Asia Pacific J Clin Nutr (1993) 2, 77-84
Breakfast practices in the Asian
J.A. Howden1, Y.H. Chong2,
S.F. Leung3, L.B. Rabuco4, M. Sakamoto5,
B.S. Tchai6, K. Tontisirin7, M.L. Wahlqvist8,
F.G. Winarno9 and M. Yap10
1. Kellogg Company (Asia-Pacific);
2. Nutrition Consultant, Malaysia;
3. Dept. of Paediatrics, Chinese University of Hong Kong;
4. College of Public Health, University of the Philippines, Manila;
5. Dept. of Home Economics, Wayo Women's University, Japan;
6. College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Korea;
7. Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Thailand;
8. Dept. of Medicine, Monash University, Australia;
9. Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, Bogor Agricultural University
10. Nutrition section, Ministry of Health, Singapore.
Studies on changing dietary patterns throughout
the Asian region have focused largely on overall alterations in
nutrient intakes and changes in the consumption of various food
groups. Changes in individual meal patterns have received little
attention. Although country and regional differences occur, the
first meal of the day, breakfast, tends to take the form of a traditional
meal in most south-east Asian countries. Grain and cereal products,
such as rice and wheat and rice noodles, appear to be dietary staples
at breakfast In some countries, the more traditional grain products
are being replaced by alternative cereals, such as bread. Lifestyle
changes and accompanying urbanization together with rising affluence,
appear to be largely responsible for dietary alterations. The health
implications of these changes require further investigation.
Many Asian countries are now undergoing rapid developmental
changes. While such changes have improved the economic standing of
these nations and the living standards of their people, those related
to increased urbanization and alterations in traditional eating habits
have been implicated in the rising prevalence of chronic degenerative
diseases, usually associated with the more prosperous countries.
A nation is regarded to have achieved the status of
a modest level of economic development when its per capita gross national
product (GNP) reaches between US$3000 and US$4()00. Some Asian countries
that are yet to attain such a status are Malaysia (US$2965, Thailand,
Philippines, Indonesia and PRC (US$360). In contrast, the per capita
GNP of the more prosperous Asian-Pacific nations are Japan (US$27
326), Hong Kong (US$16 382), Australia (US$16 310), Singapore (US$15
200), Taiwan (US$10 215) and South Korea (US$6 635).
Studies show that a trend away from traditional to
more westernized eating practices is usually-accompanied by an increase
in fat and protein intake and a reduction in unrefined carbohydrate
and dietary fibre intake. As GNP increases, there is also a gradual
reduction in the intake of unrefined carbohydrates and a corresponding
increase in dietary fat from animal sources1. The relative
proportion of free sugars. especially sucrose and glucose syrups,
in the diet also tends to rise. The World Health Organization (WHO)
reports that the most striking difference in dietary patterns between
societies differing in affluence is the variation in starchy foods
and animal fats, with the former being significantly lower and the
latter higher in countries with higher GNP1.
Analysis of the age- adjusted mortality for both men
and women shows a dominance of the dietary related disorders such
as cardiovascular disease and cancer in countries with a high and
a modest GNP (the latter taken to he US$3000-4000pa. The incidence
of dietary related diseases is nearly as great in countries with a
modest GNP as it is in those countries with a GNP three times higher.
Therefore, modest increases in prosperity in nations
with a low GNP are associated with the most marked increase in the
incidence of dietary related diseases. This has major long-term implications
for the burden placed on health services in these countries.
Breakfast habits may be one indicator of the trends
in eating habits and hence the changes in nutrient intakes occurring
in Asian countries. Scientific studies on the physiological, endocrinological
and neuropsycological implications of breakfast omission vary in their
findings and conclusions2-8. Nevertheless, it has generally
been acknowledged that breakfast consumption is important in the provision
of energy and nutrients9-11. Breakfast usually follows
a fast of 10-12 hours. Studies have shown that nutrients which are
missed at breakfast are not generally compensated for later in the
This paper explores normal breakfast habits in eight
Asian countries (Japan, Korea, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Hong
Kong, Philippines, Indonesia) and briefly addresses the nutritional
implications of altering breakfast habits in these countries.
The main data on breakfast habits and consumption
were obtained from personal interviews by trained interviewers from
a multi-centre attitudinal survey conducted in 6 Asian countries in
June, 1992. Subjects were women living in urban areas aged 20-54 years.
These findings have also been supplemented with data from household
expenditure surveys, national and small scale dietary surveys, as
well as returns from a breakfast questionnaire survey.
The findings across the region indicate that most
people consider breakfast to be important. The incidence of breakfast
skipping varies by country. For the purpose of this paper breakfast
skipping is defined as having less than 100 kcal (420kJ) in the first
two or three hours of waking. This definition excludes a breakfast
consisting of coffee, tea or water only.
Japan is the only country in the region which has
collected information on actual missed breakfast occasions in the
National Dietary Survey13. This data showed that the incidence
of missing breakfast averages 14% in men and 9% in women.
The greatest incidence of breakfast skipping is seen
in young males with 35% of 20-24 year olds and nearly one in three
25-29 year olds missing breakfast at least once in three days.
High percentages of high school students (18%) also
miss breakfast with the figure falling to just 4% in elementary school
Lack of time and poor appetite are the most commonly
given reasons for missing breakfast, especially in young men who maintain
very late working hours.
A recent study from Korea (Jeil Communications Survey
of Korean eating habits, 1992) on 6000 people aged 13-59 in five major
cities (Seoul, Pusan, Taegu, Teajun and Kwangju) found that 31% of
respondents regularly miss breakfast. Young age and unmarried state
were positively correlated with missing breakfast.
In other countries, the incidence of missing breakfast
regularly appears to be low ranging from 1% in Indonesia, Korea, the
Philippines and Singapore to 13% in Thailand (Frank Small and Assoc.,
unpublished data). However significant differences in age groups are
Reasons for skipping breakfast vary by locality. In
poorer rural and urban countries, especially in the Philippines14
it is often a matter of there being no food available to consume.
In the more developed countries such as Singapore and Malaysia, lack
of time is usually given as the main reason for failure to eat breakfast.
The type of food consumed at breakfast varies by country
and is largely dependant on culture (Table 1).
Table 1. Typical breakfast patterns in selected
||Eaten at home
||Noodles, rice porridge
||Bread, butter, bread roll, eggs/sausage/ham, milk, soy milk,
||Bread, egg, ham, sausage
||Rice/rice porridge, nasi goreng
||Bread, butter, cofee/ tea with sweetened condensed milk
||Burbur ayam, Bakso kuah, Mie bakso
||Boiled rice, miso soup, salted dried fish or egg, cooked, pickled
vegetables or seaweed, green tea/black tea, 'Undon' or 'soba'
||Bread, butter, salad, eggs, sausages or bacon sandwiches, coffee/tea
||Boiled rice, soup, kimchi (salted fermented vegetable), fish
||Bread, butter, coffee/tea
||Wheat/rice, noodles, in soup or fried egg/meat/shrimp or cockles
||Bread or toast, butter/ margarine, jam or kaya. Coffee/tea or
chocolate drinks with sweetened condensed milk
||Noodles (wheat or rice) in soup or fried with meat/shrimps/ fish
and vegetables. Rice porridge with meat or fish slices, nasi lemak
||Boiled rice pandesal (bun) fried or scrambled egg, processed
||Bread or toast, margarine/butter fried or scrambled egg, processed
meat, coffee/tea with milk/sugar
||Rice porridge Dim sum, tea
||Bread, buns, local cakes strong coffee (black with condensed
milk), tea, hot chocolate or malt drinks.
||Rice porridge, Noodle dishes
||Rice cakes egg plant or dhal curry, roti prata, vadai, coffee
||Roti chanai roti prata
||Rice with vegetables and curry gravy, nasi lemak, noodle dishes,
Malay cakes, tea
||bread & butter, coffee/ tea sweetened with condensed milk
||Glutinous rice, hot soup or fish paste; one or more side dishes(fried
||Bread, pastry, coffee, fresh milk
||Rice porridge, fried noodles, (rice and one side dish as one
In Singapore, a multicultural society, breakfast habits
can be split by ethnic grouping15.
Among the Chinese, breakfast is usually a hot meal
consisting of either noodles (fried or in soup) or rice/rice porridge.
These are taken with simple meat/vegetable dishes, dim sum and bread.
Buns and local cakes are also popular breakfast choices. These foods
are taken with strong black coffee or coffee sweetened with condensed
milk (Yap M, unpublished data).
The Malay population of Singapore also prefers a hot
breakfast usually consisting of rice or noodle dishes with vegetables
and a curry gravy. Nasi lemak is a popular Malay dish in which rice
is cooked in coconut milk and eaten with fried egg or fried fish.
Malay cakes (KuehKueh) are also frequently taken at breakfast time.
Coffee or tea sweetened with condensed milk are the most popular beverages
(Yap M, unpublished data).
Rice is also a staple for the Indian population. Rice
cakes with eggplant or Thai curry, puto mayam (string hoppers) with
coconut and brown sugar and roti prata or roti chanai with curry or
vadai with coconut chutney are other popular choices. As in the other
Singaporean groups, coffee with sweetened condensed milk accompanies
In Malaysia, a more westernized style of breakfast
appears to be commonly consumed at home, at least by white collar
workers in urban areas18. In a recent survey in Malaysia
(Chong YH, unpublished data) the most common at-home breakfast was
bread or toast with butter or margarine and jam or kaya (coconut egg
jam). This was generally taken with coffee or a chocolate beverage
with milk and sugar. Sweetened condensed milk was the most commonly
consumed milk product while whole milk, egg, fruit juice and fruits
were not commonly taken. For those subjects consuming breakfast outside
of the home, cooked hot foods were generally chosen. These breakfasts
included rice or wheat noodles in soup with meat/shrimps/fish/vegetables
or fried noodles with egg/meat/shrimp/cockles and vegetables. Rice
porridge (with meat or fish slices) and traditional dishes such as
nasi lemak or roti chanai (a wheat pancake taken with a thin dhal
or fish/chicken curry) are also popular. Coffee or tea sweetened with
condensed milk is generally taken with these breakfasts. It would
seem from the data available that there is a similarity in the type
of breakfast eaten in Singapore and Malaysia. This is not surprising
given the close proximity of these countries and the common cultural
and ethnic origins of the two populations.
In the Philippines, rice forms the basis of a traditional
breakfast16-21. This is accompanied by fried or scrambled
egg or fish, pandesal (bun) or bread, and margarine. Coffee is the
predominant beverage generally taken with sugar.
Rice with hot soup and one or two side dishes such
as fried eggs, fried vegetables and/or meat curry, constitutes a typical
Thai breakfast. Rice porridge, noodles, or rice with one side dish,
is the main breakfast taken at street stalls or small food shops.
More westernized items such as bread, pastry, coffee and milk are
also starting to appear on the breakfast menu in urban Bangkok (Tontsirin
K, Review of Thailand's breakfast habits, unpublished).
A similar pattern is observed in Indonesia, where
rice porridge or fried rice and egg (nasi goreng) are common breakfast
choices22. Common accompaniments include kecap (soy sauce),
kerupak udang (shrimp chips) and abon (dried shredded beef). Bread
is also increasing in popularity as an Indonesian breakfast choice.
Coffee or tea are the normal beverages taken at breakfast. Fresh milk
is not generally consumed.
In Hong Kong, bread has become the most popular breakfast
food (taken on 52% of breakfast occasions), followed by noodles (21%).
The Korean breakfast tends to be fairly traditional
consisting of rice with soup and pickled fermented vegetables. This
is generally flavoured with small quantities of meat, poultry or fish
(Tchai BS, unpublished data). Consumption of a breakfast of western
origin is uncommon.
A traditional Japanese breakfast consists of boiled
rice with miso soup. This is accompanied by various side dishes such
as salted dry fish, eggs, cooked and/or pickled vegetables and seaweed13.
Egg is a very popular choice in Japan, being taken in 40% of all breakfasts
on average. Other commonly chosen side dishes include grilled fish,
seaweed and pickled vegetables.
The traditional breakfast is still commonly found
in urban areas in Japan, although bread is being consumed more frequently,
particularly in younger age groups. Milk is commonly taken by children
at breakfast while coffee and tea are growing in popularity. Coffee
and/or tea are taken by 9.7% of Japanese children aged 12 years and
A comparison of food frequency by country (Table 2)
shows the differences in food normally eaten at breakfast. In Malaysia,
Singapore, Hong Kong, the Philippines and Indonesia, bread and pastries
are commonly taken at home amongst urban subjects, especially in the
more affluent groups. In Korea and Thailand these food items are infrequently
found on the breakfast table with rice or congee remaining the dietary
Table 2. Comparison of commonly consumed food
items at breakfast by country
||% Subjects eating at last breakfast occasion
The figures for protein foods given in Table 2 do
not appear to be a true indicator of actual frequency of consumption
of these foods at breakfast as meat, fish and egg are normally added
to rice congee and noodle dishes in most countries. These figures
do not reflect this addition.
in urban versus rural areas
A rapid increase in urbanization is occurring in many
Asian countries. Such a change has major implications for the food
supply which alters from a home-grown produce supply to a reliance
on cash economy. This can have a significant impact on dietary habits;
increases in both fat and sugar intakes with the transition to an
urban environment have been reported1.
The type of breakfast consumed in rural areas is more
likely to follow traditional eating patterns. Rice often forms the
basis of the rural breakfast and is usually combined with meat and
vegetables. Food items commonly seen in western breakfasts, such as
breads and pastries, are not generally taken in the rural regions.
Protein sources differ according to regional availability,
eg, in rural areas, fish is more commonly used as a protein source
In some countries (Indonesia, Korea and Thailand),
the eating patterns in rural areas centre around just two main meals
per day, compared to the three meals taken in the urban setting. In
these countries, breakfast tends to be a more substantial meal followed
in the evening by a large dinner.
Food restrictions related to such stages of the life
cycle as puberty, pregnancy and lactation and during illness, are
more likely to be practised in rural areas than in urban areas. This
may have implications for nutrient intakes.
For example, in Thailand, lactating mothers in rural
areas29 had poor daily energy intakes. The total energy
contribution from breakfast was 525 kcal (2200 kJ), predominantly
provided by carbohydrate. The percentage energy contributions from
protein, carbohydrate and fat were 13:76:11 respectively.
Breakfast consisted of steamed glutinous rice and
salted fish or chicken. No fats, fruits or vegetables were eaten during
lactation. Such a restricted dietary regime has implications for the
mothers health during the lactation period when nutrient requirements
in breakfast choice by age
There is limited information on breakfast habits by
age group, however some work has been conducted in school children.
There is evidence that the incidence of breakfast skipping is greater
in younger age groups. In primary school children in Bangkok, 5.2%
have been reported to skip breakfast with a further 29% not consuming
a nutritionally adequate breakfast23.
In Singapore, children may start school very early,
leaving little time for breakfast. A study on the dietary habits of
400 school children was conducted in 1988. It was found that 15.8%
of 9-year-olds and 37.3% of 15 year-olds tend to skip breakfast. It
has been reported that 10.7% of 9-year-olds and 18% of 15-year-olds
in Singapore have breakfast in the school canteen28. The
canteen is essentially a group of stalls selling cooked foods. In
Indonesia, up to 70°/O of school children take street foods for breakfast22.
Studies from Japan suggest that younger age groups
are more likely to consume a western style breakfast including bread,
rather than a traditional Japanese breakfast. One study in 4- to 6-year-old
children residing in the urban area showed that 47.5% took a traditional
Japanese breakfast of rice with egg, seaweed, pickled vegetables and
sausage. The percentage of children taking a breakfast of bread with
egg, salad and sausage was just slightly below those taking the traditional
breakfast at 43.4%25
The switch to consuming bread at breakfast appears
to occur more commonly in Japanese households in which only two or
fewer family generations are residing, suggesting that the influence
of older family members on breakfast choice is significant. In families
in which three generations resided in the household25 40%
took a traditional breakfast while 33% chose bread. In families in
which two generations resided in the household, only 28% took the
traditional rice breakfast with 51% choosing bread.
The authors expressed concern that the breakfast based
on bread may not have been adequately 'balanced' in terms of daily
nutrient requirements when compared to the more traditional breakfast.
One of the dietary recommendations in Japan is to consume up to 30
different food items daily. The researchers found that fewer food
items were chosen at breakfast when bread was the dietary staple taken
for the meal.
Among Japanese female college students, rice and bread
breakfasts appear to be equally popular27. Egg and bacon
are starting to be taken with increasing frequency in this group while
pastries are a more recent addition to the breakfast menu, taken by
18% of the students. Coffee and black tea are becoming more widely
taken at breakfast by this age group.
Several studies have shown that breakfast habits vary
with socioeconomic status. As average income rises, consumption patterns
are affected by changes in the food system. Food habits reflect the
impact of many factors leading to a demand for convenience and a shifting
emphasis on meal patterns and taste preferences.
In Thailand, the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia,
poor urban dwellers and lower income students rely heavily on street
foods. These are readily available, require no preparation and are
reasonably priced. A more westernized style of eating often accompanies
an improvement in socio-economic status, although not always. In Malaysia
for example, frequent consumption of street foods is commonly found
across all income brackets. In rural migrants to urban areas, early
eating patterns are quite traditional, with the emphasis on rice with
meat and other side dishes. In upper socio-economic groupings, bread,
pastries, coffee and fresh milk are more commonly taken although traditional
meals are still popular.
In the mid to upper socioeconomic groups in Bangkok,
convenience and ready-to-eat foods are increasing in popularity. Breads,
fresh milk and occasionally juice is more likely to be taken for breakfast
in these groups although cooked rice with soup remains a popular breakfast
A survey of 40 Chinese households in Singapore29
found that the consumption of a hot cooked breakfast was more common
in households falling into a higher socioeconomic grouping (as determined
by type of housing). Households which were more affluent (group 1
households) were more likely to consume a breakfast consisting of
bread or cereal with ham, egg or cheese. This type of breakfast was
taken regularly by 71% of group 1 households compared to just 22%
of the less affluent group (group 2 households). The most popular
breakfast choice in the group 2 households was bread or cereal which
was chosen by 56.5% of group 2 households surveyed. A traditional
breakfast such as cooked noodles was taken by 11.8% of the group 1
households and 17.4% of group 2 households.
Eating out for breakfast is becoming common, particularly
in more developed countries. In Hong Kong for example, 56% of those
in mid to upper socioeconomic groupings take breakfast outside the
home. Corresponding figures on the incidence in other localities are
21% to 50°~O in Malaysia, 30% in Thailand, 24% in Taiwan, 21% in Singapore
and around 10% in Indonesia, Korea and the Philippines (Frank Small
and Assoc., unpublished data).
The incidence of eating breakfast outside the home
appears to be lowest in Japan where only 4-5% of the population consume
breakfast out13, however marked differences are apparent
in this habit between age groups. In men aged 25-29 years, the incidence
of eating breakfast out is as high as 41% with a predominantly western-style
An independent five-year study on street foods is
currently underway in Indonesia. The study comprises two phases, the
first two years of the study (phase one), dealt with base-line data
collection on technology and socio-demographic variables while phase
two examines the impact of an intervention program aimed at improving
various hygienic, technological and economic aspects of the street
food system. For the urban poor in particular, labourers and low income
students and families, street foods are a major source of low cost,
nutritious foods. Breakfast frequently consists of street foods.
School children in Indonesia often spend their allowances
on street foods sold in the school yard. It has been estimated that
up to 70% of school children take street foods for breakfast. Street
foods are introduced to infants from as young as 6 months of age.
Bubur ayam (chicken rice porridge) is the most popular street food
for this age group being taken on average eleven times per month.
Consumption of street foods by older age groups in
Indonesia varies in frequency from daily to once every ten days. Dishes
which are most popular in pre-school children are bubur ayam, bakso
kuoh (meat ball broth), fried banana and sweet bread. These foods
have been reported to contain colourings and sweetening agents which
are not regarded as safe for young children22.
Indonesian street foods most commonly taken by school
children and adolescents are mie bakso (a wheat noodle soup with meatballs)
and bubur ayam. In adults, steamed rice and gado gado (a blanched
vegetable salad with spicy peanut sauce) are the most popular choices.
Studies on university students from low income families have reported
that street foods contribute greater than 80% of both protein and
energy intakes and more than 75% of daily iron intakes.
Studies in Bangkok, Thailand suggest that as much
as 90% of the population eat most of their meals outside of the home28.
Eating out is particularly prevalent amongst lower socioeconomic groups
who have few if any facilities for cooking. The most popular street
foods in Thailand are fried rice with crab meat; fermented rice vermicelli
with coconut gravy; rice noodle with pork soup and fried noodles.
Although regional differences are apparent, breakfast
tends to take the form of a traditional meal in most countries in
south-east Asia. Rice, wheat and rice noodles, soup and egg appear
to be dietary staples throughout the region. Coffee, tea and hot chocolate
drinks are also popular.
In spite of the continued popularity of traditional
Asian breakfasts, shifts in eating habits are becoming apparent in
some countries. The introduction of bread and pastries on a regular
basis to the breakfast menu in urban Singapore, Malaysia, the Philippines,
Thailand and Indonesia suggests that the first meal of the day is
altering consistent with the lifestyle changes accompanying urbanization
Gender roles have been affected with women in many
countries undertaking the combined role of housewife and paid worker.
Lack of time and higher incomes militate against the use of staple
foods (such as raw grains) at breakfast which are time-consuming to
The separation of work and home lives appears to have
marked effects on the composition of breakfast and normal breakfast
behaviour. It appears that younger age groups are the population groups
which are more likely to change to a western style of breakfast such
as breads and cereals in preference to a hot cooked traditional breakfast.
Fruits and fruit juices are not generally taken in
any of the Asian countries studied, even in those groups favouring
a breakfast of western origin. Traditionally, fruit is consumed at
other times of the day and this practice seems to persist even when
other breakfast habits alter.
The high incidence of eating breakfast out is of interest.
Breakfasts taken from street stalls or restaurants provide convenient,
palatable foods at moderate cost. The nutrient density of these foods
varies greatly; however, most dishes provide some protein. Some of
the foods such as fried noodles, are high in fat while most are relatively
poor sources of dietary fibre.
The safety of street foods is also a problem in some
regions. Lack of hygiene in food handling and inadequate washing and
drainage facilities may pose risks to consumers of street foods.
More westernized fast food outlets providing hamburgers
are becoming popular with some younger age groups. Staff and school
canteens are also more commonly used for the first meal of the day
than in the past. In Japan, vending machines, with electrolyte drinks
and a variety of foods, provide yet another breakfast choice.
The implications in terms of nutrient intake on changing
eating patterns are great. Studies show that the incidence of chronic
dietary-related disease increases with increasing affluence. Data
from more developed countries in south east-Asia, show a progressive
rise in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, overweight, coronary
heart disease and diet-related cancers such as cancers of the colon
and breast. There is a major difference between health patterns in
urban and rural areas in Asia and is has been suggested that the actual
incidence of diet-related diseases in urban areas has been underestimated
in many Asian countries due to the tendency to use country statistics1.
The rising incidence of diet-related diseases correlates
with an increase in fat, particularly saturated fat, intake and a
reduction in the intake of unrefined carbohydrates and dietary fibre.
There is a growing trend towards urbanization in Asia
and this trend is occurring even in developing countries. Changes
in diet and lifestyle accompanying such urbanization require careful
consideration in terms of long term health implications.
Breakfast habits need to be examined in terms of contribution
to overall dietary intake. Any change in meal patterns will have an
impact on overall nutrient intake and needs to be balanced against
the average daily intake. For example, a reduction in unrefined carbohydrate
and dietary fibre and an increase in fat and animal protein, at lunch
or dinner, due to a change in eating patterns may signal the need
for a high carbohydrate, high fibre breakfast. Normal breakfast habits
need to be evaluated against this.
Data on the differences between week-day breakfasts
and the breakfasts taken at weekends when people tend to have more
time is lacking. In many other countries, hot cooked breakfasts are
often eaten at weekends with more convenient breakfast choices such
as breakfast cereals and/or bread/toast being chosen during the week.
The primary reason for this is time constraint in the morning. With
similar problems emerging in Asian countries, a study on the incidence
of traditional or hot cooked breakfasts during the week versus the
weekend may be enlightening.
Future studies should examine daily nutrient contribution
of various breakfast choices. The growing tendency to eat meals, including
breakfast, outside of the home suggests a trend towards convenience
foods which are filling and readily prepared. Although no nutrient
analyses were undertaken in this review, breakfasts eaten outside
the home tend to provide more fat and energy than those taken
at home. Data from Malaysian food tables36 suggests that
typical street food breakfasts in Malaysia and Singapore provide 250-400
kcal (1050-1680kJ) while the typical breakfast taken at home (two
slices of bread with spread and a beverage) provides no more than
250 kcal (1050 kJ). The nutritional implications of this trend require
Acknowledgement- Critical review of this manuscript was provided by Drs Bridget Huey-Huey
Hsu-Hage, Widjaja Lukito, Norihito Onishi, Kazumasa Shimizu and Naiyana
'Tikky' Wattanpenpaiboon of the Department of Medicine at the Monash
Medical Centre, Melbourne.
||: dried shredded beef
||: meat ball broth
||: chicken rice porridge
||: blanched vegetable
salad topped with spicy peanut sauce
||: soy sauce
||: shrimp chips
||: Malay cakes
||: wheat noodle soup
with meat balls
|Rice congee (porridge)
||: rice cooked with a
large volume of water for a long time
||: fried mixture of rice,
egg, chicken/meat, cabbage, chillies, topped with fresh tomatoes
and cucumber. Soya sauce is generally added to taste
||: coconut milk rice,
served with fried peanut, ikan bilis, sambal, prawns and chilli
sambal. Packed in banana leaf.
||: Filipino bun made
from wheat flour.
||: rice porridge - Teochew.
Thin bland porridge with sharp, salty and preserved dishes like
salted eggs, vegetables and fish accompanying it.
||: rice flour mixed with
water, extruded through a sieve and steamed. Served with grated
coconut and palm sugar.
||: wheat pancake (wheat
dough with margarine and egg, pan fried); eaten with thin dhal
or fish/chicken curry.
||: Indian bread prepared
on the spot. Dough is stretched, oiled and folded into a square
then pan fried in a special flat pan. Eaten with dhal curry or
||: Balls of ground yellow
or black dhal mixed with chilli, onions and spices and deep-fried.
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Nutrition]. All rights reserved.
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