The present research investigated the enrichment of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graceum) seed substrate with phenolic antioxidants and L-DOPA via fungal-based solid-state bioconversion (SSB) system. This approach us- ing food grade fungus Rhizopus oligosporus, was chosen because it has been demonstrated to be effective in other seed and food substrates for improving health-relevant functionality and has long history of use for food processing in Asia. The protein content and β-glucosidase activity of the substrate which reflects fungal growth, increased with incubation time in conjunction with enhanced phenolic content and also suggested its possible in- volvement in phenolic mobilization. The antioxidant activity assayed by β-carotene bleaching and DPPH free radical scavenging methods both indicated high activity during early growth stage (days 4-6) followed by re- duced activity during later growth stage (days 8-20). A direct association between higher phenolic contents dur- ing early growth stage (days 4-6) and antioxidant activity suggested a link to mobilization of polymeric and hy- drophobic phenolic forms. The L-DOPA content of the fenugreek extract fluctuated during the course of biocon- version with higher levels during days 6-10 (1.5-1.7 mg/g DW). The SSB process substantially improved the in vitro porcine α-amylase inhibition activity by 75 % on day 4 which correlated to higher levels of total phenolics and related antioxidant activity of the extracts. The high α-amylase inhibitory activity also coincided with high L-DOPA content on day 6. These results have implications for diet-based diabetes management. The same bio- conversion stage had Helicobacter pylori inhibitory activity, which has implications for ulcer management.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of purple sweet potato leaves (PSPLs) consumption on antioxida- tive status and its modulation of that status in basketball players during training period. Fifteen elite basketball players were enrolled in this study. The seven-week study consisted of a run-in (week 1), PSPLs diet (daily con- sumption of 200 g PSPLs) (weeks 2, 3), washout (weeks 4, 5), and control diet (low polyphenol, with the amount of carotenoids adjusted to the same level as that of PSPLs) (weeks 6, 7). Blood and urine samples were taken for biochemical analysis. Compared with the control group, the results showed that PSPLs consumption led to a sig- nificant increase of plasma polyphenol concentration and vitamin E and C levels. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) lag time was significantly longer in the PSPLs group. A significant decrease of urinary 8-hydroxy-2- deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was noted; however, there was no significant change in plasma glutathione (GSH), to- tal antioxidant status (TAS) and malondialdehyde + 4-hydroxy-2(E)-nonenal level after consuming the PSPLs diet. In conclusion, consumption of PSPLs diet for 2 weeks may reduce lipid and DNA oxidation that can modu- late the antioxidative status of basketball players during training period.
Objective: To examine the trends in body mass index (BMI) of Saudi male adolescents between 1988 and 1996. Methods: The data set came from three major population-based cross sectional studies. They all involve nation- ally representative samples and were conducted between 1988 and 1996. BMI was calculated from body height and mass and plotted at the 50th and 90th percentiles.
Results: BMI of Saudi adolescents progressively increased at both 50th and 90th percentiles between 1988 and 1996. The increases in BMI during the eight-year period ranged from 9.6 to 10.8% at the 50th percentiles and from 10.9 to 13.9% at the 90th percentiles. At ages 15-18 years, the yearly increase in median BMI from 1988 to 1996 averaged 0.246 kg/m2.
Conclusion: The rising trends in BMI between 1988 and 1996 are indication of increasing obesity among Saudi male adolescents. More attention to the promotion of healthy nutrition and physical activity throughout child- hood and adolescence is required.
We have previously found a positive association between milk consumption and prostate cancer risk using meta- analysis to analyze published case-control studies. In the present study, further meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the summary relative risk (RR) between the consumption of milk and dairy products and prostate cancer from cohort studies published between 1966- 2006. We found 18 relevant articles and 13 independent studies were available for our analysis. The summary RR was 1.13 (95% confidence interval = 1.02-1.24) when compar- ing the highest with the lowest quantile of consumption. The summary RRs by study stratification showed a posi- tive association. A dose-response relationship was identified when combining the studies that partitioned the con- sumption by quintiles. We also evaluated the effects of some limitations, such as dairy classification, prostate cancer stages and publication bias, in the present study. These findings, together with the previous study, suggest that the consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk of prostate cancer. This is biologically plausi- ble since milk contains considerable amounts of fat, hormones, and calcium that are associated with prostate can- cer risk.
A case-control study was conducted to investigate the association between the consumption of local common foods that are rich in vitamin A and the risk of lung cancer in Taiwan. A total of 301 incident lung cancer cases, 602 hospital controls, and 602 neighborhood controls were recruited. The consumption of 13 food items and vi- tamin supplements was estimated by use of a food frequency questionnaire. The conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk with each control group as reference by adjustment of covariates. A reduced risk for lung cancer was found to be associated with increased intakes of vitamin A, α-carotene, and β-carotene from 13 food items. More serv- ings of vegetables (AOR for the highest versus the lowest quartile = 0.67-0.70, 95% CI = 0.42-1.08, plinear trend = 0.04), garland chrysanthemum (AOR for the highest versus the lowest tertile = 0.58-0.74, 95% CI = 0.37-1.14, plinear trend ≤ 0.04) and sweet potato leaves (AOR for the highest versus the lowest tertile = 0.43-0.65, 95% CI = 0.28-0.96, plinear trend ≤ 0.03) were associated with the reduced risk for lung cancer. In conclusion, higher con- sumption of vitamin A-rich vegetables, especially garland chrysanthemum and sweet potato leaves might provide potential protection from lung cancer.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the short-term effectiveness of our individual-based counseling program and tools among individuals in ordinary Japanese communities with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and mild type 2 diabetes. A total of 233 eligible participants (age 30-69 years) in 14 local study centers were randomly assigned to an intervention group (INT, N=119) and a control group (CONT, N=114). During the 4-month intervention, the INT received 4 individual counseling sessions and one reminder on life style modification. The CONT re- ceived only an explanation of blood test results and general information on diabetes. Baseline characteristics did not differ significantly between groups. Percentages of participants with desirable changes in glycemic level and weight were significantly higher in INT than CONT: fasting plasma glucose reduction of more than 10 mg/dL (39% in INT vs. 26% in CONT, p=0.045), hemoglobinA1c reduction greater than 0.3% (14% vs. 4%, p=0.01), and weight reduction of more than 4 kg (13% vs. 4%, p=0.025). Decreases in total energy intake and percentage of heavy alcohol drinkers (more than 46 g/day) were significantly greater in INT than CONT. The increase in percentages of participants who engaged in leisure time physical activity more than 12 times per month was sig- nificantly greater in INT than CONT. Our program resulted in life style modification and glycemic level im- provement in the short-term among individuals with IFG and mild type 2 diabetes. Results indicated that the pro- gram was sufficiently effective and feasible for implementation in ordinary communities.
Data on dietary exposure to vitamin E by plasma or adipose tissue concentrations of α-tocopherol (α-T) in ob- servational studies have failed to provide consistent support for the idea that α-T provides women with any pro- tection from breast cancer. In contrast, studies indicate that α, γ, and δ-tocotrienols but not α-T have potent anti- proliferative effects in human breast cancer cells. Our aim was to investigate whether there was a difference in tocopherol and tocotrienol concentrations in malignant and benign adipose tissue, in a Malaysian population consuming predominantly a palm oil diet. The study was undertaken using fatty acid levels in breast adipose tis- sue as a biomarker of qualitative dietary intake of fatty acids. The major fatty acids in breast adipose tissue of patients (benign and malignant) were oleic acid (45-46%), palmitic (28-29%) and linoleic (11-12%). No differ- ences were evident in the fatty acid composition of the two groups. There was a significant difference (p=0.006) in the total tocotrienol levels between malignant (13.7 ± 6.0 μg/g) and benign (20±6.0 μg/g) adipose tissue sam- ples. However, no significant differences were seen in the total tocopherol levels (p=0.42) in the two groups. The study reveals that dietary intake influences adipose tissue fatty acid levels and that adipose tissue is a dynamic reservoir of fat soluble nutrients. The higher adipose tissue concentrations of tocotrienols in benign patients pro- vide support for the idea that tocotrienols may provide protection against breast cancer.
Aim: To test the efficacy of a multiple micronutrient fortified salt in improving the micronutrient status and health of school children and its effect on cognition.
Methods: A salt fortified with multiple micronutrients was developed containing chelated ferrous sulphate, microencapsulated vitamin A, B1, B2, B6, B12, folic acid, niacin, calcium pantothenate and iodine. The efficacy of the fortified salt was assessed in 7-11 year old school children in Chennai, India. In the experimental group (N=63), the food in the school kitchen was cooked with the fortified salt for a period of one year. The control group (N=66) consisted of day scholars who did not eat at the school. Hemoglobin, red blood cell count, hema- tocrit, serum vitamin A, urinary iodine and prevalence of angular stomatitis were measured at baseline and at the end of the study after one year. A battery of 7 memory tests (The personal information test, the Mann-Suiter Vis- ual memory screen for objects, The digit span forward test, The digit span backward test, The delayed response test, The Benton Visual Retention Test and The Cattells retentivity test), one test for attention and concentration (Letter cancellation test) and one test for intelligence (Raven’s coloured progressive matrices) were administered to all the children at baseline and endline.
Results: There was a significant (p<0.05) improvement in the experimental group in hemoglobin, red cell count, urinary iodine and serum vitamin A whereas in the control group there was a statistically significant decline (p<0.05) in hemoglobin, hematocrit, red cell count and urinary iodine. Angular stomatitis was eliminated from baseline 30.4% in the experimental group whereas it increased from 3.25% to 25.5% in the control group. In 4 tests out of the 7 memory tests and in the letter cancellation test for attention, the mean increment in scores in the experimental group is significantly more (p<0.05) than the control group. There was no significant improvement in overall intelligence as seen in the Ravens progressive matrices between the experimental and control groups. Conclusion: The study shows that the multiple micronutrient fortified salt is effective in improving multiple mi- cronutrient status and cognition in children.
There is empirical evidence at the national level that suggests the 1999 Indonesian economic crisis impact was very heterogeneous both between urban and rural areas and across regions. A cross sectional study of the nutri- tional status of children and its determinants was performed in urban poor areas of Jakarta, and rural areas of Banggai in Central Sulawesi, and Alor-Rote in East Nusa Tenggara. Two-stage cluster sampling was used to ob- tain 1078 households with under-five children in the urban poor area of Jakarta, and 262 and 631 households with under-five children each for the rural areas of Banggai and Alor-Rote, respectively. Data collection for both studies was performed from January 1999 to June 2001. The study shows that wasting affected more children in the urban poor areas of Jakarta than in the other study areas. On the other hand, stunting and anemia were sig- nificantly more severe among children 6-59 months of age in the rural area of Alor-Rote compared to the other study areas. The high prevalence of infectious diseases was significantly related to the higher prevalence of wasting in the study areas of Jakarta and Banggai, and also significantly related to the higher prevalence of stunt- ing and anemia in the study area of Alor-Rote. To avert this kind of health impact of a economic downturn, there is a need to improve the nutritional and health status of under-five children and their mothers through the exist- ing health care system, provide basic health services and improve the capacity of health staff across Indonesia as part of the decentralization process.
Anemia is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency during pregnancy. Except for a study conducted 10 years ago in Kelantan, Malaysia’s available statistics are based on isolated small urban maternity hospital studies from the 1980s. There was therefore, a need for a large study at national level to estimate the magnitude of the problem in the country as well as to understand its epidemiology. This multi-center, cross-sectional study was conducted from February to March 2005, to assess the prevalence of anemia. Multistage stratified random sampling tech- nique was used and 59 Ministry of Health (MOH) primary health care clinics were selected. Our final dataset consisted of 1,072 antenatal mothers from 56 clinics. The overall prevalence of anemia in this population was 35 % (SE 0.02) if the cut off level is 11 g/dL and 11 % (SE 0.03) if the cut-off level is 10 g/dL. The majority was of the mild type. The prevalence was higher in the teenage group, Indians followed by Malays and Chinese being the least, grandmultiparas, the third trimester and from urban residence. After multiple linear regression analysis, only gestational age remained significant. These findings are useful for our Maternal Health program planners and implementers to target and evaluate interventions. Work is in progress for outcomes and cost-effectiveness studies to best tackle this problem. In conclusion, the prevalence of anemia is 35% and mostly of the mild type and more prevalent in the Indian and Malays.
In two remote northern provinces of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, provincial and district teams were trained and subsequently conducted a qualitative study using a participatory approach to investigate people’s knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices in relation to women’s and children’s nutrition. Using focus group discussions, key informant interviews, and structured observation, the teams found that certain nutrition behav- iours, including food taboos, may contribute to the high prevalence of child malnutrition and micronutrient defi- ciencies in these northern provinces. Ethnic groups gave details of nutrition-related beliefs and practices; the teams found that many of these are likely to be amenable to change through relatively low-cost nutrition promo- tion informed by these findings. In particular, barriers to exclusive breastfeeding, food taboos and hygiene be- haviour could be addressed. The study also demonstrated that with appropriate training, supervision and support, local teams are able to plan and conduct a large-scale qualitative study.
Palm oil is shown to have antioxidant, anticancer and cholesterol lowering effects. It is resistant to oxidation when heated compared to other frying oils such as soy oil. When a frying oil is heated repeatedly, it forms toxic degradation products, such as aldehydes which when consumed, may be absorbed into the systemic circulation. We have studied the effects of taking soy or palm oil that were mixed with rat chow on the bone histomor- phometric parameters of ovariectomised rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into eight groups: (1) normal control group; (2) ovariectomised-control group; (3) ovariectomised and fresh soy oil; (4) ovariec- tomised and soy oil heated once; (5) ovariectomised and soy oil heated five times; (6) ovariectomised and fresh palm oil; (7) ovariectomised and palm oil heated once; (8) ovariectomised and palm oil heated five times. These oils were mixed with rat chow at weight ratio of 15:100 and were given to the rats daily for six months. Ovariec- tomy had caused negative effects on the bone histomorphometric parameters. Ingestion of both fresh and once- heated oils, were able to offer protections against the negative effects of ovariectomy, but these protections were lost when the oils were heated five times. Soy oil that was heated five times actually worsens the histomor- phometric parameters of ovariectomised rats. Therefore, it may be better for postmenopausal who are at risk of osteoporosis to use palm oil as frying oil especially if they practice recycling of frying oils.
Cardiovascular disease has become the first cause of death in Indonesia. The highest morbidity is found in the aged, and among cardiovascular disorders or diseases, the prevalence of hypertension is the highest. Many stud- ies of the relationship between nutritional factors and hypertension have been conducted, especially with refer- ence to the metabolic syndrome, but studies to understand determinants of blood pressure in Indonesia are lack- ing. There is an urgent need to gather information about various blood pressure risk factors in Indonesian elderly, which will allow policy makers to provide appropriate intervention programs. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate various determinants of blood pressure in Indonesian elderly who differed in body composi- tion. A cross sectional study was undertaken in Jakarta on 556 elderly using multistage random sampling. Data were collected through interview using structured questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, biochemical blood analysis, and blood pressure measurements. Daily nutrient intake was analyzed using the World Food 2 Dietary Assessment Program. General Linear Model and Multiple linear regression analysis were performed to determine determinants of systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Monounsaturated fatty acid, saturated fatty acid, and sodium intake, plasma total cholesterol level, the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol and a sport Index were determinants of blood pressure in the normal weight elderly individuals, while potassium intake, cal- cium intake and BMI were determinants of blood pressure in the overweight elderly individuals.
The objective of this study was to evaluate whether continuous enteral supplementation of L-arginine can stimu- late intestinal adaptation in a rat model of short bowel syndrome (SBS). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were ran- domly divided into three groups of 10 each: Sham rats underwent bowel transaction and received continuous en- teral nutrition (Control group, Con group), SBS rats underwent 75% small bowel resection and received continu- ous enteral nutrition (SB group), and SBS rats underwent 75% bowel resection and received continuous enteral nutrition supplemented with L-arginine (300mg/Kg/d) (SB-Arg group). Fat absorbability, plasma free fatty acids, parameters of intestinal adaptation, enterocyte proliferation and apoptosis were determined on day 15 after opera- tion. After massive small bowel resection, rats had significant bowel adaptation. Compared with SB untreated rats, SB rats supplemented with L-arginine demonstrated a significant increase in fat absorbability, plasma level of free fatty acids, ileal mucosal weight and DNA content, jejunal and ileal mucosal protein content, jejunal and ileal villus length, crypt depth and mucosal thickness. L-arginine supplementation increased enterocyte proliferation, while decreasing enterocyte apoptosis. We suggest that after massive small bowel resection, continuous enteral supplementation of L-arginine can stimulate intestinal adaptation. L-arginine may be a trophic factor to stimulate intestinal adaptation in rats of SBS.
A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in all states of Malaysia with the aim to determine the prevalence of obesity among Malaysians aged fifteen years and above and factors associated. A stratified two- stage cluster sampling design with proportional allocation was used. Trained interviewers using a standardized protocol obtained the weight and height measurements and other relevant information. Subjects with a body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2 were labelled as obese. The results show that the overall national prevalence of obesity among Malaysians aged 15 years old and above was 11.7% (95% CI = 11.1 - 12.4%). The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher in females (13.8%) as compared to 9.6% in males (p< 0.0001). Prevalence of obesity was highest amongst the Malays (13.6%) and Indians (13.5%) followed by the indigenous group of “Sarawak Bumiputra” (10.8%) and the Chinese (8.5%). The indigenous group of “Sabah Bumiputra” had the lowest preva- lence of 7.3%. These differences are statistically significant (p< 0.0001). Logistic regression analysis results show that there was a significant association between obesity and age, gender, ethnicity urban/rural status and smoking status. The prevalence of obesity amongst those aged ≥ 18 years old has markedly increased by 280% since the last National Health and Morbidity Survey in 1996. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of obesity in Malaysia is very high as compared to 1996. There is an urgent need for a comprehensive integrated population- based intervention program to ameliorate the growing problem of obesity in Malaysians.
This study was designed to obtain baseline data regarding self-reported body image, attitudes toward overweight people, and dietary behaviors of normal-weight and obese women in Taiwan. Fifty obese women (BMI ≧ 27) and age-matched normal-weight women participated in this study. Written questionnaires were used for data col- lection. Simple frequency and t-test were used to analyze data. In general, the majority of normal-weight women perceived themselves as being heavier than their actual body weight. The normal-weight group had more high inaccurate images of their bodies than that of the obese group (72% vs. 24%). Obese and normal-weight women had similar attitudes to overweight people, but some of their attitudes showed significant differences. Obese women would prefer to consume more fried foods and drink sugar-containing foods than would normal-weight women (p < 0.05). Education about accurate perceptions of what is normal weight for women and adopting en- ergy-diluted foods for obese women is needed in the future.
The study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of obesity in Taiwanese aborigines and to identify the associ- ated factors. Data for this study were from the “2001 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS)” that conducted in-home, face-to-face, interviews on 6,592 households (26,658 persons) of a national probability sample in Tai- wan. Aborigine-dense mountainous areas are over-sampled. BMI values were used to indicate obesity status. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine the significance of the association of the variables with the obesity status. Results showed that approximately 10.5% of aboriginal men and 14.5% of women compared to 4.1% and 3.5% of their non-aboriginal counterparts were obese (BMI > 30). An additional 45.1% of aboriginal men and 33.3% of women compared to 27.6% and 17.7% of their non-aboriginal counterparts were overweight (BMI 25-30). Regression analyses revealed few associations with increased risk of obesity in the aborigines. However, the aborigines and non-aborigines were distinctly different from each other in socio-economic status, lifestyle, environmental factors and attitude toward obesity. Results indicate that obesity is more prevalent among the aborigines but the causal reasons are not apparent. The public health authorities should develop more culturally appropriate community-based intervention strategies to promote the health of the aborigines.
Between July 2004 and June 2005, a cross-sectional study was performed to determine the prevalence and pat- terns of anti-obesity medicine use among subjects seeking obesity treatment in Taiwan. Eighteen obesity outpa- tient clinics were selected via a random stratified sampling method and 1,060 first-visit clients (791 females and 269 males) aged above 18 years were enrolled and then completed a self-administered questionnaire. The preva- lence of anti-obesity medicine use was 50.8%; more females than male used anti-obesity medicines (53.6% vs. 42.4%). Of the 1,060 subjects, 17.1% had used orlistat, 21.1% had taken sibutramine, and 18.3% had utilized un- proven drugs such as cocktail therapy and other anti-obesity drugs. Furthermore, 23.6% and 22.4% of subjects indicated that they concurrently used Chinese herbal preparations and dietary supplements, respectively. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that the odds ratio (OR) for anti-obesity medicine use was substantially higher in females (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.3-2.6), those aged 18-24 years (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.0-2.6), those with a body mass index (BMI) >35 kg/m2 (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 2.1-5.7) and respondents concurrently using Chinese herbal prepara- tions (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.4) and dietary supplements (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.6-3.1). In conclusion, the preva- lence of anti-obesity drugs use is high among Taiwanese adults before they seek obesity treatment. Young, obese females, and those who had taken Chinese herbal preparations/dietary supplements had a high likelihood to report using anti-obesity medicines. Use of unproven weight-loss drugs is common and warrants further investigation.
Introduction: Despite long standing iodine supplementation in Iran the prevalence of goiter remains high in some areas. This may suggest that causes other than iodine deficiency, such as autoimmune thyroid diseases, should also be considered. We therefore assessed the prevalence of anti-thyroid antibodies in children living in an inland area in Iran and correlated these findings with prevalence of goiter within this region.
Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 1948 students were selected by multistage random cluster sampling from the 108 primary schools (age, 7-13 year-old) of the urban and rural areas of Semirom. After obtaining written consent from their parents, the children were examined by endocrinologists for goiter grading. Grade 2 goitrous children (108 cases) were compared with non-goitrous children (111 children as control group) for anti-thyroid antibodies. Results: Overall, 36.7% of 1948 students had goiter. The mean urinary iodine excretion level was 1.49±0.7 μmol/L. This was within normal limits. Of 219 children studied, 4.3% presented with subclinical hypothyroidism, and 7.3% had positive anti-thyroid antibodies. There was non-significant difference of positive thyroperoxidase antibody (anti-TPO) (Odds Ratio= 3.2, p= 0.13) but significant difference of anti Tg between goitrous and non goitrous children (Odds Ratio: 5.6, 95% CI: 1.18-26.0, p: 0.015).
Conclusion: This study suggests that autoimmunity may be one of the mechanisms responsible for goiter persis- tence after iodine replenishment in this iodine deficient region, but the role of other factors should also be consid- ered.
Fruit and vegetable consumption has been inversely associated with the risk of chronic diseases including cancer and cardiovascular disease, with the beneficial effects attributed to a variety of protective antioxidants, carote- noids and phytonutrients. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of supplementation with dehydrated concentrates from mixed fruit and vegetable juices (Juice Plus+®) on serum antioxidant and folate status, plasma homocysteine levels and markers for oxidative stress and DNA damage. Japanese subjects (n=60; age 27.8 yrs; BMI 22.1) were recruited to participate in a double-blind placebo controlled study and were ran- domized into 2 groups of 30, matched for sex, age, BMI and smoking status (39 males, 22 smokers; 21 females, 13 smokers). Subjects were given encapsulated supplements containing mixed fruit and vegetable juice concen- trates or a matching placebo for 28 days, with blood and urine samples collected at baseline, day 14 and day 28 for analytical testing. Compared with the placebo, 28 day supplementation significantly increased the concentra- tion of serum beta-carotene 528% (p<0.0001), lycopene 80.2% (p<0.0005), and alpha tocopherol 39.5% (p<0.0001). Serum folate increased 174.3% (p<0.0001) and correlated with a decrease in plasma homocysteine of -19.9% (p<0.03). Compared with baseline, measures of oxidative stress decreased with serum lipid peroxides de- clining -10.5% (p<0.02) and urine 8OHdG decreasing -21.1% (p<0.02). Evaluation of data from smokers only (n=17) after 28 days of active supplementation showed comparable changes. Conclusion: In the absence of die- tary modification, supplementation with the fruit and vegetable juice concentrate capsules proved to be a highly bioavailable source of phytonutrients. Important antioxidants were elevated to desirable levels associated with decreased risk of disease while markers of oxidative stress were reduced, and folate status improved with a con- comitant decrease in homocysteine, and these benefits occurred to a similar extent in smokers when compared to non-smokers.
Objective: The antioxidant activity of vitamin E is derived primarily from alpha-tocopherol (α-T) and gamma- tocopherol (γ-T). Results of epidemiological studies have demonstrated an inverse relationship between vitamin E intake and coronary disease. However, the results of clinical trials using α-T are equivocal. We determined the effect of 5 weeks of 100 mg/d or 200 mg/d γ-T supplementation on thrombotic markers such as platelet reactiv- ity, lipid profile and the inflammation marker C-reactive protein (CRP).
Methods and results: Fourteen healthy subjects consumed 100 mg/day while 13 consumed 200 mg/d of γ-T and 12 received placebo (soybean capsules with less than 5 mg/d γ-T) in a double-blinded parallel study design. Fast- ing pre and post dose blood samples were analysed. Blood γ-T concentrations increased significantly (p<0.05) relative to dose during the intervention period. Both groups receiving active ingredients showed significantly lower platelet activation after supplementation (p<0.05). Subjects consuming 100 mg/d γ-T had significantly de- creased LDL cholesterol, platelet aggregation and mean platelet volume (MPV) (p<0.05). Little effect of γ-T was observed on other parameters.
Conclusions: These data suggest that γ-T supplementation may have a permissive role in decreasing the risk of thrombotic events by improving lipid profile and reducing platelet activity.
Objectives: This study was carried out to examine whether serum triglyceride concentrations were decreased by administration of n–3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)/γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD) complex-containing capsules as reported previously with n–3 PUFA without γ-CD.
Study Design: A placebo-controlled double-blind study with healthy subjects (n=35) and hypertriglyceridemic subjects (n=7) of 35-66 years of age was performed. The subjects were randomized to a group (n–3 group) sup- plemented with n–3 PUFA/γ-CD-containing capsules (660 mg EPA + 280 mg DHA/day) or a control group sup- plemented with capsules containing essentially no n–3 PUFA for 8 weeks with stratification by sex, age, and se- rum triglyceride levels in a double blind manner. Fasting blood samples were obtained at the start of administra- tion and 4 and 8 weeks afterward.
Results: EPA concentrations in the total phospholipid fraction of red blood cells increased significantly in all subjects in the n–3 group, whereas no changes were seen in the control group. Triglyceride levels were signifi- cantly decreased (–17%) in the n–3 group compared with the control group at week 8. The following serum lip- ids did not significantly change over time: total-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Only two subjects in the n–3 group guessed at the end of the study that their capsules were active.
Conclusion: n–3 PUFA/γ-CD complex lowered triglyceride levels in normal and slightly hypertriglyceridemic subjects. There was a possibility that γ-CD might at least partly cover the smell and aftertaste of fish oil.
A randomized double blind clinical trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of a special infant formula con- taining Lactobacillus rhamnosus LMG P-22799 (probiotic: 5 x 108 CFU/100mL), inulin (prebiotic: 0.15 g/100mL), dietary fiber (soy polysaccharides: 0.2 g/100mL) and increased amounts of zinc+iron (+0.4 and +0.6 mg/100mL, respectively) as active ingredients for the early dietary management of 58 Indonesian well-nourished male infants aged 3-12 months suffering from acute diarrhea with moderate dehydration. After adequate oral re- hydration, the patients were randomly assigned to receive either a low lactose infant formula supplemented with added precooked rice (1.5 g/100mL) with the above active ingredients (study group) or a low lactose infant for- mula with added precooked rice without the above active ingredient supplement (control group). No antibiotic, anti-secretory drug or antiemetic was given at all. Both study and control groups showed similar outcomes for weight gain and stool weight. The duration of diarrhea was significantly shorter in the study group than in the control group (1.63 versus 2.45 days; p<0.05; for the study and control group, respectively). No treatment failure or other side effects were observed during the course of the study. The present study supports the evidence for the efficacy of a special anti-diarrhea infant formula containing probiotic, prebiotic, fiber and iron+zinc after oral rehydration by shortening the duration of infantile diarrhea in developing countries. However, from the results of our study we cannot discern the individual contribution of the active ingredients and also not whether they may act independent from each other or in a synergistic way.
Our aim was to determine the relationship between body fat percentage (BF%) and body mass index (BMI) and to evaluate the validity of World Health Organisation’s BMI cut-off values for obesity. Adult out-patients (n=909, 249 men, 660 women), mean age; 40.5 ± 14.1 years were included. According to WHO’s BMI criteria, 440 sub- jects were obese (79 men, 361 women). The BF% of participants were measured using a bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) system (TANITA). Randomly selected 30 patients were also subjected to the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) procedure for evaluation of the validity of TANITA measurements. The BF% results ob- tained by DEXA and TANITA revealed good correlation (r =0.952, p= 0.382). There was a positive correlation between BF% and BMI (p<0.001) for both methods. Cut-off values for BMI were calculated as 28.0 kg/m2 for women, 28.2 kg/m2 for men, if obesity was defined as BF ≥ 25% in men, ≥ 35% in women according to WHO’s criteria. Using the new cut-off values, the frequency of obesity increased up to 33.9% in our group. The increase was more pronounced in men (67.1% vs 26.6%).The WHO cut-off values underestimated the frequency of obe- sity in this population. Further studies are warranted for different ethnic groups.
When an infant is brought home to the family, it is often a time of emotional, economic and physical stress due to the extra demands placed on parents. Household food security means “access at all times to enough and nutri- tionally appropriate food to provide the energy and nutrients needed to maintain an active and healthy life”. Questions about food security were asked of 1376 Pacific Island mothers (as part of the Pacific Island Family Study) approximately six weeks after the birth of their baby. Due to lack of money food sometimes ran out in 39.8% of households and in a further 3.8% food often ran out. Variety of foods was limited by lack of money in 39.3%. Foods that were still bought when money was limited included bread (97%), milk (95%), meat and chicken (91%), vegetables and fruit (83%), rice or pasta (82%), breakfast cereals (69%), fish or shellfish (50%) and biscuits or chips (44%). Alcohol (1%), soft drinks (11%), ice cream (12%) and fruit juice (21%) were the least often bought. Energy density (MJ/kg) and nutrient-density of typical foods limited by lack of money were analysed. Rice, bread and fatty meats provided the most calories per dollar and fruit and vegetables the least. The best protein-value for money was from minced beef, chicken and tinned tuna and the most fibre-rich foods included baked beans and mixed vegetables. Food security is a major problem for Pacific families. The envi- ronment of food availability, choice and cost requires attention to help close the health gap.