The subject of the future regarding nutritional status and food security, and of their ramifications in terms of nutrition-related disorders/diseases in Sub-Saharan African (SSA) populations, is a complex one. As well as social unrest, a country's socioeconomic situation may affect food availability and, crucially, influence the generally low proportions of the Gross National Product devoted to health services. Additional determinants include changes in the roles of non-dietary adverse factors (i.e. smoking practice, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity) and of infections (i.e. gastroenteritis, malaria, tuberculosis and, particularly, HIV). As to future health in 2020, major increases in socioeconomic status are very unlikely; in fact, there has been a deterioration in some countries with food shortages affecting nutrition status and food security. However, with some measures of prosperity there are likely to be decreases in family size and falls in the proportions of children born with low birthweights or with protein-energy-malnutrition (PEM), and of children lying under the 5th percentile of growth reference standards. Simultaneously, though. there will be variable rises, especially in urban dwellers, in the occurrence of hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. Improvements in the health status of both children and adults are likely to be strongly affected by whether HIV infection can be controlled or whether it becomes rampant.
As part of the International Union of Nutritional Sciences (IUNS) Food Habits in Later Life Project, a group of 89 free-living Japanese aged 70 years and over (43 men and 46 women) residing in semiurban Okazaki, located in the middle of Honshu Island in Japan, were studied. They were followed up in order to determine whether nutrition plays a role in Japanese longevity. Information on food and nutrient intake was collected at study entry. During 55 months follow-up, eight men and five women died. The consumption of various food groups, after adjustment for energy intake to 10.5 MJ for men and 8.4 MJ for women, was similar for survivors and deceased, but there was a greater consumption of mushrooms and fats and oils among the survivors (P< 0.05). Furthermore, survivors had a higher intake of total n-3 fatty acids, especially alpha-linolenic acid, compared with the deceased (P< 0.05). Subjects who were not chronically energy deficient (BMI 18.5 kg/m 2) showed a better survival probability with a higher intake of total n-3 fatty acids ( 2.1 g/day, 25th percentile). A similar result for total n-3 fatty acids and alpha-linolenic acid was found using Cox proportional hazards analyses adjusted for age, gender and smoking status (P< 0.05). After adjustment for bodyweight, the conditionally essential amino acid tyrosine was higher in women who survived (P< 0.05). These findings suggest that the intake of n-3 fatty acids and of certain amino acids might be particularly important in elderly people for living longer.
In this study an attempt has been made to know the food consumption and dietary intake of Sugalis, the largest tribal population of Andhra Pradesh, India. The sample consisted of 492 males and 474 females (drawn from 200 families) in the age group of 1-60 years. The 24-h recall diet survey revealed that the mean consumption of different foodstuffs by different age groups compared to the RDA was grossly inadequate. During preschool ages, Sugali boys and girls showed larger deficiencies in their nutrient intakes. Inadequacy in protein and calories (P-C) is high both among males (47.0%) and females (41.6%). Caloric deficiency (C-) is higher in Sugali males (66.9%) and females (59.3%) than is protein deficiency (P-), which is 48.2% in males and 43.5% in females.
Dietary factors play a critical role in human health. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine micronutrient intake and status of subjects who were habitual meat eaters eating different quantities of meat with those who were habitual vegetarians or vegans. One hundred and thirty-nine healthy male subjects (vegan, n = 18; ovolacto-vegetarian, n = 46; moderate meat-eater, n = 65; and high meat-eater, n = 18) aged 20-55 years were recruited in metropolitan Melbourne. Each volunteer completed a semiquantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and gave a fasting venous blood sample. Dietary sodium/potassium ratio was significantly lower and vitamin C, fibre and iron intakes were higher in vegetarians than in meat-eaters. High meat-eaters had a significantly higher calcium, retinol and zinc intake than did the other three dietary groups; moderate meat-eaters had the lowest mean intake of fibre, vitamin C and -carotene. Vegans had a significantly higher -carotene intake than did the other groups. Serum ferritin and vitamin B12 levels, and haemoglobin concentration were significantly lower in vegetarians than in meat-eaters. Vegans had a significantly higher serum folate concentration than did ovolacto-vegetarian and moderate meat-eater groups. There was no significant difference in serum -tocopherol concentration. There are differences between the four diet groups that have potential to affect the subjects' health and susceptibility to chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Based on the present data, high meat-eaters may particularly benefit from altering their dietary pattern to reduce their sodium and saturated fat intake, and moderate meat-eaters from increasing their fibre and antioxidant consumption. Vegetarians, especially vegans, may need to increase their vitamin B12 and zinc intakes.
Three studies were conducted in Australia and New Zealand to examine consumers' ratings of food and health concerns, the influence of sociodemographic factors on them, and the interrelationships between perceived concerns. Similar results were found in both countries. Principal-components analyses yielded several factors that suggested consumers in both countries perceived food and health issues along several key dimensions. These were related to concerns about food safety, food system issues, health, the environment and animal and human welfare. Generally, women expressed more concern than did men about most issues, while young people and highly educated people expressed least concern. These differences suggest that familiarity, perceived control and personal resources may have some influence on expressed concerns. However, other psychological influences remain to be identified since only small amounts of variance in the key dimensions were explained by the demographic variables. Comparisons of the rankings of the issues in the two New Zealand studies, administered 2 years apart, showed that they were very similar ( = 0.91, P< 0.0001) despite the use of different response scale wording. This supports the view that the population's evaluation of food issues may be enduring and suggests they are relatively independent of differences in elicitation questions.
Many areas in Papua New Guinea are regarded as endemic for iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). Salt iodization to combat IDD has been a policy of the government since 1973. Its effectiveness in many areas of the country has, however, not been assessed. The iodine status of pregnant women is an indicator of the iodine status of the community. This study was conducted in order to assess the effectiveness of the salt iodization program in Lae. Urine samples from a total of 120 pregnant mothers attending antenatal clinics in different areas in Lae were analysed for iodine content. It was found that 15% of the mothers had urinary iodine values below 10 g/dL, 11.7% between 5 and 9.9 g/dL, 0.83% between 2 and 4.9 g/dL and 2.5% below 2 g/dL. This indicates that IDD is still a problem in Lae and most certainly in other parts of the country. There is a need for proper monitoring of the iodine content of salt sold in the country and also for strengthening the whole IDD intervention program.
Acarbose inhibits intestinal alpha-glucosidases resulting in diminished and delayed postprandial hyperglycaemia (PPH). Studies on effects of acarbose on postprandial lipaemia (PPL) have been inconclusive. Little is known about the effects of acarbose on PPH and PPL following intake of a polysaccharide diet. We studied 30 type 2 diabetic patients on dietary and/or oral hypoglycaemic agent(s). Thirty patients were recruited for food A (nasi lemak), 28 for food B (mee goreng) and 28 for food C (roti telur), which represent the typical diets of the three main races in Malaysia. Serial blood samples were taken at 15 min before and up to 240 min after each food intake, without acarbose. Subsequently, three doses of 50 mg acarbose were given orally and the same procedure was repeated the following day. There were significantly lower mean increments in plasma glucose levels after compared to before acarbose treatment 30, 45 and 60 min for food A and at 30, 45, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min for food C, but no significant difference was noted for food B. There was a significantly lower mean fasting glucose level after compared with before acarbose treatment following intake of food A and C but not food B. Short-term treatment with acarbose caused significant diminished and delayed PPH response with food A and C but not with food B. Acarbose was more effective in reducing PPH response in polysaccharide foods with a higher and earlier postprandial glucose peak than in those with a lower and lagged peak. There were no significant differences in the mean fasting or postprandial triglyceride levels before and after acarbose treatment, following intake of all three foods for up to 4 hours. Depending on the food absorption pattern, overnight low dose treatment with acarbose leads to diminished fasting and peak plasma glucose levels, and delayed PPH but insignificant reduction in postprandial lipaemia in poorly controlled type 2 diabetics following intake of racially different Malaysian food.
Koreans are a recent but relatively small ethnic minority group in Australia. This descriptive cross-sectional, comparative intercountry study examines the effect of Australian acculturation among elderly Koreans on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, compared with their counterparts in Korea. Fifty-one (72.4 ± 8.7 years) Australian Koreans (AK) and 48 (75.7 ± 6.9 years) Koreans (K) living in Seoul participated in the study. Diabetes was reported by 10.2% of AK and 17.4% of K and hypertension by 38.8 and 29.8% of AK and K, respectively. Significantly, more AK (85.7%) than K (53.2%) reported undertaking physical activity (P = 0.0005) and fewer AK were current smokers (6%vs 26.1%; P = 0.0077). After controlling for age, body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio no differences were found in lipid profiles between AK and K men or women. The effect of acculturation may be reflected among Australian Koreans by increased physical activity and reduced smoking levels and increased levels of abdominal obesity.
The objective of this study was to examine dietary intake, weight status and nutrition knowledge of young black South African women in order to identify urban-rural differences. A group of 115 black female students attending a first-year pre-registration program at the University of the North participated in the study. A quantified food frequency questionnaire was used to gather data on each student's diet prior to entering the university. Height, weight, waist and hip measurements were taken, and body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were calculated for each participant. Each student also completed a nutrition knowledge test (NKT). Mean dietary intakes were generally comparable to the recommended dietary allowances (RDA), with the exception of calcium, zinc and iron, which were lower. Urban women consumed significantly more sugar (65.8 vs 52.2 g) and confectionery (290.4 vs 183.7 g), and significantly less legumes (6.3 vs 18.9 g), than did rural women. The prevalence of overweight (BM1 25) was high in urban (22.7%) and rural (22.9%) women and WHR was significantly greater (P = 0.0003) in rural women (0.76) compared with urban ones (0.73). Nutrition knowledge test scores were poor (mean = 40.7%) and no urban-rural differences were found. There was a positive correlation between NKT and energy, protein, carbohydrate, fibre, calcium, zinc, thiamin, niacin, and folate intakes.