Event-related potentials (ERP) were assessed in 70 school-aged children with a diagnosis of asymptomatic iron deficiency anaemia (IDA), based on low haemoglobin and either low serum ferritin or high free erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels. The IDA subjects were randomized into treatment and placebo groups of 35 cases each, and compared with a normal control group of 30 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects without iron deficiency. Further haematological and ERP assessment was carried out after 3 months, during which time the active group received iron supplementation with 10 mg ferrous sulphate, together with vitamin C, malic acid and folic acid. Pre-treatment, both IDA groups had prolonged P300 latencies in comparison with the non-IDA controls (P< 0.01). The proportion of cases with distorted wave appearance was more than twice as high in the IDA groups as in the non-IDA controls, although intergroup differences did not reach statistical significance. After treatment, the active treatment IDA group showed a significant increase in haemoglobin levels and shortening in P300 latencies. After treatment, neither value was statistically different from non-IDA controls. There was a decrease in the number of cases with abnormal waveforms in the active treatment group, compared with an increase in the number within the placebo group (P = 0.002). Testing of ERP shows promise as a non-invasive, sensitive and objective marker for assessing cognitive impairment in children with IDA.
The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire for measuring the usual dietary intake of Samoans living in New Zealand. We compared a self-administered 89 item quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) with a 7 day diet record (DR) in a sample of 55 Samoan adults aged 20 years and over. The FFQ asked people to report their dietary intake in frequency and amount and included photos of standard serving sizes. The DR was collected over non-consecutive three and four day periods, including two weekend days. Food weighing scales and measuring cups and spoons were provided to measure food portions. Correlations between the two methods were poor for both crude (range -0.03-0.48) and energy-adjusted (range -0.12-0.54) nutrient intakes. Approximately 29-53% of people fell into the same tertile when classified by the two methods and 9-22% of subjects were grossly misclassified into opposite tertiles. Agreement was also poor when the differences in energy, fat, protein and carbohydrate intake between the methods were plotted against mean intake. Relative to an estimate of energy expenditure, both methods underestimated usual energy intake; however, underestimation occurred to a greater extent with the DR. We conclude that agreement between the two dietary assessment methods was poor and we were unable to use the DR to calibrate the FFQ. In terms of total energy, the FFQ gave a better assessment of usual dietary intake than did the DR.
Three different adult Indonesian population groups living on Sumatra (Palembang), Java (Depok) and Sulawesi (Makale) participated in a study on body composition. Body weight, body height and multifrequency bioelectrical impedance (1, 5, 50 and 100 kHz) were measured and in addition total body water (TBW) and extracellular water (ECW) were determined by dilution techniques, using deuterium oxide and sodium bromide, respectively, as tracers. In total 318 subjects, 159 males and 159 females, participated in the study. Predicting ECW and TBW from bio-electrical impedance, using existing prediction formulas from the literature, did not result in valid estimates of these parameters. Therefore new prediction equations for ECW and TBW were developed in this group and the prediction equations were validated in several subgroups. Extracellular water (kg) could be predicted with the formula 0.262 height2/Z1 + 2.7 (SEE = 0.9 kg) and TBW with the formula 0.516 height2/Z100 + 3.5 (SEE = 1.6 kg), where Z1 and Z100 are impedances at frequency 1 and 100 kHz, and SEE is the standard error of estimate. The prediction formulas showed good validity in the three geographical subgroups, in males and females separately and in two randomly selected subgroups. The absolute prediction error (kg) of the newly developed prediction equations is lower compared with values normally reported in the literature, but when expressed as coefficient of variation the errors are comparable with values from the literature. Addition of weight age and sex (for TBW only) improves the prediction equation. The prediction equations were compared with prediction equations developed in Dutch subjects. In the Indonesian subjects the slopes of the regression equations were not different from the Dutch equations but the intercepts were lower. This means that for the same body water compartment and for the same height Indonesians have lower impedance values. This could be explained by a slightly higher ECW/TBW ratio and a more slender body build among Indonesians. A higher environmental temperature and skin temperature of the subjects in this study could have added to the effect. The formulas should preferably be validated before applying them to other Asian populations.
Carotenoid concentrations were measured in serum and in both non-cancerous and cancerous gastric mucosal tissues of Korean patients with gastric cancer (n = 18). Carotenoids in serum and gastric tissue were extracted with chloroform/methanol (2:1), and measured using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with a C30 column. Cryptoxanthin and -carotene were the major carotenoids in the Korean blood and they had a median ratio of non-cancerous tissue/serum levels which was less than 1.0. No significant differences of cryptoxanthin and -carotene levels were found between non-cancerous and cancerous tissues. After incubation of -carotene with gastric tissue, significantly higher levels of -carotene breakdown products were produced in the homogenates of cancerous tissue when compared with non-cancerous tissue. Lutein, zeaxanthin and -carotene were the minor carotenoid constituents in the blood and their median ratio of non-cancerous tissue/serum levels was greater than 1.0. Cancerous tissue had significantly lower levels of lutein, zeaxanthin and -carotene than did non-cancerous tissue. It appears that the increased breakdown of -carotene and cryptoxanthin in cancerous tissue can be compensated for by an increased uptake of circulating carotenoids by cancerous tissue, whereas lutein, zeaxanthin and -carotene levels in cancerous tissue are not able to be maintained.
India is an agricultural country and the majority of India's population live in rural areas. This is so in Karnataka, a state in southern India. The present report consists of a detailed nutrition situation analysis. Karnataka has a population of 45 million, which is approximately 3-5% of India's population. One in every two women are agricultural labourers, reflecting women's predominance in the field of agriculture. The state has a literacy rate of 56%. The food consumption patterns reveal that cereals and millets are the main food items. However, protective foods (i.e. foods that are rich in proteins, vitamins and minerals) are consumed in lesser amounts. When compared with the average Indian recommended dietary intake (RDI), the intake of energy in adults was found to be higher, as was protein. The average intake of vitamins, however, was 50% less than the RDI. Unlike adults, energy deficiency is a problem in the diets of preschool children. Growth retardation has been observed in a vast majority of children in Karnataka. An improvement in the nutritional status of rural adults has been observed in recent years. Protein energy malnutrition, vitamin A deficiency and B-complex deficiencies are the major nutritional deficiencies among preschool children, while anaemia remains a major health problem in women. Improvement in the healthcare system has brought a decline in the infant mortality rate in Karnataka and the state attained universal immunization coverage in 1990. The National Nutrition Programme - Integrated Child Development Scheme provides an integrated package of services to residents of Karnataka
A group of 102 preschool children aged 13-69 months from a rural area of Lebowa were selected from a cross-sectional study of 659 children for an intervention trial (12 months) to study the effect of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) supplementation on their plasma phospholipid fatty acid status and growth. They were classified into undernourished and control groups according to their weight-for-age. The undernourished children (n = 52) received 43 g fish and 7.5 g sunflower cooking oil per day, whereas a matched (age and sex) well-nourished control group (n = 50) was not supplemented. At baseline, after 6 months and after 12 months of the study, anthropometry, haematology, blood biochemistry and plasma phospholipid fatty acid analyses were done. In the undernourished group, high baseline oleic acid (18:1 9) levels in plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC) were replaced by docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 3) with supplementation. In plasma PC, this reduction in 18:1 9 and increase in 22:6 3 was associated with significant increases in weight-for-age Z-scores, P = 0.0378 and P = 0.0415, respectively. The fish supplement and cooking oil that supplied additional 7% energy (7% E) and nutrients promoted growth of undernourished children, although this was inadequate for sustained growth during the second 6 months of intervention.
Edible oils have different effects on lipid profiles and on the propensity for producing lipid peroxidation products. These two properties of edible oils can affect arterial structure, ultimately leading to atherosclerosis. Hypertension is said to be a predisposing factor for atherosclerosis and can accelerate its process. This paper investigates the effects of three edible oils, namely soya bean oil, palm oil and ghee, on the ultrastructure of the aortas of spontaneously hypertensive rats at the end of a 4 month feeding period. It was found that ghee produced significant structural changes to the aortic wall when compared with palm oil or soya bean oil, and that no noticeable structural differences were seen to occur on the aortas of the palm oil-fed and soya bean oil-fed groups of rats. This study suggests that the consumption of ghee, rather than palm or soya bean oil, is more likely to lead to the development of atherosclerosis.
The protective effect of the aqueous extracted turmeric antioxidant protein on H2O2-induced red blood cell lipid peroxidation and hemolysis was investigated. Turmeric antioxidant protein inhibited lipid peroxidation and hemolysis by 70% and 80%, respectively, and was found to be more effective as an antioxidant than were -tocopherol and curcumin.
Intestinal transference of calcium and rate of bone turnover were evaluated in ovariectomized rats fed for 15 days with a high amount (30%) of lipid enriched with monounsaturated (groundnut oil), polyunsaturated (sunflower oil) and saturated (coconut oil) fatty acids. The results were compared with those for sham-operated control and ovariectomized groups fed a normal diet (7% groundnut oil). Irrespective of the saturation and unsaturation characteristics, all lipids (edible oils) used in our study considerably decreased the rate of in situ intestinal transference of calcium. Likewise, the activities of intestinal mucosal enzymes, alkaline phosphatase (AP) and calcium ATPase (Ca2+-ATPase) were decreased significantly in all the segments of the small intestine in a descending gradient. Significant changes in bone turnover and bone calcium (Ca) mobilization were confirmed in these animals by marked alterations in plasma AP activity, urinary calcium and phosphate excretion and calcium to creatinine (Ca:creatinine) ratio. Lipid supplementation (30%) in such ovariectomized rats using groundnut oil (monounsaturated), sunflower oil (polyunsaturated) or coconut oil (saturated) for 15 days further enhanced all of the above observed parameters. These results suggest that the intake of high amounts of lipids with different unsaturation and saturation characteristics may be an important factor in determining bone loss in ovariectomized rats.
There are 200 million Chinese adolescents and they represent a significant proportion of the world adolescent population. Their health, growth and nutritional status is of vital importance to China but also to the health of adolescents globally. Previous assessments of nutritional status of adolescents in China have been undertaken without using World Health Organization (WHO) recommended anthropometric methods or reference data. Using data from the National Survey on the Constitution and Health of Chinese Students in 1995 (NSCHCS-95), this study aimed to assess the current nutritional status of Shaanxi school students using WHO recommended methods of nutritional assessment. Data for 6284 (3142 females and 3142 males) Shaanxi school students aged 10-17 years was abstracted from the Shaanxi portion of the NSCHCS-95. This national cross-sectional survey gathered anthropometric measurements using standard methods, maturity indicators, and basic social and demographic data. The calculation of anthropometric indicators was based on the National Centre for Health Statistics/WHO reference data and the prevalence of nutritional status indicators was estimated using standard WHO recommended cut-offs and methods of maturity adjustment. The median age of menarche and spermarche was delayed for Shaanxi rural female and male students in comparison with the reference data by 0.81 and 0.39 years, respectively. The prevalence of stunting and thinness in students in almost all ages was higher than in the reference population. For all age groups combined, the adjusted prevalence of stunting was 8.0% for urban students, and 11.0% for rural students. For students under 14 years of age, the adjusted prevalence of thinness was 18.3% for urban students, and 15.1% for rural students. The prevalence of 'at risk of overweight' and obesity among urban male students aged 10-11.99 (for overweight) and 10-12.99 years (for obesity) were similar to the reference population. Undernutrition (stunting and thinness) continues to be a public health problem in the Shaanxi school population and may be related to the less developed rural economy in the province. Young Shaanxi urban male students showed a tendency towards an excess prevalence of 'at risk of overweight' and obesity, which may be related to improved economic conditions in urban areas. It is necessary to develop national anthropometric reference data, cut-off points and median ages of attainment of WHO recommended maturational indicators for Chinese adolescents.
As part of the Cross-Cultural Research on Nutrition of Older Subjects (CRONOS) project, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to observe the nutritional status and body composition of free-living elderly and middle-aged people in a low-income area of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Anthropometric data (weight; height; arm span; four skinfold thicknesses; left upper mid-arm, abdomen, hip and calf circumferences) were collected from 50 Vietnamese men and 50 Vietnamese women aged between 35 and 44 years and 50 men and 50 women aged between 60 and 74 years who lived in Village 2, District 4, Ho Chi Minh City. The prevalence of chronic energy deficiency (CED) in the elderly men (BMI = 19.9 ± 2.8 kg/m2) was higher (52 vs 34%) than that in the middle-aged men (BMI = 19.2 ± 3.4 kg/m2). Fat-free mass and calf circumference of the elderly were lower than those of the middle-aged (P< 0.001). However, the Vietnamese elderly had higher body fat content, higher abdomen-to-hip ratios and lower fat-free mass than their younger counterparts (P< 0.05). In particular, 36% of middle-aged women and 20% of elderly women were classified with 'relative abdominal overfatness'. Vietnamese middle-aged and older adults are shorter and thinner than their counterparts in American and European countries but overfatness increases with age, particularly in women. Urban elderly are vulnerable to both undernutrition and overnutrition, both of which merit consideration in the geriatric care system in Vietnam.
The effects of dumb-bell exercise (aerobic-resistance exercise) with and without low calorie diet (LCD) therapy on resting metabolic rate (RMR), diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) and body composition were studied in 12 mildly obese women aged 19-20 years. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of the following two groups: dumb-bell exercise with LCD (DEx + LCD group), and dumb-bell exercise only (DEx group). The subjects performed dumb-bell exercises with pairs of 2 kg dumb-bells every day after dinner for approximately 20 min. In the DEx + LCD group, subjects also received a liquid-formula diet based on a commercially available diet supplement, Micro Diet, for two of their three daily meals. Thus, they were restricted to approximately 4.18 MJ of energy intake per day for 12 weeks. Subjects underwent several measurements (body composition, RMR and DIT tests) before commencing the experiment and again after 12 weeks while still dieting. During the 12 week experimental period, body weight and body fat decreased significantly in both the DEx + LCD and the DEx groups without reducing fat free mass (FFM). The decreases in body weight and body fat were significantly larger in the LCD + DEx group than in the DEx group. These results suggest that dumb-bell exercise decreases body weight and body fat without reducing FFM in relation to increasing RMR and DIT. Micro Diet LCD may strengthen the effect of dumb-bell exercise on body weight and body fat, but weaken the effects on RMR and DIT.
A health and weight awareness program was initiated in 1995 by the Tonga National Food and Nutrition Committee to combat a high prevalence of obesity and its associated non-communicable diseases. The strategy of the program was to provide a fun activity in which people wanted to join, and at the same time gain health benefits. Three successive weight loss competitions were organized, of 4 to 6 months in length, in which radio, television, and newspaper media were major elements. A Tongan version of the 1993 South Pacific Commission weight for height chart was produced, allowing identification of overweight/obesity using body mass index. Participants were registered and given individual encouragement on diet/exercise. Prizes donated by local businesses added to the campaign, as well as the involvement of His Majesty King Taufa'ahau Tupou IV. Aerobic exercise, public walks, weigh station manager training, and weight watcher group meetings were special activities. An unexpected element was the interest by the international press, which proclaimed the Tonga national weight loss competitions to be the first in the world. A total of 3429 participants registered in the three competitions, with 1617 competing to the end. First place winners lost from 25.5 to 28.4 kg in the competitions. Difficulties encountered included problems of coordination, funds, scales, newness of the healthy weight concept, and weight gain at the close of the competition. The activity was received positively by the community, with requests for the competitions and exercise activities to continue, and much awareness on health issues relating to overweight was achieved.