This study was conducted to investigate the concentrations of serum fatty acids, lipoprotein(a) and apolipoprotein of three populations in North Vietnam: rural area with low income (n = 101), suburban with average income (n = 97), and urban with high income (n = 95). The results showed the suburban and urban populations had higher fat intake than the rural. The fat intake in quality was different in these three populations. The suburban had the highest consumption of fatty foods rich in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). The rural consumed more fatty foods rich in monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), but less fatty foods rich in n-3 PUFA than the two other populations. The high index of thrombogenicity (IT) of the Vietnamese diet may result from their low intake of fish and vegetable oils. Risk factors for premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) assessed by serum lipoprotein(a) and apolipoprotein levels were not observed in all three populations. However, coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke are problems that should be monitored because the increase of CVD morbidity has been reported in Vietnamese people. From a nutritional point of view, the increase of fish and vegetable oils consumption is necessary for the prevention of CVD and CHD in these Vietnamese populations.
A cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out on 350 elderly Malays aged 60 and above from 11 randomly selected villages in a rural area on the east coast of Malaysia. The findings indicated that the mean intakes of energy and of all of the nutrients investigated were below the Malaysian Recommended Dietary Allowances, except for protein and vitamin C. With respect to dietary habits, almost all of the subjects reported that they had breakfast (99.3%), lunch (97.9%) and dinner (90.4%) daily or almost daily (5-6 times/week). However, approximately half of the subjects, especially women, had particular beliefs and prohibitions about specific foods. Most of the subjects usually ate their meals at home, particularly dinner, with 99.3% always having dinner in their own home. Thus, although the rural elderly Malays studied had regular meal intakes, the dietary intake was inadequate. There is a need to plan community-based intervention programmes in order to prevent the subsequent consequences of malnutrition that lead to increased morbidity and mortality.
Probiotic organism Bifidobacteria was isolated from the faeces of breast-fed infants at Universiti Putra Malaysia. Trypticase phytone peptone yeast extract agar (TPY) was used as a selective media for the isolation. Morphological examination of the isolates indicated that Bifidobacteria was Gram-positive rods in nature, curved with characteristics of V and Y shapes. The organisms were non-catalase producing, non-nitrate reducing, non-motile, had an absence of indole and were unable to liquify gelatin. The ratios of acetic and lactic acids were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Using carbohydrate fermentation profile test API-CH-50 kits, 20 Bifidobacteria strains had been identified: they were the species of Bifidobacteria infantis and two different sub-species, mainly infantis and lacentis. Based on a wide zone of inhibition, three suitable strains of B. infantis, Bifi-11, Bifi-19 and Bifi-20, were tested in weaning foods for antimicrobial activity towards two human pathogens: E. coli-0157 (World Health Organization) and Salmonella typhimurium S-285. The pH, titratable acidity of weaning foods and total colony count for Bifidobacteria, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and S. typhimurium were recorded at 3-h intervals for 30 h. It was found that after 9 h of incubation of weaning foods, the pH declined to < 3.6 from pH 6.0, whereas titratable acidity increased from 0.026 to 0.08%. It was indicated that Bifidobacteria inhibited E. coli better than did S typhimurium due to low pH. After 24 h of incubation, approximately 98% of E. coli was inhibited by Bifidobacteria. It is suggested that the inhibitory effect of Bifidobacteria strains in weaning foods towards the growth of enteropathogenic E. coli and S. typhimurium was solely due to low pH and the production of volatile acid components by the organism.
The modifying effects of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) on hepatic lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status during 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO)-induced oral carcinogenesis were investigated in male Wistar rats. Enhanced lipid peroxidation in the liver of tumour-bearing animals was accompanied by significant decreases in the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. Administration of aqueous garlic extract significantly lowered lipid peroxidation and enhanced the levels of hepatic antioxidants and detoxifying enzymes. The results of the present study suggest that garlic exerts its hepatoprotective effects by influencing hepatic biotransformation enzymes and antioxidants.
The basal metabolism and daily energy consumption of eight cases of the persistent vegetative state were low. Some received excessive energy and inappropriate essential nutrient infusions.
Research on the effects of dietary fat on cholesterolemia and coronary risk began with comparisons of the amount and type of fat (saturated vs unsaturated). It then became clear that not all fatty acids had similar cholesterolemic effects and equations were derived which gave different weights to saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. We now find that the triglyceride structure also plays a role in cholesterolemia as suggested by the studies of Kritchevsky and Tepper in rabbits and McGandy et al. in human subjects.
Dietary fat plays an important regulatory role in the pathogenesis of a range of immune reactions. In food allergies, especially in type I allergic reactions, dietary fat can modulate the development of clinical symptoms through influencing the production of immunoglobulins (Ig), cytokines and chemical mediators. In general, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of the n-3 family in relation to those of the n-6 family reduce the production of eicosanoids and hence, mitigate hypersensitivity. In this context, it is interesting that conjugated derivatives of linoleic acid (CLA) reduce the production of eicosanoids and regulate the production of Ig in a manner favourable to the prevention of allergic reactions. Trans monoene fatty acid (that is, elaidic acid), in relation to cis monoenoic fatty acid (that is, oleic acid), also behaves as an anti-allergic agent through interfering with the desaturation of linoleic acid. The information available indicates that different dietary fats influence differently the immune indices related to food allergic reaction. The effects appeared to be readily modified by the combination of food components, including dietary fats. Thus, an appropriate combination of a specific fat or fatty acid may be one approach to the regulation of allergic reaction.
A computer system, called SERVE-NZ Nutririon Management System, for use in diabetes management, addresses the problem of concurrently controlling postprandial glycaemic response and nutrient intake in meals containing a number of foods, is described. It converts the weight and relative glycaemic potency of each food to its content of glycaemic glucose equivalents (GGE) - the amount of glucose theoretically inducing the same blood glucose response as would the specified quantity of food. Glycaemic glucose equivalents in a meal can be simply obtained by adding the GGE content of all foods in the meal to give a figure for the maximal glycaemic impact of the meal. Glycaemic glucose equivalents may be calculated using food composition databases that include available carbohydrate, common standard measure weights and glycaemic index values. If GGE is treated as a nutrient, an output of the total nutrient profile of a food or meal, and its glycaemic impact as GGE, can be obtained simultaneously. Application of a nutritional software system incorporating GGE values to management of glycaemic loadings and nutrient intakes over five meals within a day is demonstrated. The system may be a useful aid in self-management of glycaemia, as it will identify quantities of foods that can be consumed without exceeding the predetermined glucose tolerances of individuals. The graphical presentation of GGE and nutrient composition of meals may be a useful visual aid in educating clients with diabetes. The GGE values on food labels would provide easily understood guidance, not obtained from glycaemic index values, to the maximum number of items or quantity of a food that an individual should eat at a time. In its present basic form the calculation of GGE is most likely to slightly overestimate glycaemic impact, so it presents a worst-case prediction.
Bulk in the distal colon provides protection against a range of large bowel disorders, but a simple standardized measure of the relative bulking efficacy of foods, for use in dietary management of distal colonic bulk, has not been available. This paper describes a faecal bulking index (FBI) for standardized measurement of the relative colonic bulking efficacy of foods relative to a reference material. Faecal bulking index is defined as the mass of fully rehydrated faecal matter accumulated by the distal colon per gram of a food consumed, as a percentage of the matter accumulated from the same weight of a reference food. The FBI of foods was measured after feeding adult rats at moderate levels by partially or completely replacing sucrose in a baseline diet already containing mixed dietary fiber. Faeces were collected, dried, weighed, allowed to imbibe water until fully rehydrated, reweighed and their mass and water holding capacity measured. The FBI was calculated as the increase over baseline in rehydrated faecal mass induced by a test food as a percentage of the increase due to wheat bran (reference). The FBI values were measured for 69 diets including breakfast cereals, breads and other bakery products, fruits, vegetables, food ingredients and polysaccharides. Values for most foods ranged between almost zero for some starch-based foods to about 50 for wheat bran-enriched breakfast cereals, but laxatives based on fermentation-resistant hydrated polysaccharide had FBI values well in excess of 100 (FBI for psyllium = 500). The FBI values allow foods to be ranked according to their faecal bulking efficacy on an equal edible weight basis. They can also be used to calculate the bulking action of any amount of food in terms of equivalents to a reference material such as wheat bran. Wheat bran equivalents allow the cumulative intake of potential distal colonic bulk to be monitored for single foods or mixed meals, and shortfalls to be quantified for dietary modification or supplementation. Measures such as FBI or wheat bran equivalents would prove more useful than dietary fiber in controlling 'functional foods' promoted as effective bulking agents.
A nutritional status study was carried out among a group of young Chinese adults, aged between 19 and 25, in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Subjects comprised 108 young adults (55 women, 53 men) who were students at two institutes of higher learning. Physical characteristics were evaluated by anthropometric measurements while food intake was determined with a 3-day food record. Blood cholesterol and triglyceride were assessed using the Reflotron analyser. Birthweight was obtained from birth certificates or by proxy. The results showed that the mean body mass index (BMI) for men and women was 21.4 ± 3.3 and 20.0 ± 2.0, respectively, indicating normal weight. Further analysis of BMI classification demonstrated that 28% of men and 39% of women were underweight, 11% of men and 2% of women were overweight while 2% of men were obese. Mean waist-to-hip ratio showed that the subjects had a low risk of developing cardiovascular disease (0.72 ± 0.03 women; 0.81 ± 0.05 men). Mean energy intake was 8841 ± 1756 kJ per day for men and 6426 ± 1567 kJ per day for women. Closer analysis of energy intake of the subjects showed that 86% of men and 91% of women were consuming below the Malaysian recommendation for energy. Nutrients found to be deficient in at least one third of women were calcium, vitamin A, niacin and iron. Mean cholesterol intake in the diet was 278.7 ± 108.7 mg in men and 207.0 ± 82.5 mg in women and there was a significant difference between genders. Blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels were 3.88 ± 0.76 mmol/L and 1.08 ± 0.33 mmol/L, respectively in men, while these levels were lower in women, 3.87 ± 0.80 mmol/L for cholesterol and 0.99 ± 0.29 mmol/L for triglyceride. A general trend of higher mean blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels was shown in adults who were born with lower birthweights.
A nutrition surveillance and nutritional improvement programme through nutrition field worker training, nutrition education and encouraging the utilization of home gardens was undertaken among rural preschool-aged children in the four counties of Linshu, Caoxin, Zoucheng and Yucheng in Shandong Province in China from 1990 to 1995. A baseline survey was conducted in 1990. This included physical and biochemical measurements being taken on 3474 children aged 0-5 years and dietary household surveys being taken on a random subsample of 312 children. The baseline survey showed that the average height and weight of the subjects was lower than the World Health Organization (WHO) standard with the prevalence of stunting, underweight and wasting being 24.2, 12.5 and 2.1%, respectively (using the Z scores -2 as the cut-off point). The prevalence of anaemia was 61.9% (using haemoglobin (HB) 110 g/L as the cut-off point). The range of mean intakes of protein and energy was, respectively, 54.0-67.2% and 56.4-68.4% of the Chinese recommended dietary allowance (RDA) depending on the age group. Mean calcium intake was less than 30% of the RDA for all age groups and the mean intakes of ascorbic acid, niacin, retinol and riboflavin were between 30.6 and 96.1% of the RDA. Nutrition education and nutrition field worker training were the key components of the intervention phase that followed the baseline survey. Over 5 years, 531 nutrition field workers were trained, 1200 parents joined in nutrition classes and approximately 8000 villagers received basic nutrition information. The latter included promotion of breast-feeding, identification of sources of appropriate foods for weaning, and also for the prevention and treatment of common nutritional deficiencies. Home gardens for fruit, vegetable and livestock were also encouraged. The evaluation survey of the project was conducted in 1995 among 2728 0-5-year-old children. The results indicated that the nutritional status of preschool-aged children had improved greatly. The prevalence of stunting and underweight was reduced by 37.8 and 21.3%, respectively, while there was no significant change in the prevalence of wasting. The average rate of anaemia decreased by 79.6% in 1995.
Body composition was measured in 205 male and female Beijing Chinese and in 148 male and female Singaporean Chinese, age 34 (mean) (range 18-68) years and body mass index (BMI) 22.3 (15.9-38.5) kg/m 2. In Beijing Siri's two-compartment model based on densitometry was used as a reference technique and in Singapore Siri's three-compartment model based on densitometry and deuterium oxide dilution was used. In addition, body composition was predicted using equations based on anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance developed in Caucasian populations. Percentage body fat (BF%) predicted from BMI was systematically underestimated by about 1% in Beijing Chinese and by about 3.5% in Singaporean Chinese. The difference in bias (measured minus predicted BF%) between the two population groups could be explained by differences in frame size. The Durnin and Womersley equations for BF% based on skinfold thickness predicted BF% in the male and female Chinese groups adequately, with only a slight (less than 1% body fat) and not significant bias. The prediction of BF% based on the waist circumference (Lean's formula) resulted in an unbiased estimate of BF% in females (bias about 1% body fat), whereas in males the formula systematically underestimated BF% by 3.5-5%. Bioelectrical impedance underestimated BF% systematically by 3%, in males and females to about the same extent. The bias of all prediction formulas was positively correlated with the level of body fatness and, except for impedance, also negatively correlated with age. The negative association of the bias with age indicates that the age-related increase in body fatness is lower in Chinese than in Caucasians. It can be concluded of the studied prediction techniques that only the skinfold methodology using the equations of Durnin and Womersley give valid mean estimates for both Chinese males and females. The other techniques require the development of population-specific prediction formula.
Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) are an important public health problem in India. Meerut district, Uttar Pradesh, is a known IDD endemic area. A study conducted in 1986 reported a total goitre rate of 24.9% in the entire population of Meerut district. During 1990-97 intensive efforts were taken by the Uttar Pradesh Government to ensure universal availability of iodized salt to the population. No survey has been conducted since 1997 on the status of iodine deficiency in the Meerut district. Hence, the present study was conducted in order to assess the prevalence of IDD and to estimate the iodine content of salt consumed in the households of Meerut district, Uttar Pradesh. The 30 cluster sampling methodology and indicators for assessment of IDD as recommended by the joint WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD (World Health Organization/United Nations Children's Fund/International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders) Consultation in full was utilized for the survey. A confidence level of 95%, relative precision of 10% and design effect of three were considered in the calculation of the sample size. The prevalence of goitre at the time of survey was estimated to be 15%. A total of 6485 school children in the 6-10 years age group were selected using probability proportionate to size cluster sampling methodology. A total goitre prevalence rate of 11.6% was found in the district. It was observed that 5.4, 2.9 and 19.9% of the children had urinary excretion levels of < 2.0, 2.0-4.9, and 5.0-9.9 g/dL, respectively. The median urinary iodine excretion of the children studied was found to be 15.0 g/dL. Fifty-three percent of the children studied consumed salt with an iodine content of less than 15 p.p.m., which was below the stipulated level (15 p.p.m.). The study showed that the population is in a transition phase from iodine deficient (as revealed by total goitre rate) to iodine sufficient (as revealed by median urinary iodine excretion of 15.0 g/dL). There is a need to further strengthen the existing monitoring system for the quality of iodized salt in the district in order to achieve the elimination of IDD.
This study examines the diet and body constitution of a small sample of pregnant women, n = 27, and children, n = 32, enrolled in the Maternal and Child Health program at the Public Health/Community Health Center in Koror, Palau. Twenty-four hour diet recalls were collected from both groups, 17 anthropometric and body composition measurements were made on the women and a range of body measurements from height to a full battery of 28 measures were obtained from the children. Diets were found to be low in energy, calcium and zinc. Women consume micronutrients primarily from fish, traditional starches, vegetables and fruits, while children rely more on fortified grain products and milk. The energy distribution is higher in protein and fat and lower in carbohydrate than earlier reports of adult Palauans. A significant minority of the women (27%) have body fat or body mass index profiles indicative of clinically significant obesity or energy storage deficit, both problematic in terms of pregnancy outcomes. While sample sizes of infant and young child cohorts are very small, our findings indicate that a relatively high proportion of these younger children, have experienced inadequate growth and development This is especially true of females, among whom stunting (height deficients) and especially wasting (weight and arm circumference deficits) were in greater evidence
The present study is unique in the Malaysian context on two counts; first, it employs for the first time a functional group approach (groups based on occupational or economic activity) in the assessment of community nutritional status. Second, the study provides on a nationwide-sampling basis, information on total blood cholesterol (TC) levels in rural children (7.0-12.9 years; n = 1921) and adolescents (13.0-17.9 years; n = 753) which were hitherto unavailable. Total blood cholesterol measurements were performed on 7184 subjects ranging from 7 to 75-years-old (males = 3151; females = 4033) from households in 69 rural villages and seven estates in peninsular Malaysia, which were based on selected multistage random sampling according to the household's involvement in the following economic activities: rice farming, rubber smallholding, coconut smallholding, fishing and employment in estates. In all functional groups, TC values increased with age and there was a distinct gender effect, namely females had higher TC values than males throughout the age spectrum analyzed. Mean TC levels for children and adolescents were in the range 3.85-4.37 mmol/L, rising markedly during adulthood to an overall mean of 4.91 ± 1.13 mmol/L for men and 5.17 ± 1.11 mmol/L for women. In adults ( 18.0 years), there was marked disparity in mean TC values among the functional groups; males and females from rice households had the lowest mean TC values (4.58 and 4.99 mmol/L, respectively). Individuals at 'high risk' (TC > 6.20 mmol/L) averaged 16.0% in women and 11.6% in men, with women from the fishing, rubber and coconut households particularly affected (17.1-21.1%). When compared to earlier rural TC data reported for closely similar rural communities in the peninsula, the present findings suggest a 'hypercholesterolemic shift' approximating 0.39 mmol/L (15 mg/dL) in the adult population; however, this was not apparent in the children and adolescents from these rural communities