due to deficiencies of other micronutrients. Objective: To describe the micronutrient status of anemic and non- anemic pregnant women in China. Subjects and Methods: 734 clinically normal pregnant women in the third trimester aged 20-35, were randomly recruited from the population of pregnant women regularly receiving preg- nant examination in community medical centers. Serum concentrations of vitamins A, B12 and C, iron and zinc status parameters, and vitamin B2 in urine were determined. Subjects were categorized according to the presence or absence of anemia and compared according to micronutrient status. Results: Serum concentrations of iron and micronutrients were significantly lower in anemic women than non-anemic women: serum iron 909 μg/L versus 1109 μg/L, ferritin 13.8 μg/L versus 19.6 μg/L, vitamin C 308.9 μg/L versus 388.1 μg/dL, and retinol 50.0 μg/dL versus 59.3 μg/dL. Zinc concentrations were also lower in anemic women. Subnormal serum iron (<700 μg/L) and iron depletion (ferritin <12 μg/L) were 39.7% and 52.6%, significantly more frequent in anemic than 23.9% and 35.0% in non-anemic subjects, as were subnormal vitamin A and ascorbic acid. Subnormal vitamin B2 and B12 were frequent in both anemic and non-anemic groups. Conclusion: Subnormal concentrations of iron and micronutrients in combination may contribute to this situation. Further studies on food-based or supplement- based approaches trying to increase intake of iron and certain vitamins are warranted to decrease anemia in pregnant Chinese women in the third trimester.
Background: Osteoporosis is a multifactorial disease and one of the most important modifiable factors in the de- velopment and maintenance of bone mass is nutrition. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the nu- tritional status among osteoporotic postmenopausal women in north west of Iran and compare intake of several nutrients important in terms of bone health with the standard values (DRIs). Design: Bone mineral density of the left proximal femur, the lumbar spine and total hip were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Ninety-seven postmenopausal osteoporotic women were studied. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to determine food habits and 24-h recall was used to estimate average energy and nutrient intakes. Results: The mean t-score for bone mineral density (BMD) of LS, FN and total hip were -3.15 ± 0.73, -1.93 ± 0.86 and - 1.92 ± 0.88, respectively. The percentages of participants receiving adequate intake of calcium, vitamin D and vitamin K were 7.2%, 3.1% and 42.3%, respectively. The mean phosphate to calcium ratio was 1.6 ± 0.87. BMD of femoral neck and total hip was correlated inversely with the amount of energy obtained from fat and posi- tively with energy intake. Among micronutrients studied, calcium was positively correlated with BMD of total hip. Conclusion: Most of the postmenopausal osteoporotic women in north west of Iran have a considerable de- ficiency in terms of energy and some micronutrients such as calcium, vitamin D and magnesium, which can be deleterious for bone health.