Erratum for Bellisle F. Experimental studies of food choice and palatability responses in European subjects exposed to the Umami taste. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2008;17(S1):376-379.
The name of the author – France Bellisle – was reversed as Bellisle France. In the list of authors, the surname should have been Bellisle and have appeared as France Bellisle in the text and Bellisle F in MedLine.
The online version of this article has been corrected. We regret the error.
The course of human papilloma virus (HPV)-induced recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis (RLP) is variable and unpredictable. Some patients experience spontaneous remission, while others suffer from aggressive growth with dire consequences. Unfortunately, HPV DNA can persist in mucosa after treatment and can be reactivated under immunosuppressive conditions. For this reason, these benign tumors are notoriously recurrent. Better un- derstanding of lipid-driven signaling pathways during tumorigenesis and immune responses in RLP patients can contribute to improve therapeutic approaches in an attempt to obviate this disease. Based on a mountain of evi- dence in the literature that concerns the immunomodulatory potential of certain FAs, it is clear that there is a ra- tionale for adjuvant FA therapy (concurrent application) in the management of RLP. Of particular importance for immune surveillance is that the Th1 pathway in RLP is down-regulated and it is advocated that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have the ability to restore the Th1/Th2 balance. Therefore, it is proposed that adjuvant FA therapy with CLA and EPA must be included in the therapeutical regime of RLP, since they are considered excellent anti-viral and anti-tumor agents to improve immune conditions and disease outcome. Immunocompetence plays a pivotal role in the clinical course of RLP and, hence, a new direction with adjuvant FA therapy may be the key to prevent recurrence of this disease.
Background: Inhabitants of agrarian villages of rural Cambodia suffer from high prevalences of iron deficiency and anemia in the context of a monotonous diet. Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of placebo Khmer fish sauce to that of 10 mL of fish sauce containing 10 mg of iron, added to daily school meals either as NaFe-EDTA or as FeSO4+ citrate. Methods: 140 students aged 6-21 years were enrolled in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled inter- vention trial. They were randomly allocated to one of three treatment groups, and followed for 21 weeks during which 114 school meals seasoned with 10 mL of fish sauce were consumed by each participant. Changes in the con- centrations of hemoglobin (hb), serum ferritin (SF), and C-reactive protein (CRP) and in body weight and standing height were determined. Prevalences of vomiting, diarrhea, and acute respiratory infections were monitored weekly. Results: Both iron-fortified fish sauces increased hb and SF concentrations significantly as compared to placebo. No significant differences were observed between FeSO4+citrate and NaFe-EDTA fortification, regarding mitigation of iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) or regarding CRP, growth, infections, or side-effects. Conclusions: Iron-fortified Khmer fish sauce added to Khmer food is a suitable vehicle for iron fortification in children and adolescents. FeSO4+citrate and NaFe-EDTA show equivalent efficacy and safety.
Background: There are only a very limited number of reports of intervention studies on the effects of fish oil on behavior in normal school children. Objective: To observe the effects of fish oil on behavior and school atten- dance rates in school children. Design: Fourth to sixth graders (mostly 9-12 years of age) of an elementary school in Lampung Province, Indonesia, were randomly divided into either a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) group (n=116) or a control group (n=117) in a double-blind manner. The subjects in the DHA group took 6 fish oil capsules per day (0.65g DHA and 0.10g eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/day) for 3 months. Controls took soy- bean oil capsules. Two questionnaires were administered and blood was taken at the start and end of the study. Two questionnaires were administered at the start and end of the study: Hostility-Aggression Questionnaire for Children (HAQ-C) and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, version 11 (BIS-11), for measurement of aggression and impulsivity, respectively. Attendance was recorded during the study period. Outcomes: The concentrations of DHA and EPA in the phospholipid fraction in red blood cells were significantly increased in the DHA group. Behavior checked with HAQ-C or BIS-11 did not show any differences between groups. However, the odds ratio of inability to attend school regularly during the study period was 0.40 (95%CI: 0.23-0.71) in the DHA group compared with controls (p=0.002). Conclusions: DHA-rich fish oil may improve the school attendance rate of children in Lampung, Indonesia
The aim of this study was to determine the iron status of infants who consumed porridge cooked in water with added ferrous sulphate. A total of 234 infants, aged 6~12 months, were recruited from 36 nurseries in the De- mocratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK North Korea) and randomly divided into iron (Fe) and placebo groups. At baseline, almost half the children had Hb<110 g/L and no significant differences between the two groups were found with regard to hemoglobin concentration and anemia prevalence. The Fe group received rice porridge fortified with 10 mg of iron (as ferrous sulfate) per day, added to the water in which the rice was cooked and the placebo group non-fortified cereal for 6 months. After which, the hemoglobin (Hb), serum fer- ritin (SF) and packed cell volume (PCV) were measured and it was found that the proportion of children with anemia (Hb<110 g/L) was lower (24.3% v 48.1% p< 0.01), the Hb levels (117.6 g/L v 109.8 g/L p<0.001) and serum ferritin were higher (40.7 v 26.8 mcg/L p<0.001); and iron deficiency anemia (Hb<110 g/L, SF<12 mcg/L) was lower in the Fe group (3% v 22% p<0.001) when compared to the placebo group. Ferrous sulphate, added to the water in which rice was cooked, lowered the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia of infants in the DPRK with no adverse reactions. This simple fortification would be suitable as a nationwide program in the DPRK and other countries with large infant nurseries.
This study was conducted to assess the association between dietary nutrient intake and osteoporosis risk in post- menopausal women. Bone mineral density was measured at the lumbar spine by dual-energy X-ray absorptiome- try and a structured questionnaire was administered by a trained interviewer, which included information on so- ciodemographics, medical and reproductive history, and dietary intake. The study sample included 134 osteo- porotic and 137 non-osteoporotic subjects between the ages of 52 and 68. Nutrient variables were classified into tertiles. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated which compared the highest tertile with the lowest tertile as a reference group. Odds ratios for osteoporosis were 1.47 (95% CI: 1.03 – 2.05) for total pro- tein, 1.62 (95% CI: 0.51 – 3.92) for animal protein, and 2.98 (95% CI: 1.42 – 4.23) for sodium. Odds ratios for osteoporosis in the highest tertile were: 0.42 (95% CI: 0.23 – 0.83) for vegetable protein, 0.72 (95% CI: 0.51 – 0.90) for Ca, and 0.65 (95% CI: 0.49 – 0.88) for Fe, relative to the respective lowest tertile. These findings sug- gest that adequate nutrient intake may be important for prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.
Introduction: Zinc deficiency is wide spread in developing countries. Its deficiency during pregnancy has been documented to be associated with growth retardation, congenital abnormalities, and low birth weight. Limited community based data is available on the serum zinc levels during pregnancy from Haryana State, India. Hence the present study was undertaken. Methods: A community based cross sectional study was conducted amongst 283 pregnant women with gestational age of 28 weeks or more. Each pregnant woman was inquired about her age, obstetric profile, socio-economic status, and other demographic parameters by utilizing a pre-tested semi- structured questionnaire. Blood from the antecubital vein was drawn to assess the serum zinc levels utilizing the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Nutrient intake was assessed by the standard 24-hr dietary recall method. Statistical tests were applied to the data collected. Results: Mean serum zinc level was 61.1 ± 16.6 μg/dL. Almost 64.6% of the women had zinc deficiency. The dietary data revealed that 58.9 % of the women were consuming calories less that 75% of the recommended, indicating an overall poor food intake. Dietary zinc intake revealed that 86.2 % of the women were consuming less than 50% of the recommended (15 mg). A high prevalence of zinc deficiency (64.6%) was found amongst the pregnant women possibly due to the low dietary intake of zinc. There is a need to undertake multi-centric studies in various parts of the country to assess the serum zinc levels, magnitude of zinc deficiency and factors leading to zinc deficiency amongst pregnant women in India.
This study documented the prevalence and pattern of dietary supplements usage among older adults in Japan. Persons aged 55-75 years residing in middle and southern Japan were recruited and interviewed face-to-face on their use of dietary supplements. Among the 572 (355 male and 217 female) participants from 10 prefectures, 45.8% took supplements on a weekly or daily basis, the prevalence was higher for women (52.5%) than men (41.7%). Many types of miscellaneous supplements were consumed. The most popular supplement was vinegar for both men (11.0%) and women (15.2%), followed by energy drink (8.5%) for men, and multivitamin (8.5%) for men and vitamin C (8.3%) for women. The findings suggested an increasing trend of dietary supplementation by Japanese older adults when compared to previous studies.
Introduction: The elderly are a particularly vulnerable group. Malnutrition is common and increases an old per- son’s vulnerability to disease. We determine the prevalence of malnutrition in free living elderly people and its relationship with nutritional status and some ocioeconomic conditions. Methods: Nutritional status and its rela- tionship with socioeconomic conditions were evaluated using Mini Nutritional Assessment in free-living elderly people (n=1962 using cluster sampling, 917 male/1045 female, aged>60). Results: Among the population, 42.7% were well nourished, 12.0% malnourished and 45.3% at risk of malnutrition. There was more malnutri- tion in females compared to males (13% vs. 10.8%; p<0.001), rural than urban (14.8% vs. 9.9%; p<0.001), non educated than educated (13.3% vs 6.9%; p<0.001), lonely than living with family (17.5% vs. 10.3%; p<0.001), unemployed than employed (13.3% vs. 6.3%; p<0.05), elderly on income support (Behsisty charity) compared with elderly on retirement salary, (41.7% vs. 3.3%; p<0.05). Total Mini Nutritional Assessment scores correlated significantly with length of education, age, waist circumference, and body mass index (r =0.426, -0.142, 0.355 and 0.269 respectively). Conclusion: This study revealed a 12% malnutrition prevalence in this elderly group, with higher percentages in special socioeconomic conditions. Health care providers need to be aware of this problem and its scope. These results reinforce the need to screen, monitor and support elderly people.
Purpose: To compare the views of general practitioners, cardiologists and dietitians about the relevance of the Heart Foundation of Australia’s dietary recommendations for adult cardiac patients. Basic procedures: Quanti- tative-cross sectional study. Postal questionnaires were self-completed by 248 Victorian general practitioners (30% response), 189 Australia-wide cardiologists (47% response) and 180 Victorian dietitians (45% response). Responses were represented as percentages and analyses of variance were conducted to explore the impact of the independent variables: age, work status and gender on the dependent variable: dietary recommendation. Main findings: Approximately half of the recommendations were viewed as strongly important to implement; these related to lean meats, limiting takeaways and cakes/biscuits, and adjusting energy intake. Others of importance were eating fruits, vegetables and fish. However, most of these goals were seen as difficult to achieve. Dietitians appeared to share responses of doctors, except for greater importance of eating fruit and vegetables and a greater difficulty in limiting cakes and biscuits. There was a high level of agreement among the three groups (mean 87%) about patients having difficulty implementing adjusting energy intake. Conclusions: There is agreement amongst these professionals that many of the recommendations lack importance, specifically those pertaining to unsaturated oils, low fat dairy products, cholesterol rich foods, intake of legumes and grains and the restriction of salt. This may reflect a need for further nutrition education.
Leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) has been closely related to health improvement. The under-appreciation for energy output by nutritionists stems in part from limited data expressed in caloric equivalent. We converted the frequency, duration, and intensity of LTPA, reported from 15,390 adults in the Taiwan National Health In- terview Survey 2001, into kilocalories (kcal). Half of Taiwanese adults admit to no LTPA. Women, lower educa- tion or income, younger age, smokers and chewers of betel quid; exercised significantly less than their counter- parts. Less than 1/5 (18.9%) of the population in Taiwan was physically active at ≥750 kcal/week, and only 1/7 (13.9%) reached a more desirable goal of ≥1,000 kcal/week, compared with 1/3 in the U.S. The most discon- certing finding was the Taiwan unique U-shaped prevalence for males, with the 25-44 age group being the least active, ≥65 age group being the most active; and S-shaped for females, lowest at age 18-24 years and highest at the two older groups (45-64 and ≥65 years). LTPA was under-appreciated, particularly among the most produc- tive work force (25-44-year group), who exercised with a prevalence only 1/4 of their U.S. counterparts. Ex- pressing LTPA in kcal makes direct comparison easier. Invoking a goal of ≥750 kcal/week for Asians, attainable by exercising 4 hours/week, can facilitate nutritionists in assessing LTPA adequacy. Currently, 4/5 of adults in Taiwan failed to reach this goal. Recognizing the concept of cumulative energy expenditure, in contrast to disci- plined daily work for 5 or more days, will encourage the infrequent exercisers such as “weekend warriors” to continue with their activities.
Non-communicable diseases are escalating rapidly within the Pacific region, including Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia. A shift in dietary patterns from indigenous, high fiber, healthy local food to energy-dense, im- ported food with low nutritional value, and increased sedentary lifestyles are expediting this process. Essential to counteract this trend is an understanding of how people make food decisions. This participatory assessment util- ized a quantitative and qualitative approach to capture diet patterns and knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and prac- tices of food consumption. A structured 7–day food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to quantify the di- ets of 293 adult Pohnpeian women attending an island-wide education/disability screening program. An ethno- graphic approach, including in-depth interviews, informal focus groups and observations documented food be- havior practices and contributed to the design of the FFQ. Of those responding to the FFQ, 96% reported eating rice frequently (3-7 days/week) whereas 75% reported eating locally grown carbohydrate foods frequently. Fac- tors associated with culture change, including availability, affordability, convenience, and status of food items were found to determine food decisions. Food-based, culturally sensitive and innovative strategies that utilize ex- isting resources are required to promote local food production and consumption. Prevention programs with an in- formation, education and communication (IEC) approach are needed to provide accurate and available health and nutrition knowledge and to increase the demand for local foods. Behavior modification requires the contin- ued collaboration of the national, state, and community organizations that partnered on this research to strategize programs in order to target individual food choices and to transform the environment to support these decisions.
We investigated the effect of pre-race intake of vitamins and minerals, in the form of supplementation, before a multi-stage ultra-endurance run and their effect on race performance. At the Deutschlandlauf 2006 in Germany, where athletes had to run across Germany from the north (Kap Arkona - Rügen) to the south (Lörrach) over 1,200 km within 17 consecutive stages, twenty male ultra runners (46.2 ± 9.6 years, 71.8 ± 5.2 kg, 179 ± 6 cm, BMI 22.5 ± 1.9 kg/m2) completed a questionnaire about their intake of vitamin and mineral supplements in the four weeks before the race. Race performance of athletes with- and athletes without regular intake of these sup- plements were compared. In the four weeks before the run, nine runners (45%) ingested vitamin- and twelve ath- letes (60%) mineral supplements. Athletes with an intake of vitamins (152.8 ± 14.1 h versus 160.6 ± 14.6 h, p > 0.05) and minerals (151.6 ± 14.5 h versus 165.3 ± 10.8 h, p > 0.05) finished the race no faster than athletes with- out an intake of vitamins and minerals. We concluded that in the Deutschlandlauf 2006 of over 1,200 km within 17 consecutive stages, athletes with a regular intake of vitamin and mineral supplements in the four weeks before the race finished the competition no faster than athletes without an intake of vitamins and minerals.
Objective: To quantify the extent and nature of healthy eating messages Australian consumers are currently ex- posed to through magazine advertising. Method: Analysis of healthy eating messages in advertisements found in the top 30 Australian magazines between January and June 2005 was conducted. Advertisements were analysed and classified by source, subject, food category, food type, food occasion, type of claim and disease type. Re- sults: A total of 1,040 advertisements were identified which contained a healthy eating message; after removing duplicates, 390 advertisements were analysed. Culinary and women’s magazines contained the greatest number of healthy eating messages. The most frequently occurring food category utilising a health message in an adver- tisement was dairy and dairy substitutes (71/390), closely followed by fruit and fruit juice (70/390). Overall, 31 advertisements referred to a specific disease, health problem, or risk factor and the most commonly mentioned were heart disease/heart-attack (12) cancer (seven) and diabetes (five). Conclusions: Majority of healthy eating messages currently advertised are by manufacturers, double that of retailers, with non-commercial sources repre- senting only 2%. Processed foods were the most commonly advertised food form which contained a healthy eat- ing message, this is of concern given the generally low nutritional value of these foods. Overall, there are a large number of advertisements in Australian magazines that contain healthy eating messages that may have the poten- tial to communicate to consumers that there are health benefits associated with the consumption of certain foods. Implications: Future research to assess the accuracy of the information in such advertisements, and to examine consumer interpretations of these health message are important.
We recently suggested that due to insufficient intake of vegetables, low folate status and mild homocysteinemia might exist in the Kazakh population. To clarify the determinants of homocysteine concentrations among this population, we determined concentrations of serum folate, albumin, creatinine, vitamin B12, and the C677T/ MTHFR genotype in 110 Kazakh individuals and compared these with plasma total homocysteine. In Kazakh, after adjustment for age and sex, folate was correlated with plasma total homocysteine, whereas concentrations in those with the TT genotype was almost twice as high as in those with the CC and CT genotypes (19.7±1.8 mol/L vs. 10.7±0.5 mol/L, p<0.001). Our results suggest that the C677T/MTHFR genotype is associated with homocysteine concentrations in this population and this association might be affected by other factors, such as folate status.
Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of this study was to investigate the relations between the methylenetetrafolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C →T genotypes, B- vitamins (folate, vitamin B-12 and B-6), homocysteine and the risk of CAD. In this case-control study, patients who were identified by cardiac catheterization as having at least 50% stenosis of one major coronary artery were assigned to the case group (n = 121). Healthy individuals with normal blood biochemical values were assigned to the control group (n = 155). Healthy subjects were matched to case subjects for age. The concentrations of plasma homocysteine, serum folate, vitamin B-12, plasma pyridoxal 5’- phosphate (PLP) and MTHFR 677C→T gene polymorphism were obtained. The T-allele carriers had significantly higher plasma homocysteine concen- tration compared to subjects with the 677CC genotype. The MTHFR 677C→T genotypes were associated with plasma homocysteine after adjusting for various potential risk factors in the case and pooled groups. The MTHFR genotypes were found to have no associations with the risk of CAD. However, plasma homocysteine (≥ 12.5 μmol/L) (OR, 3.49; 95% CI, 1.23 – 9.88) had a significant association with increased risk of CAD even af- ter additionally adjusted folate status. High plasma homocysteine concentration had a direct effect on the risk of CAD independent of MTHFR 677C→T genotypes.
A large health screening program in Taiwan with members who have periodic checks provides an opportunity to track individuals who are healthy at baseline for the emergence of the metabolic syndrome (MS) and its compo- nent disorders. The syndrome comprised abdominal obesity assessed by waist circumference, high fasting serum glucose (FSG), high triglyceride (TG), low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and high blood pres- sure. A cohort of 9,785 adults (4,707 men and 5,078 women), aged 19 to 84 years, who were free from the MS at baseline were followed for 4 years from 1998 to 2002. Using Asian criteria for abdominal obesity and reducing the threshold for FSG from ≥110 mg/dL to ≥100 mg/dL, the incidence of MS during the 4-year follow up in the MJ Health Screening Center Study in Taiwan was 12.7% (17.5% for men and 8.3% for women). The incidence of the MS in men exceeded that for women up until 50-59 years and then this gender was reversed in the older age groups pointing to pre-menopausal protection in women. The most evident manifestations of the incident of metabolic abnormalities were high FSG, high blood pressure and high TG, particularly in post-menopausal women. Baseline body mass index and age were the most significant predictors of MS for both men and women, with cigarette smoking significantly predictive in men. Incident information should inform preventive and inter- vention strategies in Taiwanese, both Chinese and Indigenous, more effectively than MS and its component dis- order prevalences.
Human papilloma virus (HPV)-induced recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis (RLP) is a chronic debilitating disease often encountered among children of poor socio-economic South African groups. There are a few studies and limited evidence as to what extent nutrition may contribute to this disease. To our knowledge this is the first study that gives an account of dietary FA and micronutrient intakes in RLP patients, according to food frequency questionnaires. The dietary FA profile revealed an excessive linoleic acid (LA) intake syndrome and is also marked by high palmitic acid (PA), oleic acid (OA) and SFA intakes. Research revealed that enhanced LA and PA drive, respectively, mitogenetic stimuli and apoptotic resistance during tumorigenesis, whist SFAs are asso- ciated with lipid rafts, the Th1 immune response and immunosuppression. Low folate intake, a risk for HPV- infection, and low Zn intake, detrimental for lipid metabolism and immunocompetence, occurred in, respectively, 70 % and 20% RLP patients. The poor correlations that were found in RLP patients between essential fatty acids (EFAs) and micronutrients, namely, Mg, Zn and Se, involved in lipid metabolism and immune responses, need proper clarification. Overall, it is plausible that the diet (poor nutrition), a shift in lipid metabolism caused by HPV- infection, environmental smoke and oxidative stress, as well as extra-esophageal acid reflux with secon- dary inflammation in the larynx are co-factors in the etiology of laryngeal papillomatosis, and that immunocom- prised patients are subjected to recurrence. It is imperative to ensure that children with RLP receive proper nu- trition and follow a healthy lifestyle to prevent disease recurrence after treatment.
Aims: To assess the overall nutritional status of older adults participating in ambulatory rehabilitation and de- termine its association with relevant outcomes including physical function and quality of life. Design: Cross- sectional. Setting: Ambulatory rehabilitation service in the Southern region of Adelaide, Australia. Subjects: A total of 229 participants recruited as part of a RCT between June 2005 and June 2006, stroke (n=83), elective or- thopedic procedure (n=44) and other medical condition (n=102). Methods: Nutritional status was measured us- ing Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Simplified Nutrition Appetite Questionnaire (SNAQ) and Body Mass Index. Functional performance was assessed using the Modified Barthel Index (MBI) and quality of life was measured using the Short Form-36 (SF-36). Results: Sixty-three percent of participants were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition according to the MNA and a third had a risk of ≥ 5% weight loss in the subsequent six months, according to the SNAQ. Participants with a diagnosis other than stroke or elective orthopedic procedure were the most vulnerable, with 53% (n=74/140) classified as at risk of malnutrition or malnourished and a longer length of stay in hospital. Functional performance was no different for participants assessed as at risk of malnu- trition or malnourished compared to the well nourished, but the SF-36 mental component score was significantly higher for those who were well nourished (p=0.003). Conclusion: Findings emphasise the magnitude of the malnutrition problem in ambulatory rehabilitation settings. Further research is required to evaluate the resource implications against expected benefits of providing nutrition interventions at this point.
Purpose: To present data that contributes to understanding factors that influence food choice and skipping meals in adolescents. Methods: A cross sectional study is carried in selected high schools in Bornova. Study sample compromises of 527 students chosen randomly by class from a population of 2410 first year in high school stu- dents. Self-administered questionnaires containing sociodemographic determinants, self reported weight and height, food choices and meal patterns were used. Findings: A psychosocial factor that affects almost all of the students is the “taste and sensory perception of food”. The second noticable factor is the “health and nutritious value of food”. The time conserved and the convenience in the preparation of food is one of the lifestyle factors that affect more than half of the students. The cost of the food was also found to have an effect. Among the third group of factors categorized as “media”, the leading factor is advertisement, effective in one third of the students. Among boys and girls, there was no statistical difference in the type of meal skipped. Living in Izmir for more than 10 years compared to less than ten years, being in a nuclear family to extended family, and belonging to the “owner” social class to “wage laborer” class also do not statistically differ with regard to skipping meals. How- ever, the mother’s and father’s education level and having a working mother are associated with skipping meals. Conclusions: These results provide important evidence to support opportunities to positively influence the adop- tion of healthful eating.
The purpose of this study was to compare the body mass index (BMI) and dietary intakes of Chamorro (n=66) and Filipino (n=61) adults, ages 25-65 years, living in Guam. Participants were recruited via community-based sampling; however, recruitment was targeted to ensure approximately equal numbers from each ethnic group, equal numbers of men and women within each ethnic group, and proportional representation of the main geo- graphic areas of the island. In addition, subjects were recruited and stratified based on the 2000 Guam Census Data to assure proportional distribution by age. Dietary energy density (ED) was calculated as kcal/g and com- pared by gender, ethnicity, and obesity status. Mean BMI for Chamorros was significantly higher than for Filipi- nos, and a significantly higher proportion of Chamorros (49%) were obese compared to Filipinos (20%). Chamorros reported higher ED than Filipinos (1.9 kcal/g versus 1.6 kcal/g), although the difference was signifi- cant among males only. Non-obese subjects had a lower ED than obese subjects (1.9 versus 2.3 kcal/g). Over- weight and obese subjects both reported a significantly higher % energy consumed as sugar-sweetened bever- ages than healthy weight subjects (8% and 9% versus 3%). Differences in ED may contribute to differences in obesity rates between Chamorros and Filipinos in Guam, particularly among men, and lowering ED may be an appropriate goal for nutrition interventions.
Aims: Most definitions of the metabolic syndrome (MS) employ waist circumference as an indicator of central obesity. However, several reports, mainly from Asia, argue that other indices, for example the waist/height ratio, are superior to waist circumference for identifying subjects with cardiovascular risk factors. We therefore inves- tigated correlations between the predictive power of several anthropometric indices and risk factor accumulation (RFA) defined by the existence of two or more disorders among hypertension, dyslipidemia (high triglycerides and/or low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol) and fasting hyperglycemia; each of which is a compo- nent of MS. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using data from a part of the Japan Public Health Center-based Cohort. A total of 315 men and 314 women, 51 to 70 years of age were examined for vari- ables including waist and hip circumferences, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose and lipids at an annual health check-up. Results: The prevalence of RFA increased almost linearly in parallel with increasing waist cir- cumference up to 95 cm. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that waist circumference was better than waist/ height ratio, waist/hip ratio and BMI at predicting RFA; but the differences were not statisti- cally significant. However, even in the case of waist circumference, no clear cut-off point yields sufficiently high sensitivity and specificity simultaneously. Conclusions: The predictive power of waist circumference was not inferior to those of other indices. Therefore, waist circumference is practically the most convenient measure for predicting MS because of its simplicity.
Asian women are known to have a larger amount of abdominal fat (AF) for the same level of BMI compared with Caucasian and African-American women. This study was aimed to determine whether waist circumference (WC) could be useful as an index of AF compared with AF measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) before and after a weight-loss program in Asian women. Thirty-eight healthy, pre-menopausal obese Ko- rean women (body fat percent > 30%) were enrolled and followed during a 6-week weight-loss program includ- ing herbal formula, calorie restriction, and exercise. Anthropometry and DXA measurements were performed be- fore and after weight-loss. A specific region of interest (ROI, L2-iliac crest) by DXA was correlated with an- thropometry at baseline: WC (γ = 0.91) > BMI (γ = 0.87) > Waist-Height ratio (WHtR, γ = 0.82) > WHR (γ = 0.46); and after weight loss: BMI (γ = 0.88) > WC (γ = 0.84) > WHtR (γ = 0.82), all p < 0.01. The change in DXA ROI showed a reasonable correlation with change in anthropometry: BMI (γ = 0 .63, p < 0.01) > WC (γ = 0.39, p < 0.05) > WHtR (γ = 0.37, p < 0.05). A stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that 83% of the variance in DXA derived AF was explained by WC at baseline, WC and BMI at follow-up, respectively. This study suggests that WC could be a good predictor of AF for Korean pre-menopausal women.
Objective: The objective of this study was to observe the variation of energy intake and energy expenditure in the obese Chinese children. Methods: Basic metabolic rate was measured by using open-circuit indirect calo- rimetry in 54 obese children and 60 non-obese children aged 10-12 years in a full- time boarding school in Guangzhou suburb, China. Total energy expenditure was estimated by using a factorial method. Dietary intake was surveyed by the weighed inventory method. Physical activity was determined using a 2-day activity diary. Results: Univariate analysis showed that basic metabolic rate was significantly higher (p<0.05) in obese children than in non-obese ones, but the significant difference disappeared after controlling for fat free mass and fat mass. Energy intake and total energy expenditure were significantly higher (p<0.05) in obese than in non-obese chil- dren. Obese children spent more time in sleeping and light physical activity, but less time in moderate physical activity and vigorous physical activity than non-obese children (p<0.05). Conclusions: Compared to non-obese children, both energy intake and expenditure were higher in obese Chinese children. It appears that an area for preventive strategies may be to encourage increased physical activity expenditure in this age group.
The benefits of exclusive breastfeeding for health in infants have been widely described. The goal of this study was to determine whether partial breastfeeding has protective effects against enteric infection and associated morbidity in population where early addition of supplementation is common. In this prospective study 238 Bed- ouin infants were followed from birth to age 18 months. Exclusive breastfeeding was protective against infection and morbidity at ages 0 to 3 months. In the age range of 4 to 6 months, partial versus non breastfeeding was as- sociated with lower rates of infection with Cryptosporidium spp (Odds Ratio OR 0.34, 95% confidence interval CI 0.18; 0.65), and Campylobacter spp (OR 0.58, CI 0.35; 0.98), lower rates of ear infections (OR 0.47, CI 0.24; 0.90) and of asthma (OR 0.33, CI 0.13; 0.81). In older children (10-12 month age range) partial breastfeeding as compared to none, protected against infections with Cryptosporidium spp (OR 0.57, CI 0.36; 0.91) and Giardia lamblia (OR 0.92, CI 0.85; 0.99). In Bedouins, and possibly in other populations, even partial breastfeeding, es- pecially at ages 4 to 6 months offers protection against infection. Thus, encouraging mothers to continue to at least partially breastfeed past age 3 months may help reduce infections and morbidity in infants.