To establish health policy which will be relevant and effectual for a decade or more, let alone the much longer term, is a challenging task for any period of human or planetary history. Presently it is more so than ever because of major demographic, economic, technological and scientific, climatic and territorial changes and uncertainties. There are various scenarios which might be envisaged for food-health relationships before global population size is expected to stabilize by about 2050, dependent on planetary health. These will reflect achieved food intakes which for many will not be optimal but realizable and food systems with varying degrees of safety, security and sustainability. Health patterns themselves are bound to continue to change from those associated with different levels of economic development to those which have more to do with locality, climate, education and equity. Every aspect of health is in some way intertwined with food and this will become more explicit. Decisions about food-health relationships will take into account the United Nations MDGs (Millennium Development Goals), but be strongly influenced by technology, affordability, sustainability and ethics.
Data on the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in children in Mongolia is limited. We therefore determined the prevalence of anaemia, iron deficiency anaemia (IDA), and deficiencies of iron, folate, vitamin A, zinc, sele- nium, and vitamin D among young Mongolian children. Anthropometry and non-fasting morning blood samples were collected from 243 children aged 6–36 months from 4 districts in Ulaanbaatar and 4 rural capitols for hae- moglobin (Hb), serum ferritin, folate, retinol, zinc, selenium, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) assays. Chil- dren with α-1-glycoprotein ≥1.2mg/L (n=27) indicative of chronic infection were excluded, except for folate, se- lenium, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D assays. Of the children 14.5% were stunted and none were wasted. Zn defi- ciency (serum Zn<9.9 μmol/L) had the highest prevalence (74%), followed by vitamin D deficiency 61% (serum 25-OHD<25 nmol/L). The prevalence of anaemia (24%) and iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) (16%) was lower, with the oldest children (24-36 mos) at lowest risk. Twenty one percent of the children had low iron stores, and 33% had vitamin A deficiencies (serum retinol < 0.70 μmol/L), even though two thirds had received vitamin A supplements. Serum selenium values were low, perhaps associated with low soil selenium concentrations. In contrast, no children in Ulaanbaatar and only 4% in the provincial capitols had low serum folate values (<6.8 nmol/L). Regional differences (p<0.05) existed for anaemia, deficiencies of vitamin A, folate, and selenium, but not for zinc or IDA. Of the children, 78% were at risk of ≥ two coexisting micronutrient deficiencies emphasiz- ing the need for multimicronutrient interventions in Mongolia.
The present study aimed to evaluate in preschool children the intakes of Ca, Mg that possibly affect health and tooth formation and the intakes of K and Na that may affect lifestyle-related diseases. Information on dietary in- take was collected from 90 preschool children (15 boys and 15 girls each in the 3-, 4- and 5-year old groups) on 3 separate days in the school fiscal year 1999 (April 1999 to March 2000) by the duplicate-diet technique. The Ca, Mg, K, and Na concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry using wet-ashed samples. The medians of mean daily intakes of Ca, Mg, K and Na in 3- to 5-year-old children were 432 mg, 110 mg, 1.18 g and 1.60 g, respectively, and no significant differences with regard to gender were observed. Seasonal varia- tion of intake was seen for each mineral. Calcium intake in most preschool children did not meet adequate intake (AI), probably due to low intakes of milk and dairy products in Japan. Magnesium intake was below the esti- mated average requirement (EAR) in 13.3% of the subjects, while the K intake met the AI. Sodium intake in a quarter of preschool children exceeded the tentative dietary goal. We concluded that in Japanese children aged 3- 5 years; Ca intake is low, Na intake is high, and K intake is adequate, but some children could be at risk for Mg deficiency.
Vitamin A supplementation reduces morbidity, mortality, and blindness among children in developing countries. The objective of this study is to characterize the coverage of the Cambodian national vitamin A program among preschool children and to identify risk factors for not receiving vitamin A supplementation. The study subjects were preschool children and their families who participated in the 2005 Cambodian Demographic and Health Survey (CDHS), a nationally representative survey. Of 1,547 preschool children, aged 12-59 months, 42.8% re- ceived a vitamin A capsule within the last six months. There were no significant differences in paternal educa- tion, child age, fever within the last 2 weeks, stunting, underweight, or wasting between children who did or did not receive a vitamin A capsule. Maternal education of ≥10 years (Odds Ratio [OR] 2.09, 95% Confidence In- terval [CI] 1.02 – 4.29), 7-9 years (OR 1.46, 95% CI 0.99 – 2.15), 4-6 years (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.26 – 2.32), and 1-3 years (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.10 – 2.06) was associated with the child receiving a vitamin A capsule compared to no formal education in multivariate analyses adjusting for other potential confounders. The national vitamin A supplementation program in Cambodia did not reach over one-half of preschool children in 2005. Greater mater- nal formal education appears to be an important determinant for receipt of a vitamin A capsule by preschool children.
Although hepcidin, a recently discovered peptide hormone, is considered a major regulator of iron metabolism and anemia in chronic inflammation, its role in anemia during pregnancy has not been characterized. Our objec- tive was to characterize the role of hepcidin in anemia during pregnancy. We examined the relationships be- tween urinary hepcidin, iron status indicators, hemoglobin, erythropoietin, alpha-1 acid glycoprotein, and C- reactive protein in a cross-sectional study conducted among 149 pregnant rural Bangladeshi women with bio- specimens obtained during home visits. Urinary hepcidin was measured using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Urinary hepcidin, as log(intensity per mmol/L creatinine), was cor- related with log ferritin (r = 0.33, p <0.001), the transferrin receptor index (r = -0.22, p = 0.007), and log alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (r = 0.20, p = 0.01), but not hemoglobin (r = 0.07, p= 0.40), log transferrin receptor (r = -0.07, p = 0.41), log erythropoietin (r = -0.01, p = 0.88) or log C-reactive protein (r = 0.06, p = 0.48). The strength of the relationship between hepcidin and ferritin was maintained in multiple linear regression analyses after enhanc- ing the sample with data from women selected for low iron stores (n = 41). Among pregnant women in a com- munity-based study in rural Bangladesh, urinary hepcidin levels were related to iron status and AGP but not he- moglobin, erythropoietin, or C-reactive protein.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to estimate the level of body shape dissatisfaction among a large sample of adolescent boys and girls within different weight categories. Methods: A total sample of 883 adolescents aged 12 to 16 was included from junior high schools in Taipei County, Taiwan. The Contour Drawing Rating Scale was used to assess body shape dissatisfaction. Results: Body shape dissatisfaction is prevalent in Taiwan- ese adolescents, particularly for girls. This is linked to degree of overweight in both boys and girls but is also prevalent in girls who are not overweight or obese. Girls and boys clearly aspire to thinness but some boys would also prefer to be larger. Conclusions: This study extends our understanding of body shape dissatisfaction and its relationship with weight status in eastern cultures such as Taiwan.
French Polynesians consume high quantities of fish and are therefore exposed to seafood-related contaminants such as mercury (Hg) or lead (Pb) and nutrients such as iodine, selenium and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). As the developing foetus is sensitive to contaminants and nutrients, a cross-sectional study was conducted in French Polynesia in 2005-2006 to assess prenatal exposure to contaminants and nutrients through fish consumption. Two hundred and forty one (241) delivering women originating from all islands of French Polynesia were recruited and agreed to answer questions on fish consumption and gave permission to collect umbilical cord blood for metals and nutrients analyses. All parameters were found in high concentrations in cord blood samples except for lead. Mercury concentrations averaged 64.6 nmol/L (or 13 μg/L) with values ranging from 0.25 to 240 nmol/L. Of the sample, 82.5% had Hg concentrations above the US-EPA blood guide- line of 5.8 μg/L. Tuna was the fish species which contributed the most to Hg exposure. High selenium and LC- PUFAs may counterbalance the potential risk of prenatal exposure to Hg in French Polynesia. Due to the high fish consumption of mothers, Polynesian newborns are prenatally exposed to high doses of mercury. Although selenium and omega–3 fatty acids may counteract mercury toxicity, informing pregnant women on both the mer- cury and nutrient content of local fish species is important.
This study estimated and compared the prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome and its individual components in young adults (ages 20-39 years) in the US and Korea using 2003-2004 US and 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. The mean body mass index and rate of metabolic abnormalities in the US were significantly higher than in Korea. The prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome in the US was nearly three times higher than in Korea using National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III and Inter- national Diabetes Federation criteria (21.6% vs. 6.9% and 23.0% vs. 6.9%, p<0.001). The prevalence of ab- dominal obesity, hyperglycemia, and hypertriglyceridemia was higher in the US while the prevalence of low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol level was higher in Korea. The rate of hypertension showed no significant difference while mean systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure varied between the two countries. The proportion of subjects having at least one component of Metabolic Syndrome was similar in both countries; however, multiple abnormalities were more common in the US. These findings indicate the need for the devel- opment of race/ethnic-based norms for components of the Metabolic Syndrome and detailed analysis of the risk factors for the Metabolic Syndrome in the two countries. National health policies designed to prevent the Meta- bolic Syndrome, its individual abnormalities, and its complications using population-based characteristics of each nation will generate improved outcomes.
The Malaysian government recently introduced a ban on fast food advertisements targeting children on televi- sion. This study reports on data covering 6 months of television food advertising targeting children. Six out of seven of the Nation’s commercial television networks participated (response rate = 85.7%). Based on reported timings of children’s programmes, prime time significantly differed (p<0.05) between weekdays (mean = 1.89 ± 0.18 hr) and weekends (mean = 4.61 ± 0.33 hr). The increased trend during weekends, school vacation and Ramadhan was evident. Over the six-month period, the mean number of food advertisements appearing per month varied greatly between television stations (C = 1104; D = 643; F = 407; B = 327; A = 59; E = 47). Food advertising also increased the most in September (n = 3158), followed by July (n = 2770), August (n = 2431), October (n = 2291), November (n = 2245) and June (n = 2211). Content analysis of advertisements indicated snacks were the highest (34.5%), followed by dairy products (20.3%), sugars and candies (13.4%), biscuits (11.2%), fast food (6.7%), breakfast cereal (6.4%), beverages (4.1%), supplements (0.9%), rice (0.6%), noodles (0.5%), bread (0.3%), miscellaneous and processed foods (0.2%). Paradoxically, we found that the frequency of snack food advertised during children’s prime time was 5 times more than fast foods. The sodium content (mean = 620 mg per 100g) of these snack foods was found to be highest.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationships between obesity and medical care expenditure among Tai- wanese adults and to assess the influence of sex, age and socioeconomic status. Our study sample consisted of 12,250 adults aged 18 years or older from the 2001 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), who had con- sented to the linking of their survey responses with their NHI claims records. Obesity was defined by Body Mass Index based on the WHO-Asia Pacific categories. Adjusted expenditure for obese class II and class I men were, respectively, 44.6% (95%CI: 27.1%-68.7%) and 39.5% (95%CI: 39.4%-41.2%) greater than normal weight men. For obese class II and class I women, the adjusted expenditure were, respectively, 93.3% (95%CI: 69.9%- 114.6%) and 56.1% (95%CI: 50.4%-61.4%) greater than normal weight women. After adjusting for other factors, higher medical care expenditure was associated with a higher BMI for each age group. The relative magnitude of the association became more apparent as age increased. Annual medical care expenditure increased as the BMI increased among women, which was particularly apparent among low socioeconomic status women. On the other hand, the relationship between BMI and medical care expenditure in men varied by household income. In conclusion, there is a strong positive relationship between higher BMI and increased medical care expenditure and this varies according to sex, age and socioeconomic status. Our findings suggest that projections of future health care costs attributable to obesity will need to take into consideration the demographic make-up of the obese population.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of anaemia and the metabolic syndrome with special interest in the co- existence of these two problems as well as the possible links. Research design and method: In a cross-sectional household survey, 1294 men and 1522 women aged 20 years and above were interviewed; anthropometric meas- urements and blood samples were taken. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to IDF 2005 standard. Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin level below 13 g/dL for men and 12 g/dL for women. Results: The age- adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 11.2% and of anaemia 24.4%. About 3 percent of the partici- pants had both anaemia and metabolic syndrome. Women had a higher prevalence of both the metabolic syn- drome and anaemia than men (14.0 vs 8.4%, 31.5% vs 16.1%). Anaemia coexisted significantly with all the in- dividual components of the metabolic syndrome. Only 7.0% of the sample had anaemia without any individual component of metabolic syndrome. In women, the prevalence of combined anaemia and metabolic syndrome peaked in the age group 50-59 years (9.9%). Women in the highest quartile of serum ferritin had a higher risk of only the metabolic syndrome and coexistence of anaemia and metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: The high preva- lence of the metabolic syndrome and anaemia in the area show the urgent need to develop comprehensive strate- gies aimed at prevention and treatment. In women this coexistence may be related to inflammation but further research is needed.
Metabolic risks are greater in Asians than Caucasians at a given body mass index (BMI). It is generally accepted that the BMI cut-off points for defining overweight and obesity should be lower for Asians. However, the per- cent body fat at a given BMI and metabolic responses to fatness vary among the different ethnic groups in Asia. Therefore, roughly even-spaced multiple action points (i.e., BMIs of 23, 25, 27.5, 30, 32.5, 35 and 37.5) have been advocated for managing obesity in Asians. We propose here evidence-based ethnicity-specific action points for public awareness, screening, and treatment that take into consideration sensitivity, specificity, and posi- tive/negative predictive values for cardiovascular disease and/or metabolic syndromes, which are the most preva- lent adverse consequences of obesity.
This study evaluated a structured and integrated intervention program on diabetes management in individuals with type 2 diabetes in Shanghai, China. Men and women with type 2 diabetes and body mass index > 23 kg/m2 were randomized into a 24-week, prospective, randomized clinical trial. The Reference Group (n=50) received diabetes education including diet and physical activity instruction only; the Intervention Group (n=100) received more intensive intervention, including diabetes education with frequent blood glucose monitoring, nutritional counseling, meal plans with diabetes-specific nutritional meal replacement, and weekly progress updates with study staff. Major study assessments were obtained at baseline, and after 12 and/or 24 weeks of intervention. The Intervention Group improved fasting blood glucose, insulin, systolic and diastolic blood pressures compared to Reference Group (p<0.05). Importantly, HbA1c was lower (p<0.001) in the Intervention Group at 12 weeks (- 0.6 ± 0.1%) and 24 weeks (-0.8 ± 0.1%). Weight loss was modest, but significant differences were observed be- tween groups (p<0.05). Weight change from baseline after 12 and 24 weeks was -2.8 ± 0.2% and -3.7 ± 0.3%, respectively, in the Intervention Group vs -1.8 ± 0.4% and -2.5 ± 0.4% in the Reference Group. Additionally, waist and hip circumferences and waist:hip ratio decreased in the Intervention compared to the Reference Group (p<0.05). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Chinese men and women with type 2 diabetes following an integrated intervention program including diabetes education, frequent blood glucose monitoring and daily use of a diabetes-specific meal replacement, can achieve significant improvements in glycemic control and markers of cardiovascular health.
The effect of glucose infusion during surgery on glucose metabolism has not been investigated sufficiently. We, therefore, examined the effect after the infusion of 1% glucose acetated Ringer solution containing Mg2+ during surgery on ketogenesis and serum Mg2+ concentrations. Patients, classified as ASA I-II, age 51-80 years, were randomly assigned to receive infusion of acetated Ringer solution. The G/Mg group received infusion with 1% glucose, Na+ 140mEq/L, Mg2+ 2 mEq/L, and the C group received infusion with glucose free solution containing Na+ 130 mEq/L without Mg2+. Both solutions were infused at a rate of 25 mL/kg for the first hour, and main- tained at 4 mL/kg/hr thereafter. Blood samples were collected three times: before infusion and at 1 hour and 4 hours after the start of infusion. Electrolytes and glucose metabolism were evaluated at each sampling. After rapid infusion, blood glucose level significantly increased to 170±19mg/dL in the G/Mg group, but it returned to close to baseline after 4 hours and serum ketone bodies did not increase during infusion. In the C group, however, blood glucose never increased beyond 110 mg/dL, but both acetoacetic and hydroxybutyric acids increased sig- nificantly at the third measurement.
Food consumption patterns in Asia are rapidly changing. Urbanization and changing lifestyles have diminished the consumption of traditional meals based on cereals, vegetables and root crops. These changes are accompa- nied by an increasing prevalence of chronic diseases among Asian populations. ILSI Southeast Asia and CSIRO, Australia jointly organized the Symposium on Understanding and Influencing Food Behaviours for Health, fo- cusing on the use of consumer science to improve food behaviour. The goals of the Symposium were to present an understanding of Asian consumers and their food choices, examine the use of consumer research to modify food choices towards better health, illustrate how health programs and food regulations can be utilized effec- tively to promote healthier choices, and identify knowledge gaps regarding the promotion of healthy food behav- iour in Asian populations. There is no difference in taste perception among Asians, and Asian preference for cer- tain tastes is determined by exposure and familiarity largely dictated by culture and its underlying values and be- liefs. Cross-cultural validity of consumer science theories and tools derived from western populations need to be tested in Asia. Information on consumption levels and substitution behaviours for foods and food products, ob- tained using consumer research methods, can guide the development of food regulations and programs that will enable individuals to make healthier choices. Existing knowledge gaps include consumer research techniques appropriate for use in Asian settings, diet-health relationships from consumption of traditional Asian diets, and methods to address the increasing prevalence of over- and undernutrition within the same households in Asia.
The 2nd International Conference on East-West Perspective on Functional Foods held in Kuala Lumpur, Malay- sia, on November, 2007, discussed the current work on some traditional Asian foods and new technologies that offer both challenges and opportunities for functional foods. The highlight of the conference was on the current regulatory status of nutrition and health claims related to functional foods and the experiences in some countries on the substantiation of claims. Attention was also given to strategies for effective communication of functional foods to consumers. The conference concluded with recommendations to strengthen R&D efforts and harmoni- zation of protocols and methodologies on functional foods within the region.
This paper reviews literature between 1974 and 2007 that addresses the impact of sociocultural factors on re- ported patterns of eating, physical activity (activity) and body size of Tongans and indigenous Fijians (Fijians) in their countries of origin. There have been changes in diet (more imported and fewer traditional foods), activity (reduced, especially in urban settings), residence (rural-urban shift) and body size (increased obesity and at a younger age). The prevalence of overweight/obesity in Tongans and Fijians has increased rapidly over the last two decades and remains among the highest in the world (>80% in Tonga; >40% in Fiji), with more females re- ported to be obese than males. The few studies that investigated sociocultural influences on patterns of eating, activity and/or body size in this population have examined the impact of hierarchical organisation, rank and status (sex, seniority), values (respect, care, co-operation) and/or role expectations. It is important to examine how sociocultural factors influence eating, activity and body size in order to i) establish factors that promote or protect against obesity, ii) inform culturally-appropriate interventions to promote healthy lifestyles and body size, and iii) halt the obesity epidemic, especially in cultural groups with a high prevalence of obesity. There is an ur- gent need for more systematic investigations of key sociocultural factors, whilst taking into account the complex interplay between sociocultural factors, behaviours and other influences (historical; socioeconomic; policy; ex- ternal global influences; physical environment).
The aim of this study was to determine the quantity of omega 3 (n–3) fatty acids in commonly consumed spe- cies of South Australian fish. Omega 3 fatty acids ranged from 17.7% to 53.7% of total fat with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n–3) as the major omega 3 fatty acid in all 26 species tested (range 9.5 % to 47.1% of total fat). The levels of total omega 6 (n–6) fatty acids ranged from 2.3% to 20.2% of total lipids, chiefly as arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n–6). Fatty fish such as Gemfish, Atlantic Salmon and Swordfish were found to be good sources of omega-3 fatty acid (1360, 2252 and 2571 mg/100g fish respectively), while low fat fish such as Ling, Deep Sea Bream (Blue Warhou) and Blue Grenadier (0.5, 0.7 and 0.7% fat) had low levels of omega 3 fatty acid (222, 257 and 247 mg/100g). Because most white table fish consumed by Australians are so low in fat they are actu- ally a limited source of omega 3 fats. The amount of fish required to be consumed to provide 1 g of omega 3 fatty acid per day ranged from 40 to 450 g.
Health authorities around the world advise ‘limiting consumption of trans fatty acids’, however in Australia the trans fatty acid (TFA) content is not required to be listed in the nutrition information panel unless a declaration or nutrient claim is made about fatty acids or cholesterol. Since there is limited knowledge about trans fatty acid levels in processed foods available in Australia, this study aimed to determine the levels of TFA in selected food items known to be sources of TFA from previously published studies. Food items (n=92) that contain vegetable oil and a total fat content greater than 5% were included. This criterion was used in conjunction with a review of similar studies where food items were found to contain high levels of trans fatty acids. Lipids were extracted us- ing solvents. Gravimetric methods were used to determine total fat content and trans fatty acid levels were quan- tified by Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. High levels of trans fatty acids were found in certain items in the Australian food supply, with a high degree of variability. Of the samples ana- lysed, 13 contained greater than 1 g of trans fatty acids per serving size, the highest value was 8.1 g/serving. Apart from when the nutrition information panel states that the content is less than a designated low level, food labels sold in Australia do not indicate trans fatty acid levels. We suggested that health authorities seek ways to assist consumers to limit their intakes of trans fatty acids.
In the early 20th Century, vitamin D was discovered and its Recommended Daily Allowance developed. How- ever, average daily dietary intakes have not been reported until recently in the US. There are no food composi- tion and no intake data for vitamin D available in Taiwan. We have taken advantage of several population repre- sentative Nutrition and Health Surveys in Taiwan (NAHSIT) conducted from 1993 onwards of various age groups to examine this possibility systematically. Firstly, we collected and compiled the vitamin D content of foods from various sources to supplement the Taiwanese Food Composition Tables. Though these vitamin D data may not be fully representative of local food items, they serve as a reference point. Secondly, we have used the three NAHSITs databases, which all used the 24-hr recall method to collect dietary intake data and five food frequency questionnaire type questions to collect supplement data, to estimate most gender- and age-specific (in- clude: school children, adults and elderly) vitamin D intakes from food source and supplements. Thirdly, we have defined the sources of vitamin D intake in Taiwanese (gender- and age-specific). Vitamin D intakes of Taiwanese were adequate except for high school girls and indigenous people. Fish and its products, milk, mush- rooms were the major vitamin D food sources. Supplement source vitamin D also varied greatly between age and gender groups. Elderly women consumed almost 20% of vitamin D from supplements; 16-18 years old boys consumed 2.47% vitamin D from supplements only.
Consumption of polyphenols is associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases, possibly via a variety of bio- mechanisms, including antioxidation and anti-inflammation. Purple sweet potato leaves (PSPL) commonly con- sumed in Asia possess polyphenols. In this study, we aim to investigate antioxidant effect of 200 g/d PSPL con- taining 902 mg polyphenols in a clinical trial. This randomized, crossover clinical study included 16 healthy adults (7 M, 9 F; aged 20-22 y). After a 1-wk run period, subjects were assigned randomly to receive either PSPL or low polyphenol diet (LPD) for 2 wks, followed by a 2-wk washout period before crossing over to the alternate diet. Fasting blood and 24-h urine samples were collected from each subject at day 0, 7 and 14 of each phase. Our data showed PSPL consumption enhanced urinary total phenol excretion by 24.5% at day 14 as com- pared to day 0, while the LPD decreased total phenol content in plasma and urine by 3.3 and 16.3%, respectively (p ≤0.05). Low-density lipoprotein lag time and glutathione concentration in erythrocytes at day 14 was signifi- cantly enhanced by 15.0 and 33.3% by PSPL as compared to day 0, respectively, while their values were not al- tered by the LPD. Urinary 8-hydoxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) excretion decreased significantly by PSPL con- sumptoin by 36.7% at day 7 as compared to day 0, yet unchanged by the LPD (p ≤0.05). In conclusion, our re- sults suggest that polyphenols in 200 g PSPL were bio-available and could enhance antioxidant defense and de- crease oxidative stress in young healthy people.
The effects of diacylglycerol (DAG) on body weight are not consistent in clinical trials. This meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of dietary DAG on body weight. Potential articles were initially searched from the electronic databases of Medline, Embase and Cochrane library using the subject keywords as follows: weight, DAG, triacylglycerol (TAG), reduction and obesity. Inclusion criteria re- quired the trial to be randomized placebo controlled with body weight as an endpoint. Two reviewers independ- ently extracted the information and evaluated the methodological quality using the scoring system developed by Jadad. Meta-analysis was performed with the software of Review Manager 4.2. The robustness of overall analy- sis was tested by sensitivity analysis and publication bias was visually inspected by funnel plot. Five published trials were included in the statistical pool. The meta-analysis indicated a significant difference in body weight reduction between group receiving DAG and group receiving TAG (weighted mean difference -0.75 kg; 95% CI: -1.11 to -0.39; p < 0.0001). Sensitivity analysis corroborated the result of the overall analysis. Linear regression analysis showed that there was significant correlation between daily dose and body weight reduction (p = 0.044, R2 = 0.889). In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggested that DAG was efficacious for reducing body weight compared with TAG and this effect was influenced by the daily dose.
This study aimed to determine valid waist circumference (WC) thresholds using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for pediatric metabolic syndrome (MS) prediction and to compare validities between the thresh- olds derived from ROC curves and the WC cut-offs defined by International Diabetes Federation (IDF). Four hundred and sixty four males and 415 females, 10–18 years, who participated in the KNHNES 2005 were in- cluded. Subjects were classified as having pediatric MS when a high WC and ≥ 2 of the risk factors defined by IDF were present. High WC was defined using either IDF criterion (≥90th percentile for age and sex-specific WC based on Korean reference in adolescents 10-15 years of age, ≥90cm in males and ≥80cm in females 16-18 years of age) or age-adjusted WC thresholds derived from the ROC curves predicting ≥ 2 abnormal risk factors. The AUCs were 0.71-0.81 (sensitivity 74-100%, specificity 52-65%) among males and 0.63-0.76 (sensitivity 71-90%, specificity 37-87%) among females for WC thresholds (55th and 32th percentile for males and females 10-15 years of age, 73cm and 76cm for males and females 16-18 years of age), while the AUCs were 0.65-0.66 (sensi- tivity 39-45%, specificity 84-93%) among males and 0.53-0.76 (sensitivity 20-57%, specificity 86-96%) among females for IDF-defined WC cut-offs. The prevalence of MS using IDF definition for WC was 4% in males and 2% in females, while those using WC thresholds were 8% and 5%, respectively. The IDF’s definition of ab- dominal obesity may be less sensitive in screening adolescents with pediatric MS compared to WC thresholds.