Collecting dietary data in the clinical research setting is labour intensive and can be burdensome for study participants. The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between data obtained from 2 different dietary assessment methods, a 74-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 3-day weighed food records (WFR) used to estimate dietary intake over the preceding month. One hundred and fifty nine subjects, aged between 31 and 74 years (53 males, 65 females), enrolled in a clinical trial at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Division of Health Sciences and Nutrition, (CSIRO HSN) Adelaide, Australia. Group mean intakes and individual mean intakes estimated by the two measures were compared. One hundred and eighteen (91%) three-day WFR and their corresponding FFQ were analysed. Pearson correlation coefficients ranged from 0.22 for cholesterol to 0.78 for alcohol (median 0.41). Mean energy and nutrient intakes were within ± 20% difference. The FFQ gave lower carbohydrate intake estimates, percentage energy from carbohydrate (P <0.001) and dietary fibre (P <0.05) and gave higher percentage energy from saturated fat estimates, poly-unsaturated fatty acids (P <0.001) and mono-unsaturated fatty acids (P <0.05). Subjects were also ranked into quintiles and the quintiles cross-tabulated. The FFQ classified more than two thirds of the subjects within ±1 quintile difference for all nutrients. We conclude that this FFQ can capture similar information as WFR and may be used for estimation of dietary intakes over a relatively short time in clinical intervention trials.
This study evaluated the nutritional status of residents in the Riyadh nursing home, using anthropometric and haematological measurements. All male residents (N=84; age range 24-80 years) in the Riyadh nursing home were included in the study. Weight, height, body mass index, triceps skin fold thickness, and mid-arm muscle circumference were measured. Furthermore, serum concentrations of albumin, haemoglobin and haematocrit were measured. About 13% of adult residents and 11% of elderly residents were considered to be underweight (body mass index <18.5 kg/m2). From estimations of fat mass in the periphery, using triceps skin fold thickness, it appears that the elderly residents had significantly lower fat mass compared to the adult residents (P <0.05). The results showed that more than 40% of residents had low mid-arm muscle circumference (<22.3 cm). Serum albumin concentration was significantly lower in the elderly group than in the adult group (P <0.01). No significant difference was found in haematocrit level between the adult and elderly residents. Within the adult group, about 38% of residents had low haemoglobin level (<12 mg/dl), and this proportion was even higher, about 55%, in elderly residents. Based on body mass index or albumin to determine the prevalence of malnutrition among residents, the results have shown that the prevalence of undernourished residents was not higher than the prevalence of undernourished nursing-home residents reported in other studies. The percentage of elderly residents with anaemia was appreciable. Thus, undernourished and anemic residents should have special dietary and medical attention. Early detection of malnutrition upon admission would lead to early intervention and thus to reduced complications and medical-treatment costs. Staff working in nursing homes should be aware of the nutritional guidelines for health and disease.
Several nutrition and non-nutritional pathways are recognised in the development and occurrence of cardiovascular disease. In many populations, high intakes of saturated fat are associated with elevated serum cholesterol concentrations and increased coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality. However, several studies report that hyperlipidaemia and heart diseases are not common among populations who consume coconut, a source of saturated fat. A case-control study was conducted among the Minangkabau known to be high coconut consumers to examine the difference in food patterns and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) between the coronary cases and their gender- and age-matched apparently healthy counterparts serving as controls. Eligible subjects with CHD were identified through the co-operation of five participating hospitals located in Padang and Bukittinggi in West Sumatra, Indonesia. A total of 93 eligible cases (62 men and 31 women) in the Case group and 189 subjects (113 men and 76 women) in the Control group were recruited. Information on the intakes of individual foods and dishes over the preceding 12 months was obtained using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The Case group had significantly higher intakes of meats, eggs, sugar, tea, coffee and fruits, but lower intakes of soy products, rice and cereals compared to the controls. Coconut consumption as flesh or milk was not different between cases and controls. The cases had significantly higher intakes of protein and cholesterol, but lower intake of carbohydrate. Similar intakes of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids between the cases and controls indicated that the consumption of total fat or saturated fat, including that from coconut, was not a predictor for CHD in this food culture. However, the intakes of animal foods, total protein, dietary cholesterol and less plant derived carbohydrates were predictors of CHD.
The objective of this study was to analyze the nutritional quality and viscosity of blenderized enteral tube feedings (BTFs) from four hospitals in the Philippines. Samples of two different BTFs (one standard and one modified) were collected from each hospital on three separate occasions and analyzed for macronutrients, micronutrients, and viscosity. There was considerable variation among the BTFs for the concentrations of most nutrients measured. For standard BTF samples, the caloric density ranged from 66-123 kcal/100g and the percentages of total weight for protein, carbohydrate, and fat ranged from 1.5-4.0%, 8.6-21.4%, and 0.27-3.40%, respectively. Levels of specific vitamins were undetectable in 10 standard and 15 modified BTF samples. In samples where vitamin levels were detectable, results were: vitamin A, 625-8850 IU/kg; riboflavin, 0.40-5.00 mg/kg; and pyridoxine, 0.14-3.00 mg/kg. Mineral concentrations also varied greatly (eg calcium, 64-524 mg/kg; sodium, 148-886 mg/kg; iron, 3.0-13.7 mg/kg; and zinc, 1.8- 11.5 mg/kg). Correlation coefficients were statis-tically significant only for carbohydrate (r = 0.48, P = 0.017). Measured values tended to be lower than expected values for all nutrients, although the difference was statistically significant only for calories (P = 0.023). The viscosity of BTF samples ranged from 2.3-45,060 centipoise, excluding three samples that were too viscous for analysis. This study demonstrates that hospital prepared blenderized enteral tube feedings render unpredictable levels of micronutrients and macronutrients and appear likely to deliver less than the desired amounts of nutrients. Additionally, the viscosity of these feedings may be unsuitable for infusion through feeding tubes.
The levels of lipid peroxidation products (TBARS), non-enzymatic antioxidants and enzymatic antioxidants activity were investigated in plasma and erythrocytes of twenty clinically diagnosed stage II papillary thyroid cancer patients and an equal number of age and sex matched healthy subjects. An increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation products, decrease in non-enzymatic antioxidants levels and enzymatic antioxidant activities in plasma and erythrocytes were detected in papillary thyroid cancer patients as compared to healthy subjects. Impairment in antioxidant defence mechanisms are responsible for enhanced lipid peroxidation observed in plasma and erythrocytes of papillary thyroid cancer patients.
The objective of this study was to determine the anti cancer effects of red spinach (Amaranthus gangeticus Linn) in vitro and in vivo. For in vitro study, microtitration cytotoxic assay was done using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-il)-2,5-diphenil tetrazolium bromide (MTT) kit assay. Results showed that aqueous extract of A gangeticus inhibited the proliferation of liver cancer cell line (HepG2) and breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). The IC50 values were 93.8 mg/ml and 98.8 mg/ml for HepG2 and MCF-7, respectively. The inhibitory effect was also observed in colon cancer cell line (Caco-2), but a lower percentage compared to HepG2 and MCF-7. For normal cell line (Chang Liver), there was no inhibitory effect. In the in vivo study, hepatocarcinogenesis was monitored in rats according to Solt and Farber (1976) without partial hepatectomy. Assay of tumour marker enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase (GST), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), uridyl diphosphoglucuronyl transferase (UDPGT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were carried out to determine the severity of hepatocarcinogenesis. The result found that supplementation of 5%, 7.5% and 10% of A. gangeticus aqueous extract to normal rats did not show any significant difference towards normal control (P <0.05). The exposure of the rats to chemical carcinogens diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) showed a significant increase in specific enzyme activity of GGT, GST, UDPGT and ALP compared to normal control (P <0.05). However, it was found that the supplementation of A. gangeticus aqueous extract in 5%, 7.5% and 10% to cancer-induced rats could inhibit the activity of all tumour marker enzymes especially at 10% (P <0.05). Supplementation of anti cancer drug glycyrrhizin at suggested dose (0.005%) did not show any suppressive effect towards cancer control (P <0.05). In conclusion, A. gangeticus showed anticancer potential in in vitro and in vivo studies.
Oregano (Origanum vulgare) is a rich source of natural phenolic antioxidants and has potential to be a source of nutritional ingredients for functional foods. Herbs such as oregano have long been used in food preservation and in traditional medicine in the treatment of common ailments and have potential for positive modulation of oxidation-linked diseases such as diabetes. One of the potentially important components of anti-diabetic activity by oregano extract is mild amylase inhibition by phenolic antioxidants to help contribute towards management of hyperglycemia. Previously, we reported the ability of rosmarinic acid, one of the principal phenolic components of oregano, to inhibit porcine pancreatic amylase (PPA) activity. Here, we investigated the effect of 50% ethanol extracts of eleven phenolic antioxidant-rich oregano clonal lines on the activity of PPA in vitro. To this end, we analyzed extract total soluble phenolic content by the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent method, rosmarinic acid (RA), protochatechuic acid (PA), quercetin, and p-coumaric acid (pCA) contents by HPLC, antioxidant activity as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, and PPA-inhibitory activity by incubation of the enzyme with clonal oregano extracts and characterization of the activity of the phenolic-bound enzyme. Clonal oregano extracts inhibited the activity of PPA in vitro by 9-57%. Amylase inhibition by oregano extract was associated with extract total phenolic content and RA, quercetin, PA, and pCA content, as well as extract antioxidant activity and protein content. Our finding that clonal oregano extracts can inhibit PPA supports a potential new functionality for oregano as a n anti-hyperglycemic agent. This provides an opportunity for a food-based strategy for modulation of starch breakdown to glucose, which could contribute to the management of hyperglycemia and diabetes complications in the long term.
Lifestyle and disease patterns in Malaysia have changed following rapid economic development. It is important to find out how these changes have affected the nutritional status and health behaviour of the population, especially school children and adolescents. Therefore a survey on school childrens' and adolescents' health behaviours and perception in Kuala Lumpur was initiated. This paper only reports the observed body mass status of the school children. A total of 3620 school children were selected in this survey using the method of multi-stage sampling. The students were surveyed using pre-tested questionnaires while weight and height were measured by the research team in the field. Using the cut-off of BMI-for-age > 95th percentile and <5th percentile for overweight and underweight respectively, there were a total of 7.3% of overweight students and 14.8% of underweight students. When analysed by gender; 7.5% of boys and 7.1% girls were overweight, while 16.2% of the boys and 13.3% of the girls were underweight. The youngest age group (11 years old) had the highest prevalence of underweight as well as overweight. With increasing age, the prevalence of underweight and overweight decreased and more children were in the normal weight range. The overall prevalence of overweight among the three ethnic groups was similar. However the prevalence of underweight was highest among the Indian students (24.9%), followed by Malays (18.9%) and Chinese (9.5%) (P <0.001). The results showed that both the problems of under- and over-nutrition co-exist in the capital city of Malaysia. The promotion of healthy eating and physical activities is required to address the problems of under- and over-nutrition in order to build up a strong and healthy nation in the future.
The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of anaemia, mean haematocrit levels, and the risk factors influencing haematocrit in participants of the 1995 National Survey of Lead in Children. A nationally-representative cross-sectional survey of children aged 1-4 years inclusive was done. Mean haematocrit and the proportion with anaemia using both the US and WHO haematocrit-based criteria were calculated. Multivariate regression was used to identify factors associated with haematocrit. Mean haematocrit level was 38.8% (95% CI: 38.6 - 39.1%) and varied with age of child, state/territory of residence and whether the child was taking supplements. It did not vary by sex, Aboriginal identification, maternal birthplace, whether the child ate meat or any other selected characteristic. The factors identified explained only 4% of the variation in haematocrit levels. The prevalence of anaemia was 3.3% (95% CI: 2.4 - 4.5%) based on the US criteria and 2.0% (95% CI: 1.3 - 3.1%) based on the WHO criteria. The prevalence of anaemia in this national survey was lower than the prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia reported in several more localised studies.
Although carotenoids are known to be important dietary sources of vitamin A, there have been few epidemi-ological studies that have characterized the serum concentrations of major dietary carotenoids among preschool children with vitamin A deficiency. We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study of serum pro-vitamin A carotenoids (a-carotene, ß-carotene, ß-cryptoxanthin), non-provitamin A carotenoids (lutein/ zeaxanthin, and lycopene), and retinol among 278 children, aged 1-5 y, in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Vitamin A deficiency was defined as serum retinol <0.70 µmol/L. Geometric mean serum concentrations of carotenoids among children with and without vitamin A deficiency were 0.003 vs 0.006 µmol/L for a-carotene (P = 0.0017), 0.011 vs 0.023 µmol/L for ß-carotene (P <0.0001), 0.023 vs 0.034 µmol/L for ß-cryptoxanthin (P = 0.0075), 0.007 vs 0.012 µmol/L for lycopene (P = 0.037), 0.044 vs 0.052 µmol/L for lutein/zeaxanthin (P = 0.2), and 0.045 vs 0.074 µmol/L for total provitamin A carotenoids (P <0.0001) respectively. In a multivariate analysis adjusting for sex, age (Odds Ratio [O.R.] 1.44, 95% confidence interval [C.I.] 1.16-1.78), and serum provitamin A carotenoids (O.R. 0.49, 95% C.I. 0.34-0.71) were associated with vitamin A deficiency, but serum non-provitamin A carotenoids were not associated with vitamin A deficiency (O.R. 0.93, 95% C.I. 0.67-1.28). Preschool children with vitamin A deficiency in the Republic of the Marshall Islands have extremely low serum concentrations of provitamin A carotenoids and interventions are needed to improve the dietary intake of provitamin A carotenoids among Marshallese children.
Childhood and adolescence is the period of most rapid skeletal growth in an individual's lifetime. A greater peak bone mass achieved in the first 2-3 decades of life, may protect against the risk of osteoporotic fracture in later life. The aim of this randomized, controlled study was to assess in pre-pubertal boys and girls (aged 8-10 years) the effect of 18 months of a calcium enriched, cocoa flavoured product on bone density, bone growth and bone size in New Zealand children. One hundred and fifty four pre-pubertal boys and girls (aged 8-10 years) were randomized to receive a high calcium dairy drink or a control drink reconstituted with water for 18 months. They were assessed at baseline and then every 6 months for the first 18 months, while they were having the supplement; they were then followed up 12 months after supplementation had finished. Bone mineral density and bone mineral content were assessed at the total body, hip and spine. Indicators of bone size (vertebral width and height) were also measured at the spine. Anthropometric data was collected, medical history questionnaires were administered (including the Tanner or pubertal stage questionaire), dietary calcium intake was assessed with a calcium food frequency questionnaire and calcium supplement compliance was determined. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups for bone mineral density or bone mineral content at any time point. There was no difference in vertebral height or width at any stage of the study, indicating no additional influence on bone size at the lumbar vertebrae. There were no significant differences between height, weight, lean mass or fat mass at any time point. Both groups had higher habitual calcium intakes than recommended for this age group going into the study and throughout the study. In this 2½ year study (18 months supplementation, 1 year follow-up) we did not observe a difference in bone mineral density in pre-pubertal children. This was probably due to their high habitual dietary calcium intake whereby minimal addition of calcium to the diet reached the threshold level where no further benefit was seen. There were no significant differences between the two groups in body composition. Growth and the mean height and weight remained between the 50th and 75th percentile for their age. We have shown calcium supplementation in children with high habitual dietary calcium intake appears not to have additional effects on bone mass. Calcium supplementation needs to be targeted in those children with low habitual dietary calcium intake.
Zinc and copper deficiency is associated with anaemia or iron deficiency and affects fetus growth and pregnant women during pregnancy. To examine iron, zinc and copper status of Chinese pregnant women with and without anaemia in the third trimester, 1185 subjects were enrolled for measurements of Hb, ferritin, transferrin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and serum iron, zinc and copper. The results showed that there were lower levels of ferritin (14.1 µg/L) and transferrin (3.33 g/L) in subjects with Hb=100g/L as compared with subjects with Hb=101g/L. sTfR levels in subjects with Hb=100g/L were significantly higher than those in subjects with Hb=120 g/L (38.5 nmol/L vs. 25.04 nmol/L, P<0.001). Serum iron was lower in subjects with Hb=100g/L than those with Hb=120 g/L (871mg/L vs. 990 mg/L, P<0.01). Lower levels of serum iron and zinc were also found in anaemic (Hb<110g/L) as compared with non-anaemic women (Hb=110g/L). Frequencies of marginal deficiencies in serum iron and zinc were 41.58% and 51.05% respectively higher in anaemic than in non-anaemic subjects. Distribution of serum zinc and iron showed a deceasing trend as Hb decreased. Few anaemic as well as non-anaemic subjects had copper deficiency although copper and Hb levels were found inversely correlated and the ratio of copper/iron was higher in anaemic than in non-anaemic group. In conclusion, a lower level of serum zinc in anaemic pregnant women might be related to anaemia and iron deficiency during pregnancy. Therefore, combined zinc and iron supplementation should be recommended to Chinese pregnant women, especially those with anaemia.
The effects of 4 weeks iron supplementation on haematological and immunological status were studied in 25 elite female soccer players aged 20-28 years. The subjects were randomized and assigned to one of the following two groups; subjects given 40 mg/day iron supplementation (S group) or those given placebo (C group). The oral iron
supplementation (40 mg elemental iron) was taken in 15 ml solution once a day by the S group, and the C group took a placebo for 4 weeks. Daily energy and protein intakes met the Korean Recommended Dietary Allowances. Blood haemoglobin concentration did not change in the S group, but decreased significantly (P<0.05) in the C group over the 4-week experimental period. Haematocrit, mean cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin and total iron binding capacity decreased significantly, and mean cell haemoglobin concentration increased significantly
(P<0.05) in both the S and C groups. Plasma ferritin concentration increased significantly (P<0.05) in the S group, but did not change in the C group. The change of plasma immunolgical parameters and erythrocyte anti-oxidative enzyme activities were almost the same between the S and C groups. These results suggest that 4 weeks of iron supplementation by elite female soccer players significantly increased body iron stores and inhibited decrease of
haemoglobin concentration induced by soccer training.
Calcium and vitamin D under nutrition can adversely affect the bone mineral metabolism. There is no population-based study from India documenting dietary habits, serum calcium and vitamin D levels. Our study investigated the dietary habits of rural and urban societies in and around Tirupati and their relationship with serum calcium, phosphorous and vitamin D [25(OH)D] levels. Four hundred and seven subjects from 5 villages around Tirupati, (rural population) and 125 asymptomatic staff of our hospital (urban population) were studied. Dietary intakes of calcium, phosphorous and phytates were documented by diet history. Serum calcium, phosphorus and 25 (OH) D levels were estimated in 191 rural subjects and 125 urban subjects. Compared to urban subjects, rural subjects had a significantly lower intake of dietary calcium (P <0.0001) and a significantly higher dietary phytate/calcium ratio and serum calcium and 25 (OH) D levels (P <0.0001). Dietary calcium intake was inadequate in both rural and urban subjects compared to the recommended daily allowances (RDA) for our country. About 31% of the population had normal vitamin D levels, 54% had vitamin D insufficiency and 15% vitamin D deficiency. About two-thirds of the population had low levels of vitamin D. Inadequate dietary calcium intake associated with high phytate/calcium ratio reduces the bioavailable calcium in the gut. Hence, there is a need to fortify food with calcium and to propose new guidelines for 25 (OH) D in Indian subjects. Multicentric studies with large sample populations are required to generate normal standards and nationally relevant guidelines.
The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of dietary and health supplement use among Australians aged 65 years and over, and to contrast the health differences between supplement users and non-supplement users. Data was obtained from 1,263 randomly selected older Australians, who provided general demographic data, in addition to information related to their health, symptoms experienced and uses of medication, including dietary supplements. Supplement use was reported by 43% of the sample (52% of females and 35% of males). This investigation has revealed distinct differences in the health profile of older supplement users compared to non-users. Although there was no difference in the number of visits to medical doctors or self-rated health status between supplement users and non-supplement users, supplement users were more likely to report arthritis and osteoporosis, and experience more symptoms and consume more medication than non-supplement users. In contrast, there was a reduced likelihood of taking a supplement for those with hypertension and by those using blood pressure medication and heart tablets. These results suggest that older dietary supplement users may benefit from education and professional advice to assist them make appropriate and informed choices, particularly if they expect these preparations to attenuate their health concerns.