Body fat percentage (BF%) was measured in 298 Singaporean Chinese, Malay and Indian men and women using a chemical four-compartment model consisting of fat, water, protein and mineral (BF%4C). In addition, weight, height, skinfold thickness and segmental impedance (from hand to hand) was measured. Body fat percentage was predicted using prediction equations from the literature (for skinfolds BF%SKFD) and using the manufacturer's software for the hand-held impedance analyser (BF%IMP). The subjects ranged in age from 18-70 years and in body mass index from 16.0 to 40.2 kg/m2. Body fat ranged from 6.5 to 53.3%. The biases for skinfold prediction (BF%4C-BF%SKFD, mean ± SD) were -0.4 ± 3.9, 2.3 ± 4.1 and 3.1 ± 4.2 in Chinese, Malay and Indian women, respectively, the Chinese being different from the Malays and Indians. The differences were significant from zero (P< 0.05) in the Malays and Indians. For the men, the biases were 0.5 ± 3.8, 0.0 ± 4.8 and 0.9 ± 4.0 in Chinese, Malays and Indians, respectively. These biases were not significantly different from zero and not different among the ethnic groups. The biases for hand-held impedance BF% were -0.7 ± 4.5, 1.5 ± 4.4 and 0.4 ± 3.8 in Chinese, Malay and Indian women. These biases were not significantly different from zero but the bias in the Chinese was significantly different from the biases in the Malays and Indians. In the Chinese, Malay and Indian men, the biases of BF%IMP were 0.7 ± 4.6, 1.9 ± 4.8 and 2.0 ± 4.4, respectively. These biases in Malay and Indian men were significantly different from zero and significantly different from the bias in Chinese men. The biases were correlated with level of body fat and age, and also with relative arm span (arm span/height) for impedance. After correction, the differences in bias among the ethnic groups disappeared. The study shows that the biases in predicted BF% differ between ethnic groups, differences that can be explained by differences in body composition and differences in body build. This information is important and should be taken into account when comparing body composition across ethnic groups using predictive methods.
A two-stage random telephone/mail survey was conducted during the last quarter of 1998 among Adelaide residents to determine consumers' use of soy bread and other soy products and their health expectations of soy products. One in five (21%) of 1477 telephone subscribers usually consumed soy bread and related soy products. Comparisons of soy bread consumers and non-consumers, based on the mail survey sample, showed that more soy bread consumers used dietary supplements and ate low fat and vegetarian diets, though their experiences of ill health were similar. Soy bread consumers held stronger universalism (pro-nature) values than non-consumers. They also held more positive expectations about the benefits of soy consumption, including reductions in menstrual and menopausal symptoms, increased bowel regularity and reductions in the risk of heart disease and cancer. The findings are discussed in relation to the psychology of dietary supplementation, values orientations and physiological plausibility. Further investigations are suggested.
There is considerable interest in the potentially protective effects of high fish consumption on many chronic diseases. Many epidemiological studies use food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) to quantify usual dietary fish intake, so it is important to validate this assessment against objective markers. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between plasma percentage fatty acids and dietary fish intake as assessed by a FFQ. A semiquantitative FFQ was completed by 174 adults from the community (aged 26-49 years) who also had venous blood analysed for plasma percentage fatty acids. Following linear regression modelling, total non-fried fish intake was a significant predictor of n-3 (regression coefficient, B = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.60-1.28), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; B = 0.73; 95% CI = 0.47-0.99) and the ratio of n-6 : n-3 fatty acids (B = -1.0; 95% CI = - 1.35-- 0.65). Steamed, grilled or baked fish was a small but significant predictor of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) levels (B = 0.13; 95% CI = 0.05-0.21) while total fish intake was a predictor of n-6 fatty acids (B = - 0.88; 95% CI = - 1.41-- 0.36). This semiquantitative FFQ could be useful for ranking subjects according to their likely plasma n-3, DHA, and n-6 fatty acid intake and the ratio of n-6 : n-3 fatty acids, when the available resources may simply not permit biological markers to be used.
There is strong evidence supporting the importance of vitamin K in bone health and the aetiological role of vitamin K deficiency in osteoporosis. In view of the common occurrence of osteoporosis among older subjects in Hong Kong, we have studied the dietary vitamin K intakes in 100 residents of a nursing home (43 men, 57 women; median age 81.0 years) and 88 free-living subjects attending a day care centre (13 men, 75 women; median age 71.5 years). The subjects were interviewed and the average vitamin K intake in the preceding week was estimated, using a diet recall questionnaire modified from our previous surveys of dietary patterns in local Chinese people. The median vitamin K intake was much lower in nursing home residents than in free-living subjects (4.50 vs 488.09 g/day or 0.13 vs 8.74 g/kg/day, P< 0.001). An intake that was below the recommended daily intake was far more common among nursing home residents (86.0 vs 11.4%, P< 0.001). Among nursing home residents, there was a negative correlation between age and vitamin K intake (r = -0.217, P = 0.030), but there was a positive correlation between body weight and vitamin K intake (r = 0.244, P = 0.015). No such relationship was seen among free-living subjects. Elderly nursing home residents in this study generally had a poor dietary vitamin K intake and might therefore be predisposed to osteoporosis. The importance of green leafy vegetables as a rich source of vitamin K should be emphasised.
The relationship of body mass index (BMI), conicity index (CI) and waist circumference to four coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors (systolic and diastolic blood pressures, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels) was examined in urban (n = 110) and rural (n = 102) men aged 20 years, drawn from the 'Reddy' population of Southern Andhra Pradesh, India. Using ANCOVA we found significant difference (< 0.01) for systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol between the urban and rural samples. The Pearson's correlation coefficients suggest that BMI and waist circumference had significant relationships with most of the risk factors in both the populations. The CI did not significantly influence any of the risk factors in the urban population; however, in the rural population, CI did show a significant positive relationship with both of the blood pressures and with TC. Even after controlling for age, smoking and physical activity (partial correlations), the relations remained constant. In multiple linear regression, BMI showed significant positive association with systolic and diastolic blood pressures (< 0.01) and HDL cholesterol (< 0.05) in the rural population only. However, the CI showed a significant association with HDL cholesterol, and waist circumference with total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol in the rural population. The results of the present study revealed that BMI and waist circumference had a greater influence on the CHD risk factors, and that the influence was more conspicuous in the rural sample. Comparing the association of abdominal obesity measures (CI and waist circumference) with CHD risk factors, waist circumference better correlated with most of the risk factors. Hence the present study suggests that BMI and waist circumference are better indicators of CHD risk factors. However, the importance of CI has to be further studied in South Asian populations.
Eight cholesterol oxides are commonly found in foods with high cholesterol content, such as meat, egg yolk and full fat dairy products. Factors known to increase the production of cholesterol oxides in foods are heat, light, radiation, oxygen, moisture, low pH, certain pro-oxidising agents and the storage of food at room temperature. Processes, such as pre-cooking, freeze-drying, dehydration and irradiation, have all been reported to result in increased production of cholesterol oxides in meats. As prepared consumer foods are becoming increasingly popular, the consumption of higher levels of cholesterol oxides in foods is inevitable. An understanding of the mechanisms involved in the generation of cholesterol oxides may assist in their reduction in foods and possibly reduce the impact of these compounds on human health.
Accumulated evidence from experimental and epidemiological studies indicates that there is a low risk of degenerative diseases, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cataract, stroke and, in particular, cancers in people with a high intake of fruit and vegetables. This protective effect is assumed to be associated mainly with the antioxidant activities of either individual or interacting bioactive components present in the fruits and vegetables, and with other biochemical and physical characteristics of the identified and unknown bioactive components. The implicated bioactive components present in citrus fruits include vitamin C, -carotene, flavonoids, limonoids, folic acid, and dietary fibre. A high intake of citrus fruits may reduce the risk of degenerative diseases.
Diabetes mellitus is now a serious and increasing problem in Asian countries, where dietary patterns have shifted toward Westernized foods and people are becoming more sedentary. In order to elucidate the relationship of dietary habits to the development of diabetic risk factors, the dietary patterns of 200 Fijian, 171 Japanese and 181 Vietnamese women of 30-39 years of age were investigated using 3 day-24 h recall or dietary records. Anthropometric measurements and glycosuria tests were also conducted. The dietary trends of Fijians and Japanese have changed drastically in the past 50 years, while Vietnamese have been minimally influenced by Western dietary habits. The mean 24 h dietary intake showed that Fijians had the highest energy intake. Energy intake from fat was only 13% for Vietnamese, but over 30% for Japanese and Fijians. Percentage of body fat was higher in Vietnamese than in Japanese, though there were no significant differences in body mass index (BMI). In the overweight and obese women, Vietnamese had higher abdominal obesity than Japanese. The prevalence of obesity (BMI 30 kg/m2) was 63.0% for Fijians, 1.8% for Japanese and 1.1% for Vietnamese. Glycosuria testing yielded the most positive cases among Fijians. Dietary transition and dietary excess appear to be potential risk factors for diabetes in Fijian women.
This study documents the dietary patterns and nutrient intake of 652 adult women living in south-east China. Compared with data from previous national surveys and other nutrition studies in China, the results show different dietary patterns. The major differences include a greater consumption of vegetables, fruits and animal foods, but a lower consumption of cereal and tuber foods. The mean daily nutrient intakes of the urban women met the Chinese recommended dietary allowances. However, the situation was different in rural areas, where women had lower mean intakes of vitamins and minerals. There were also significant differences in dietary pattern and food consumption between these two groups of women. Further improvements in dietary intake for those residing in the south-east rural areas of China are needed.
Serum concentrations of retinol, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and lycopene were measured by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (r-P HPLC) in 260 randomly selected healthy adult Kuwaitis (159 men and 101 women) aged 18-63 years (mean 33.3 years) to established reference ranges of the micronutrient antioxidants. Total cholesterol concentrations were assayed by an enzymatic method to determine alpha-tocopherol: cholesterol ratios. The mean +/- SEM (micromol/L) for retinol, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and lycopene were 1.76+/-0.02, 20.0+/-0.5, 0.52+/-0.03, 0.95+/-0.05, respectively. Compared to other populations, these data showed, on the whole, ordinary concentrations of beta-carotene, comparatively low concentrations of retinol and alpha-tocopherol and high concentrations of lycopene. Retinol concentrations were similar for both sexes, whereas alpha-tocopherol concentration was significantly (P < 0.0001) lower and the carotenoid levels (beta-carotene and lycopene) significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in women. Of the micronutrient antioxidants, alpha-tocopherol was most correlated with cholesterol (r = 0.492, P < 0.0001). beta-Carotene and lycopene were highly correlated with each other (r =0.744, P< 0.0001). Age was positively associated with beta-carotene (r = 0.214, P = 0.001) and lycopene (r = 239, P< 0.0001). Our data enabled us to establish a gender non-specific reference range for retinol and gender-specific reference ranges for alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and lycopene.
A weaning food based on malted foxtail millet flour (30%), malted barnyard millet flour (30%), roasted soybean flour (25%) and skim milk powder (15%) was prepared. The mix contained 18.37 g protein and 398 kcal energy per 100 g. The nutrient composition of this unfortified weaning (UW) mix met the Prevention of Food Adulteration (PFA) standards, except in total ash. In order to meet the minor constituent requirements, the UW mix was fortified. The fortified weaning (FW) mix met PFA standards for various nutrients. The protein efficiency ratio of the UW mix was 2.25 against a casein control, for which a value of 2.50 was recorded. The nutrient composition, viscosity and sensory quality of the UW mix was compared with the marketed weaning mix, commercial infant formula. The viscosity of UW gruel was much lower (20 centipoise (cps)) than that of marketed weaning mix (7400 cps). The high -amylase activity of 661 units in the UW mix was responsible for its low viscosity. The sensory quality of UW mix and marketed weaning mix did not differ significantly (P = 0.05). Both of the gruels were liked moderately on the Hedonic Scale. The UW gruel met the acceptability criteria for weaning food. It could be stored in plastic airtight containers.
Iodine is one of the essential micro-elements required for normal human growth and development. Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) are an important public health problem in India. There has been no data on the prevalence of IDD from the Kottayam district, India and hence, the present pilot study was conducted in the year 1999 to assess whether iodine deficiency existed in the district or not and to estimate the iodine content of salt consumed by the population. A total of 1872 children in the age group of 6-12 years were included in the study and were clinically examined. On the spot urine samples were collected from 251 children. A total of 420 salt samples were collected randomly from the families of the children. The total goitre prevalence was found to be 7.05% in the subjects studied. It was found that the percentage of children with urinary iodine excretions of < 2, 2-< 5, 5-9 and 10 g/dL and above were 6.4%, 6.0%, 20.7%, and 66.9%, respectively. Assessment of the iodine content of salt by the iodometric titration method revealed that 60.6% of the children were consuming salt with an iodine content of 15 p.p.m. and more, which was the stipulated level of salt iodisation. The findings of the present study indicated that the population is in a transitional phase from iodine deficient, as revealed by total goitre rate, to iodine sufficient nutriture, as revealed by the median urinary iodine excretion level of 17.5 g/dL.
To investigate the efficacy of two different iron supplements administered either on a weekly basis or during menstruation, a 16-week community experimental study was carried out among postmenarcheal female adolescent students in Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. Forty eight students received a placebo tablet weekly, 48 other students got an iron tablet weekly and 41 students took an iron tablet for four consecutive days during their menstruation cycle. All subjects were given deworming tablets before supplementation. Haemoglobin, serum ferritin, height, weight, mid-upper arm circumference and dietary intake were assessed before and after intervention. The supplementation contributed to a significant improvement in the iron status of the intervention groups compared to the placebo group
(P< 0.05). In the menstruation group, the haemoglobin concentrations of the anaemic subjects improved significantly (P< 0.05) while for the non-anaemic subjects, serum ferritin concentrations also increased significantly (P< 0.05). In the weekly group for anaemic and non-anaemic subjects, there was a significant increase in both haemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations (P< 0.05). This study revealed that weekly supplementation of iron tablets continued for 16 weeks contributed a higher improvement to haemoglobin concentration, compared with supplementing iron tablets for four consecutive days during menstruation for four menstrual cycles. This suggests that weekly iron supplementation is preferable.
Weight and height from infancy to age 15 years was studied in the Geelong population (n = 1200 in infancy; n = 213 at adolescence), Victoria, Australia. Body mass index (BMI) increased from 3 months to 12 months and then decreased again until 80 months after which it increased to 20.5 kg/m2 at the age of 15 years. The extent of tracking of BMI in infants classified as overweight or underweight was similar and differed from that of subjects of normal weight. Only one in four of the infants classified as overweight or underweight in infancy were still in the same category in adolescence, compared with three in four of those classified as of normal weight. Socioeconomic status has an effect on weight and height status in adolescence but not on the tracking of BMI. The age at 6-7 years is a critical age for weight and height status in adolescence. It appears that weight and height in infancy have a significant relationship with body size in adolescence but only in boys.
Aphanamixis polystachya is a traditional medicinal plant of the Meliaceae family in India. A crude ethanolic extract of the leaf of this plant shows a beneficial effect on toxic liver injury. Its antihepatotoxic activity was evaluated on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in a rat model. The assessment of hepatoprotective activity was evaluated by measuring the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum total bilirubin and albumin and histology of the liver. The crude leaf extract significantly inhibits the enhanced ASAT, ALAT, ALP, ACP and LDH activities released from the CCl4-intoxicated animals. It also ameliorated the depressed value of serum albumin and the enhanced value of total bilirubin in plasma caused by CCl4 intoxication. The study showed that the crude ethanolic extract from A. polystachya leaves provided protection against acute carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage.