Includes Joint ZAST/IUNS/WHO workshop " Current patterns and emerging challenges of nutrition cuisine and health" 14-17 October 2003, Hangzhou, China
The world's scientific community has recognized that isotopic techniques play a vital role in monitoring the effectiveness of nutrition intervention by providing precise data on absorption, bioavailablity and interaction of various micronutrients in a cost effective manner. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been supporting many such health related studies in Member States from developing countries using nuclear and isotopic methods for over 20 years. This report documents the Agency's support for a variety of projects in East Asia and Pacific countries to assess body composition, total energy expenditure, nutrient intake, osteoporosis, infection, vitamin and mineral bioavailability as well as food composition. The IAEA spent a total of 10,302,356 US dollars through Coordinated Research Projects (CRP) and Technical Cooperation Projects (TCP) over the past 20 years. Out of this only 2,732,802, US dollars or 26.5% was used by the East Asia and Pacific countries. While the participation of East Asia and Pacific countries was strong in CRPs and moderate in regional TCPs, they did not participate in national TCPs at all. The non-participation under national TCPs is a serious deficiency when compared with Latin American and African regions and therefore, more participation from the East Asia and Pacific countries in national TCPs is strongly encouraged in the future.
|Current models of the nutrition transition focus on demographic changes and economic development. A further influence may be the adoption of western-based perceptions of beauty that lead to potentially harmful eating behaviours which contribute to overweight, obesity, and eating disorders. This paper proposes a comprehensive model of the nutrition transition that includes western influences on perceived attractiveness and subsequent eating styles. An exploratory test of this model for Asian countries explores differences in intuitive eating as a function of economic development and the adoption of western standards of beauty. The intuitive eating scale (IES), a measure of food consumption that is primarily characterized by the satisfaction of physical hunger, was used to evaluate agreement with intuitive eating principles in the US and four Asian countries (Japan, Thailand, the Philippines, and China). Although intuitive eating scores in the US and Thailand failed to follow predicted patterns on two of the four IES subscales, scores for the other two IES subscales and the total IES score followed predicted patterns for Asian countries. Intuitive eating appears to be a valid, measurable concept that is correlated with economic development and levels of western influence in Asian countries. The tentative findings of this exploratory study support further evaluation of cultural influences as an important component of the nutrition transition.|
This study evaluated the intake of soy foods and soy isoflavones by rural adult women and potential determinant factors. Soy food consumption and information on age, education and medical history were collected on 1,188 subjects in Gansu Province and Hebei Province, China using a food frequency questionnaire to gather data on food intake over the past year. Weight and height were simultaneously measured. The results showed that 1139 (95.9%) rural women consumed soy foods in the past year. The average intake of soy foods and isoflavones was 38.7 +/- 58.2 (median = 23.5) g/d and 17.7 +/- 26.6 (median= 8.9) mg/d, respectively. Tofu accounted for the most contribution to their intake. The soy isoflavone intake ranged between 0-35 mg/day in 89.2% of subjects. Gansu women had higher intakes of soy foods and isoflavones than Henbei women (P< 0.05). Women aged 41-50 years consumed less soy foods and isoflavones than the 20-30-year olds and 31-40 year olds(P < 0.05). The intake of soy foods (P< 0.01) and isoflavones (P< 0.01) by women who experienced secondary education or above was significantly higher than illiterate women. Women without a medical history had a higher soy isoflavone intake than women with a medical history, but the difference was not statistically significant. These results suggest that the intake of soy isoflavones by Chinese rural adult women was much higher than women in Western countries. The distribution of intake was skewed to the right and varied among women in regard to region, age group and education level.
The purpose of this study was to examine whether whole aqueous black tea extract (BTE) prevents bone loss induced by ovarian hormone deficiency. Eighteen 95-100 days old female albino rats were randomly assigned to three treatment groups [sham -operated control (sham); bilaterally ovariectomized (ovx) and ovx + aqueous black tea extract (BTE) ] and sacrificed after 28 days. All animals were fed a standard laboratory diet with free access to deionized water except on days of urinary parameter studies when animals were given only calcium free deionized water during the entire 24 h period of urine collection. Body weight study revealed that rats in the ovx group had significantly higher final body weight than rats in the sham group. This higher final body weight was not observed in animals receiving BTE. The ovx group also had significantly higher abdominal fat mass and liver weight and significantly lower uterus, right kidney and left kidney weights than in other two groups. All these organ weight changes in ovx group also were not observed in animals receiving BTE. Results of urinary studies revealed that rats in the ovx group had significantly higher urinary excretion of calcium (Ca), phosphate, creatinine (Cr), calcium to creatinine (Ca:Cr) ratio (P< 0.001) and hydroxyproline (HPr) (P< 0.01) than rats in the sham group. Significant recovery of all these parameters were observed in animals receiving BTE. The ovx group also had significantly higher (P< 0.001) serum alkaline phosphatase (AP) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity than rats in the other two groups. These changes could not be seen in animals receiving BTE. Also, identical changes were seen in bone density experiments. Rats in the ovx group had significantly lower densities of the right femur (P<0.001), eighth thoracic rib (P< 0.001), eighth thoracic vertebra (P< 0.05), and fourth lumbar vertebra (P< 0.01) than rats in the sham group; and significant improvement in densities of these bones were seen in animals supplemented with BTE. Animals of ovx group also showed significant decrease in calcium and phosphate level in all these bones which could be regained significantly when these animals were supplemented with BTE. Our findings suggest that aqueous BTE may be effective in preventing bone loss due to ovarian hormone deficiency. Because serum activity of AP, TRAP and urinary loss of bone minerals (Ca and Phosphate) and also the organic components of bone (Cr and HPr) were significantly greater in the ovx group, compared to sham animals and ovx + BTE group. This confirms that ovariectomy enhances and BTE suppresses the rate of bone turnover. The density results of ovx + BTE group are significantly greater than rats in the ovx group, suggesting further that formation exceeded resorption. Detailed studies are underway to clarify the mechanism of this protective effect of BTE on hypogonadal bone loss.
To identify protective dietary predictors amongst long-lived elderly people (N= 785), the "Food Habits in Later Life "(FHILL) study was undertaken among five cohorts in Japan, Sweden, Greece and Australia. Between 1988 and 1991, baseline data on food intakes were collected. There were 785 participants aged 70 and over that were followed up to seven years. Based on an alternative Cox Proportional Hazard model adjusted to age at enrollment (in 5-year intervals), gender and smoking, the legume food group showed 7-8% reduction in mortality hazard ratio for every 20g increase in daily intake with or without controlling for ethnicity (RR 0.92; 95% CI 0.85-0.99 and RR 0.93; 95% CI 0.87-0.99, respectively). Other food groups were not found to be consistently significant in predicting survival amongst the FHILL cohorts.