Data on the overall dietary folate intakes among high-risk groups in poor countries is very limited. Vegetables are considered good sources but the evaluation of their contribution is hampered by the lack of data on folate concentrations in many traditional foods. Data on the analysis of folate concentrations in 16 wild vegetables used in the Mekong Delta and the Central Highlands in Vietnam and an evaluation of the relative importance of different foods in folate intakes of women is presented. Vegetable samples were collected in four study villages, blanched and frozen samples were transported to Sweden for analysis. Freeze-dried samples were analysed for total folate quantification using a commercial radio protein binding assay. Daily folate intakes among women were estimated from 7-day food frequency interviews with 213 women. The folate concentration in the vegetable samples ranged from 10 to 96 g/100 g. The mean estimated daily folate intake among the 213 women in the study areas was 251 g. Vegetables contributed approximately one-third of the daily folate intake, of which 72% and 42%, respectively, in the two regions was from wild vegetables. A majority of the women (87%) got some dietary folate from wild vegetables and nearly one-third had mean daily folate intakes of > 50 g from such hidden food sources. The evaluation of dietary folate is complicated by data gaps in food composition tables, the unreliability of existing food data, variations between methods used for folate analysis and limited understanding of the bioavailability of food folate.
The aim of the present study was to obtain the nutritive and bioactive compounds of mucuna tempe and the consumer preference of its formulated snack. The tempe was made traditionally from mucuna prurience seeds using 'ragi tempe' as inoculants. Proximate, vitamin, mineral and dietary fibre analysis was done using the methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, isoflavone was analysed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an RP-18 column and a UV detector. The preference test was done using scoring methods by trained panelists. The study demonstrates that compared with soybean tempe, mucuna tempe had a higher dietary fibre level, but lower vitamin E content. The mucuna tempe contains 31.5% protein, 7.3% fat, 3.0% ash, 58.1% carbohydrate and 9.1% fibre. It contains 0.551 mg/L isoflavone aglucone; daidzin is the highest, followed by Factor II (6,7,4 trihydroxy isoflavone) that is much higher than that of soybeans tempe. These are much higher isoflavone aglucone contents than found in soybeans tempe. The preference score for a 20%mucuna tempe-based snack was not significantly different compared with control or with the preference score for a 10% soybean tempe-based snack. This preliminary study needs to be followed by both in vitro and in vivo studies.
We have reported that ingesting a meal immediately after exercise increased skeletal muscle accretion and less adipose tissue accumulation in rats employed in a 10 week resistance exercise program. We hypothesized that a possible increase in the resting metabolic rate (RMR) as a result of the larger skeletal muscle mass might be responsible for the less adipose deposition. Therefore, the effect of the timing of a protein supplement after resistance exercise on body composition and the RMR was investigated in 17 slightly overweight men. The subjects participated in a 12-week weight reduction program consisting of mild energy restriction (17% energy intake reduction) and a light resistance exercise using a pair of dumbbells (3-5 kg). The subjects were assigned to two groups. Group S ingested a protein supplement (10 g protein, 7 g carbohydrate, 3.3 g fat and one-third of recommended daily allowance (RDA) of vitamins and minerals) immediately after exercise. Group C did not ingest the supplement. Daily intake of both energy and protein was equal between the two groups and the protein intake met the RDA. After 12 weeks, the bodyweight, skinfold thickness, girth of waist and hip and percentage bodyfat significantly decreased in the both groups, however, no significant differences were observed between the groups. The fat-free mass significantly decreased in C, whereas its decrease in S was not significant. The RMR and post-meal total energy output significantly increased in S, while these variables did not change in C. In addition, the urinary nitrogen excretion tended to increase in C but not in S. These results suggest that the RMR increase observed in S might be associated with an increase in body protein synthesis.
D-Psicose ( D-ribo-2-hexulose), a C-3 epimer of D-fructose, is present in small quantities in commercial carbohydrate complexes or agricultural products. Wistar male rats were fed experimental diets which consisted of 5% D-psicose, cellulose, D-fructose or D-glucose for 28 days. Abdominal adipose tissue weight was significantly lower (P< 0.05) in rats fed the D-psicose diet than in rats fed a D-fructose and D-glucose diets, even though the four dietary groups were offered the same amount throughout the experimental period. Fatty acid synthase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities in the liver were significantly lower (P< 0.05) in rats fed the D-psicose diet than in rats fed the D-fructose and D-glucose diets. However, lipoprotein lipase activities in the heart, soleus muscle and perirenal adipose tissue were the same. These results suggest that a supplement of D-psicose in the diet suppresses hepatic lipogenic enzyme activities. The lower abdominal fat accumulation in rats fed a D-psicose diet might result from lower lipogenesis in the liver.
The modulatory effects of garlic extract on the in vivo clastogenicity of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), a carcinogenic nitrosamine, were evaluated by quantification of micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations in metaphase cells from the bone marrow of male Wistar rats. A single intraperitoneal injection of MNNG (40 mg/kg bodyweight) was found to be clastogenic as revealed by the increased frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes and chromosomal aberrations. Pretreatment with aqueous garlic extract (250 mg/kg bodyweight) for 5 days significantly reduced the frequencies of MNNG-induced micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations. The results demonstrate that administration of garlic extract protects against the clastogenic effects of MNNG.
Wheat bran equivalents for faecal bulking (WBEfb) are defined as the gram quantity of wheat bran that would augment faecal bulk to the same extent as a given quantity of a specified food, and its development as a food datum for the dietary management of distal colonic bulk is discussed in this paper. The WBEfb content of a food is derived from the faecal bulking index (FBI), which is a standardised physiological measure of the relative faecal bulking efficacy of foods on an equal edible weight basis. The FBI is defined as the increment in hydrated faecal matter per gram of a food consumed as a percentage of the increment due to the same weight of reference food (1 mm hard red wheat bran; FBI = 100). The FBI values allow the contribution of hydrated solids to the distal colon to be related to that of any reference of known FBI such as wheat bran, the suitability of which as a reference material is discussed. By expressing the increment in bulk as WBEfb, the relative impact of any quantity of an individual food on faecal bulk may be determined, and the effect of foods in mixed diets approximated by summation. Examples are given of the dietary management of distal colonic bulk using WBEfb, with one cup of wheat bran containing 27.5 g of dietary fibre - about the mean recommended daily fibre intake for adults - used as theoretical adequate daily intake of potential faecal bulk. The FBI and WBEfb are proposed as examples of the types of evidence-based data sets that may complement food composition data in selecting foods for physiological function.
This study examined the association of self-rated health with physical function and emotional well-being, while controlling for differences in sex, age and anthropometry. Subjects were participants in a multicentre study originated by the International Union of Nutritional Sciences (IUNS). A total of 151 elderly Guatemalan subjects were examined using a questionnaire which included information on self-rated health, activities of daily living, well-being, and a common battery of anthropometric variables. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) obtained with polytomous logistic regression showed that subjects with the highest score on the well-being index compared with those with the lowest were 1.67 times more likely (P-value <0.001, confidence interval (C.I.) = 1.31-2.14) to rate themselves in 'good' health versus 'fair' and 'poor' health. Subjects with the highest score versus those with the lowest on the mobility index were 1.15 times more likely (P-value <0.05, (C.I.) = 1.00-1.32) to rate themselves in 'good' health versus the other health ratings. These are the first results to examine the relationship of self-rated health to physical function and emotional well-being of elderly, free-living Guatemalans.
The dietary trends of indigenous Fijians have changed drastically in the past 50 years. Deviating from the traditional food consumption pattern and traditional lifestyle may have increased the incidence and prevalence of non-communicable diseases. The aim of this study is to examine the dietary trends of the indigenous Fijians in relation to the prevalence of diabetes from 1952 to 1994. The data used were obtained from the Naduri Nutrition Survey reports of 1952 to 1994, the Fiji National Nutrition Survey reports of 1983 and 1993, and the two diabetes survey reports of 1965 and 1980. Results indicated an increased consumption of introduced foods, which may be associated with an increased prevalence of diabetes. The total energy derived from cereals and sugar increased dramatically with a reduction in consumption of traditional foods. The prevalence of diabetes among the urban indigenous population in 1965 was very low compared to the 1980 figure, while the National Nutrition Survey of the same ethnic group showed a 433% increase of urban diabetes from 1965 to 1993. The hospital diabetes admission cases of 1952 to 1982 also showed an increased trend.
The dietary patterns of indigenous Fijians are changing rapidly. Dietary relationships in regard to the prevalence of diabetes are poorly studied in Fiji. A survey was conducted to show the relationship of dietary patterns and other lifestyle factors for the development of diabetes among urban indigenous women in Fiji. A sample of 200 Fijian women aged 30-39 who agreed to participate were interviewed by the use of semiquantitative food frequency, 3 day-24 h recall study. Physical activity and ceremonial dietary customs were also taken into consideration. Anthropometry included measurements of height, weight, waist and hip. Total percentage bodyfat measurements and glycosuria tests were also conducted. The results showed high rates of obesity manifested in high percentage bodyfat, high body mass index (BMI) and high waist and hip ratio (WHR). The mean 24 h dietary intake exhibited a moderate intake of protein, high intake of fat and a low intake of carbohydrate. The carbohydrate reduction was a result from the decline in consumption of traditional staples. Consumption of cereals and related products favored the high intake of butter and margarine and also encouraged the use of cooking oil in frying varieties of flour products. The daily intake of anti-oxidant vitamins of -carotene and vitamin E were low, however there was a high intake of vitamin C. The food frequency study revealed cassava, bread and sugar were consumed daily as the main carbohydrate foods. Fish and meat were the most frequently consumed protein foods. The main beverage was sweet tea with whole-cream milk. Butter, margarine, coconut cream, cheap lamb flaps and cooking oil provided the main sources of fat. Levels of physical activity included high sedentary lifestyles with a high rate of subjects being overweight and obese. Ceremonial dietary customs showed a high consumption of meat and fish. Fruits were rarely consumed. Glycosuria existed among the age group under study. The impact of dietary transition, coupled with dietary excesses and physical inactivity, seem to be potential risk factors of diabetes among the indigenous women in the urban area.
The prevalence of subclinical deficiencies of folate and vitamin B6 in India is high and preliminary investigation showed higher mean plasma total homocysteine level in Indians compared with the values reported for western populations. The present study was carried out in 40 apparently normal men to examine the relationship between plasma total homocysteine level and folate and vitamin B6 status. The mean plasma homocysteine level was high and was inversely related to folate status as judged by red blood cells or plasma folate concentrations. There was no significant relationship between fasting homocysteine level and vitamin B6 status.
Selenium (Se) concentrations were determined in human serum, rice and wheat flour sampled in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, and compared with those sampled in Tokyo, Japan. Serum levels of Se were significantly lower in Japanese Brazilians than Japanese living in Tokyo. The samples of rice consumed by Japanese Brazilians in São Paulo contained 22.7 ng Se/g on average, which was about half the selenium level in rice consumed in Tokyo. Rice commonly consumed in São Paulo might be one of the factors to lower the serum level of Se.
Iodine is an essential nutrient for human growth and development. The thyroid gland is dependent upon iodine for production of thyroid hormone. It is a common perception that iodine deficiency is not a major public health concern in mainland Australia, with sporadic studies carried out about a decade ago showing average urinary iodine excretion levels of around 200 g/day. Recent evidence, however, has shown that the consumption of iodine is declining in Australia. A similar situation has occurred in the USA. The present study was designed to evaluate the urinary iodine excretion (UIE), as the indicator of iodine nutrition, in samples obtained from various demographic groups in the Sydney metropolitian area, namely: schoolchildren, healthy adult volunteers, pregnant women and patients with diabetes. Urinary iodine in spot urine sample was measured in a Technicon II autoanalyser using an in-house, semiautomated method. The results in this communication show that all four study groups had the median UIE below 100 g/L, the criteria set by the World Health Organization for iodine repletion, and confirm what has been described previously, that iodine deficiency has reemerged in Sydney, Australia. One of the major causes of the reduced iodine intake is the reduction of iodine in milk since the dairy industry replaced iodine-rich cleaning solutions with other sanitisers. Secondly, less than 10% of the population are currently using iodised salt. A national survey into the iodine nutrition status in Australia is urgently required as part of the establishment of a systematic surveillance and legislation is required to iodise all edible salt.
Foods such as breads and breakfast cereals enriched with a combination of soy protein (soy grits and/or soy flour) and whole linseed are gaining popularity. Regular consumption of either whole grains or soy protein can lower risk factors for coronary heart disease. Furthermore, linseed is a rich source of the omega-3 fatty acid, -linolenic acid (LNA), with purported cardiovascular benefits. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of daily consumption of soy and linseed containing foods and Canola (as an added source of LNA) on plasma lipid concentrations in 20 mildly hypercholesterolaemic postmenopausal women. Fasted blood samples were taken initially and after 3 and 8 weeks to assay plasma lipids and both plasma and erythrocyte membrane fatty acids. Urinary isoflavones were also measured. Data from 18 subjects were used for analysis. Plasma total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations fell significantly (10, 12.5 and 12%, respectively) within 3 weeks. Although attenuated, there were still significant reductions in total and non-HDL cholesterol (5 and 6.5%, respectively) after 8 weeks of intervention. These reductions were associated with increases in urinary isoflavone excretion. This pilot study indicates that regular inclusion of foods containing soy and linseed in the diet may improve plasma lipids in subjects with hypercholesterolaemia.
Studies of the therapeutic efficacy of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) have been confounded by the variable bioavailability of numerous CoQ10 preparations. The aims of the present study were to determine the early serum levels attained by two different preparations of CoQ10, a soybean oil-based preparation and a complex micelle emulsion and to assess whether these preparations of oral CoQ10 influence plasma lipid profiles. Twelve healthy individuals received 300 mg CoQ10 daily of either preparation for 7 days in a double-blind cross-over design with a 21-day washout period. Blood samples to determine serum levels of CoQ10 and lipids were taken at baseline, after 24 h and 7 days. Both preparations induced significant increases in serum CoQ10 levels at 24 h and 7 days. These were for soy oil: baseline 0.27 ± 0.03 mol/L, 24 h 0.50 ± 0.04 mol/L (180%) and 7 days 0.80 ± 0.05 mol/L (291%), mean ± SEM; for emulsion: baseline 0.29 ± 0.03 mol/L, 24 h 0.45 ± 0.03 mol/L (150%) and 7 days 0.79 ± 0.06 mol/L (270%). There were no significant differences between CoQ10 levels for the two preparations at either time point. There was no change in any of the serum lipids following the 7 days treatment. We conclude that administration of either a soy oil suspension or a complex emulsion of CoQ10 increases serum levels to the therapeutic range within 1 week.