APPENDICES

APPENDIX ONE: HEIGHT AND WEIGHT TABLES

MEN

WOMEN

Height
in shoes

(1)

Small
Frame
Medium
Frame
Large
Frame

Height
in shoes

(1)

Small
Frame
Medium
Frame
Large
Frame

kg

kg

158cm 58.3-61.0 59.6-64.2 62.8-68.3 148cm 46.4-50.8 49.6-55.1 53.7-59.8
159cm 58.6-61.3 59.9-64.5 63.1-68.8 149cm 46.6-51.0 50.0-55.5 54.1-60.3
160cm 59.0-61.7 60.3-64.9 63.5-69.4 150cm 46.7-51.3 50.3-55.9 54.4-60.9
161cm 59.3-62.0 60.6-65.2 63.8-69.9 151cm 46.9-51.7 50.7-56.4 54.8-61.4
162cm 59.7-62.4 61.0-656 64.2-70.5 152cm 47.1-52.1 51.1-57.0 55.2-61.9
163cm 60.0-62.7 61.3-66.0 64.5-71.1 153cm 47.4-52.5 51.5-57.5 55.6-62.4
164cm 60.4-63.1 61.7-66.5 64.9-71.8 154cm 47.8-53.0 51.9-58.0 56.2-63.0
165cm 60.8-63.5 62.1-67.0 65.3-72.5 155cm 48.1-53.6 52.2-58.6 56.8-63.6
166cm 61.1-63.8 62.4-67.6 65.6-73.2 156cm 48.5-54.1 52.7-59.1 57.3-64.1
167cm 61.5-64.2 62.8-63.8 66.0-74.0 157cm 48.8-54.6 53.2-59.6 57.8-64.6
168cm 61.8-64.6 63.2-68.7 66.4-74.7 158cm 49.3-55.2 53.8-60.2 58.4-65.3
169cm 62.2-65.2 63.8-69.3 67.0-75.4 159cm 49.8-55.7 54.3-60.7 58.9-66.0
170cm 62.5-65.7 64.3-69.8 67.5-76.1 160cm 50.3-56.2 54.9-61.2 59.4-66.7
171cm 62.9-66.2 64.8-70.3 68.0-76.8 161cm 50.8-56.7 55.4-61.7 59.9-67.4
172cm 63.2-66.7 65.4-70.8 68.5-77.5 162cm 51.4-57.3 55.9-62.3 60.5-68.1
173cm 63.6-67.3 65.9-71.4 69.1-78.2 163cm 51.9-57.8 56.4-62.8 61.0-68.8
174cm 63.9-67.8 66.4-71.9 69.6-78.9 164cm 52.5-58.4 57.0-63.4 61.5-69.5
175cm 64.3-68.3 66.9-72.4 70.1-79.6 165cm 53.0-58.9 57.5-63.9 62.0-70.2
176cm 64.7-68.4 67.5-73.0 70.7-80.3 166cm 53.6-59.5 58.1-64.5 62.6-70.9
177cm 65.0-69.5 68.1-73.5 71.3-81.0 167cm 54.1-60.0 58.7-65.0 63.2-71.7
178cm 65.4-70.0 68.6-74.0 71.8-81.8 168cm 54.6-60.5 59.2-65.5 63.7-72.4
179cm 65.7-70.5 69.2-74.6 72.3-82.5 169cm 55.2-61.1 59.7-66.1 64.3-73.1
180cm 66.l-71.0 69.7-75.1 72.8-83.3 170cm 55.7-61.6 60.2-66.6 61.8-73.8
181cm 66.6-71.6 70.2-75.8 73.4-84.0 171cm 56.2-62.1 60.7-67.1 65.3-74.5
182cm 67.1-72.1 70.7-76.5 73.9-84.7 172cm 56.8-62.8 61.3-67.6 65.8-75.2
183cm 67.7-72.7 71.3-77.2 74.5-85.4 173cm 57.3-63.2 61.8-68.2 66.4-75.9
184cm 68.2-73.4 71.8-77.9 75.2-86.1 174cm 57.8-63.7 62.3-68.7 66.9-76.4
I85cm 68.7-74.1 72.4-78.6 75.9-86.8 175cm 58.3-64.2 62.8-69.2 67.4-76.9
186cm 69.2-74.8 73.0-79.3 76.6-87.6 176cm 58.9-64.8 63.4-69.8 68.0-77.5
187cm 69.8-75.5 73.7-80.0 77.3-88.5 177cm 59.5-65.4 64.0-70.4 68.5-78.1
188cm 70.3-76.2 74.4-80.7 78.0-89.4 178cm 60.0-65.9 64.5-70.9 69.0-78.6
189cm 70.9-76.9 74.9-81.5 78.7-90.3 179cm 60.5-66.4 65.1-71.4 69.6-79.1
190cm 71.4-77.6 75.4-82.2 79.4-91.2 180cm 61.0-66.9 65.6-71.9 70.1-79.6
191cm 72.1-78.4 76.1-83.0 80.3-92.1 181cm 61.6-67.5 66.1-72.5 70.7-80.2
192cm 72.8-79.1 76.8-83.9 81.2-93.0 182cm 62.1-68.0 66.6-73.0 71.2-80.7
193cm 73.5-79.8 77.6-84.8 82.1-93.9 183cm 62.6-68.5 67.1-73.5 71.7-81.2

1. Based on indoor clothing weighing 2.3 kg for men and 1.4 kg for women and shoes with heels of 2.5 cm.

Data prepared by the Metropolitan Life InsuranceCompany of New York and based on the lowest mortality for men and women at ages 25 to 59 years.

Recently, the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Department of Health and Human Services have released Dietary Guidelines for Americans which show higher weights for people over 35 years than for younger adults. This is because recent research suggests that older people can be a little heavier without added risk to health. The weights listed below indicate the range which is considered healthy for most people.

HEIGHT (cm)2

WEIGHT (kg)3,4

19 to 34 years 35 years and over
152 44-58 49-63
155 46-60 50-65
158 47-62 52-67
160 49-64 54-69
163 50-66 55-71
165 52-68 57-74
168 54-70 59-76
170 55-73 61-78
173 57-75 63-81
175 59-77 65-83
178 60-79 66-85
180 62-81 69-88
183 64-84 70-90
185 65-86 72-93
188 67-89 75-95
191 69-91 76-98
193 71-93 79-101
196 73-96 80-104
198 75-98 83-106
2 Without shoes
3 Without clothes
4 The higher weights in the ranges generally apply to men and the low weights more often apply to women.



APPENDIX TWO:
RECOMMENDED DAILY NUTRIENT INTAKES

GROUP and AGE

INFANTS

CHILDREN (male + female)

BOYS

GIRLS

MEN

WOMEN

0-6 months

7-12

months

1-3

years

4-7

years

8-11

years

12-15

years

16-18

years

8-11

years

12-15

years

16-18

years

19-64

years

64+

years

19-64

years

64+

years

breastfed bottlefed
Vitamin A (µg)
(retinol equivalents)
425 425 300 300 350 500 725 750 500 725 750 750 750 750 750
Thiamin (mg) 0.15 0.25 0.35 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.2 1.2 0.8 1.0 0.9 1.1 0.9 0.8 0.7
Riboflavin (mg) 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.1 1.4 1.8 1.9 1.3 1.6 1.4 1.7 1.3 1.2 1.0
Niacin (mg)
(niacin equivalents)
4 4 7 9-10 11-13 14-16 19-21 20-22 14-16 17-19 15-17 18-20 14-17 12-14 10-12
Vitamin B-6 (mg) 0.25 0.25 0.45 0.6-0.9 0.8-1.3 1.1-1.6 1.4-2.1 1.5-2.2 1.0-1.5 1.2-1.8 1.1-1.6 1.3-1.9 1.0-1.5 0.9-1.4 0.8-1.1
Total Folate (µg) 30 50 75 100 100 150 200 200 150 200 200 200 200 200 200
Vitamin B-12 (µg) 0.3 0.3 0.7 1.0 1.5 1.5 2.0 2.0 1.5 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
Vitamin C (mg) 25 25 30 30 30 30 30 40 30 330 330 40 40 30 30
Vitamin D (mg)
Vitamin E (mg)
(alpha tocopherol equivalents)
2.5 4.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 8.0 10.5 11.0 8.0 9.0 8.0 10.0 10.0 7.0 7.0
Zinc (mg) 3 3-6 4.5 4.5 6 9 12 12 9 12 12 12 12 12 12
Iron (mg) 0.5 3.0 9.0 6-8 6-8 6-8 10-13 10-13 6-8 10-13 10-13 7 7 12-16 5-7
Iodine (µg) 50 50 60 70 90 120 150 150 120 120 120 150 150 120 120
Magnesium (mg) 40 40 60 80 110 180 260 320 160 240 270 320 320 270 270
Calcium (mg) 300 500 550 700 800 800 1200 1000 900 1000 800 800 800 800 1000
Phosphorus (mg) 150 150 300 500 700 800 1200 1100 800 1200 1100 1000 1000 1000 1000
Selenium (µg) 10 10 15 25 30 50 85 85 50 70 70 85 85 70 70
Sodium (mmol)

(mg)

6-12

140-280

6-12

140-280

14-25

320-580

14-50

320-1150

20-75

460-1730

26-100

600-2300

40-100

920-2300

40-100

920-2300

26-100

600-2300

40-100

920-2300

40-100

920-2300

40-100

920-2300

40-100

920-2300

40-100

920-2300

40-100

920-2300

Potassium (mmol)

(mg)

10-15

390-580

10-15

390-580

12-35

470-1370

25-70

980-2730

40-100

1560-3900

50-140

1950-5460

50-140

1950-5460

50-140

1950-5460

50-140

1950-5460

50-140

1950-5460

50-140

1950-5460

50-140

1950-5460

50-140

1950-5460

50-140

1950-5460

50-140

1950-5460

Protein na 2.0 1.6 14-18 18-24 27-38 42-60 64-70 27-39 44-55 57 55 55 45 45


Notes



APPENDIX THREE:
FOOD ADDITIVE CODE

In general, any food additives added to food must be identified on the label. Most additives have been assigned a code number and this appears on the label to identify specific additives. For example, the yellow colour tartrazine has the code number 102. This can be identified because on labels it appears a colour (102). Additives without a code number must be designated by their full name of other appropriate descriptor. For example, the artificial sweetener saccharin appears as saccharin. The following table lists food additives according to their code numbers:
100 Curcumin
100 Turmeric
101 Riboflavin
102 Tartrazine
107 Yellow 2C
110 Sunset yellow FCF
120 Carmines
120 Cochineal
122 Azorubine
123 Amaranth
124 Ponceau 4R
127 Erythrosine
129 Allura red AC
132 Indigotine
133 Brilliant blue FCF
140 Chlorophyll
142 Green S
150 Caramel
151 Brilliant black BN
153 Activated vegetable carbon
153 Carbon blacks
155 Brown HT
160(b) Annatto extracts160(e) Beta-apo-8'-carotenal
160(e) Beta-apo-8'-carotenoic acid ethyl ester
160 Beta-apo-8'-carotenoic acid methyl ester
160(a) Beta-carotene
160 Carotenes
161(g) Canthaxanthin
161 Xanthophylls
162 Beet red
163 Anthocyanins
170 Calcium carbonate
171 Titanium dioxide
172 Iron oxide black
172 Iron oxide red
172 Iron oxide yellow
181 Tannic acid
200 Sorbic acid
201 Sodium sorbate
202 Potassium sorbate
203 Calcium sorbate
210 Benzoic acid
211 Sodium benzoate
212 Potassium benzoate
213 Calcium benzoate
216 Propylparaben
218 Methylparaben
220 Sulphurdioxide
221 Sodium sulphite
222 Sodium bisulphite
223 Sodium metabisulphite
224 Potassium metabisulphite
225 Potassium sulphite
228 Potassium bisulphite
234 Nisin
235 Natamycin
249 Potassium nitrite
250 Sodium nitrite
251 Sodium nitrate
252 Potassium nitrate
260 Acetic acid, glacial
261 Potassium acetate
262 Sodium acetate
262 Sodium diacetate
263 Calcium acetate
264 Ammonium acetate
270 Lactic acid
280 Propionic acid citrate
281 Sodium propionate
282 Calcium propionate
283 Potassium propionate
290 Carbon dioxide
296 Malic acid
297 Fumaric acid
300 Ascorbic acid
301 Sodium ascorbate
302 Calcium ascorbate
303 Potassium ascorbate
304 Ascorbvl oalmitate
306 Tocopherols
307 Alpha-tocopherol
308 Gamma-tocopherol
309 Delta-tocopherol
310 Propyl gallate
311 Octyl gallate
312 Dodecyl gallate
317 Erythorbic acid
318 Sodium erythorbate
319 Tert- butylhydroquinone
320 Butylated hydroxyanisole
321 Butylated hydroxytoluene
322 Lecithin
325 Sodium lactate
326 Potassium lactate
327 Calcium lactate
328 Ammonium lactate
329 Magnesium lactate
330 Citric acid
331 Sodium acid citrate
331 Sodium citrate
331 Sodium dihydrogen citrate
332 Potassium citrate
332 Potassium dihydrogen
333 Calcium citrate
334 Tartaric acid
335 Sodium tartrate
336 Potassium acid tartrate
336 Potassium tartrate
337 Potassium sodium tartrate
338 Phosphoric acid
339 Sodium phosphate, dibasic
339 Sodium phosphate, monobasic
339 Sodium phosphate, tribasic
340 Potassium phosphate, dibasic
340 Potassium phosphate, monobasic
340 Potassium phosphate, tribasic
341 Calcium phosphate, dibasic
341 Calcium phdsphate, monobasic
341 Calcium phosphate, tribasic
343 Magnesium phosphate, dibasic
343 Magnesium phosphate, tribasic
350 Sodium hydrogen malate
350 Sodium malate
351 Potassium malate
352 Calcium malate
353 Metatartaric acid
354 Calcium tartrate
355 Adipic acid
357 Potassium adipate
365 Sodium fumarate
366 Potassium fumarate
367 Calcium fumarate
375 Niacin
380 Triammonium citrate
381 Ferric ammonium citrate
400 Alginic acid
401 Sodium alginate
402 Potassium alginate
403 Ammonium alginate
404 Calcium alginate
405 Propylene glycol alginate
406 Agar
407 Carrageenan
410 Locust bean gum
412 Guar gum
413 Tragacanth
414 Acacia gum
415 Xanthan gum
416 Karaya gum
420 Sorbitol
421 Mannitol
422 Clycerin
433 Polysorbate 80
435 Polysorbate 60
436 Polysorbate 65
440(a) Pectin
441 Gelatin
442 Ammonium salts of phosphatidic acid
450(a) Ammonium phosphate, dibasic
450(a) Ammonium phosphate, monobasic
450 Potassium metaphosphate
450 Potassium polymetaphosphate
450 Potassium pyrophosphate
450 Potassium tripolyphosphate
450 Sodium acid pyrophosphate
450 Sodium metaphosphate, insoluble
450 Sodium polyphosphates, glassy
450 Sodium pyrophosphate
450 Sodium tripolyphosphate
460 Cellulose, microcrystalline
460 Cellulose, powdered
461 Methyl cellulose
464 Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose
465 Methyl ethyl cellulose
466 Sodium carboxymethyl-cellulose
469 Sodium caseinate
471 Clyceryl monostearate
471 Mono- and diglycerides of fat-forming fatty acids
472(a) Acetic and fatty acid esters of glycerol
472(c) Citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol
472(e) Diacetyltartaric and fatty acid esters of glycerol
472(b) Lactic and fatty acid esters of glycerol
472(d) Tartaric and fatty acid esters of glycerol
473 Sucrose esters of fatty acids
475 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids
476 Polyglycerol esters of interesterified ricinoleic acid
480 Dioctyl sulphosuccinate
481 Sodium stearoyl lactylate
482 Calcium stearoyl lactylate
491 Sorbitan monostearate
492 Sorbitan tristearate
500 Sodium bicarbonate
500 Sodium carbonate
501 Potassium bicarbonate
501 Potassium carbonate
503 Ammonium bicarbonate
503 Ammonium carbonate
504 Magnesium carbonate
507 Hydrochloric acid
508 Potassium chloride
509 Calcium chloride
510 Ammonium chloride
511 Magnesium chloride
514 Sodium sulphate
515 Potassium sulphate
516 Calcium sulphate
518 Magnesium sulphate
519 Cupric sulphate
526 Calcium hydroxide
529 Calcium oxide
536 Potassium ferrocyanide
541 Sodium aluminium phosphate acidic
542 Bone phosphate
551 Silicon dioxide
552 Calcium silicate
553(b) Talc
554 Sodium aluminosilicate
556 Calcium aluminium silicate
558 Bentonite
559 Kaolin
570 Stearic acid
572 Magnesium stearate
575 Glucono-delta-lactone
577 Potassium gluconate
578 Calcium gluconate
579 Ferrous gluconate
620 L-Glutamic acid
621 Monosodium L-glutamate
622 Monopotassium L-glutamate
623 Calcium di-l-glutamate
624 Monoammonium L-glutamate
625 Magnesium di-L-glutamate
627 Disodium guanylate
631 Disodium inosinate
636 Maltol
637 Ethyl maltol
900 Dimethylpolysiloxane
901 Beeswax, white
901 Beeswax, yellow
903 Carnauba wax
904 Shellac, bleached
905 Mineral oil, white
905 Petrolatum
920 L-Cysteine mono-hydrochloride
924 Potassium bromate
925 Chlorine
926 Chlorine dioxide
928 Benzoyl peroxide
431 Nitrogen
932 Nitrous oxide
965 Hydrogenated glucose syrup
967 Xylitol
1200 Polydextrose
1201 Polyvinylpyrrolidone
1202 Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone
1400 Dextrins
1403 Bleached starch
1404 Oxidised starch
1405 Enzyme treated starches
1410 Monostarch phosphate
1412 Distarch phosphate esterified with sodium trimetaphosphate
1412 Distarch phosphate esterified with phosphorus oxychloride
1413 Phosphated starch phosphate
1414 Acetylated distarch phosphate
1420 Starch acetate esterified with acetic anhydride
1421 Starch acetate esterified with vinyl acetate
1422 Acetylateddistarch adipate
1440 Hydroxypropyl starch
1442 Hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate
1450 Starch sodiumoctenyl-succinate
1505 Triethylcitrate
1510 Ethyl alcohol
1517 Clyceroldiacetate
1519 Triacetin
1520 Propylene glycol


APPENDIX FOUR:
FOOD GROUPED BY BIOLOGICAL SOURCE

GROUP

NUTRITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS

ANIMAL High content of good quality protein.
Eggs High cholesterol in yolk.
Milk and dairy products High in saturated fat. High in calcium (except butter).

Lactose (milk sugar) is not tolerated by some individuals.

Muscle meats:
Fish- freshwater Less sodium than in seawater fish.
Fish- seawater Source of essential fatty acids.
Shellfish (eg., mussels, oysters) Cholesterol level similar to fish, but contribute more essential fatty acids.

High in trace minerals and sometimes contaminated with heavy metals (eg., mercury).

Crustaceans (eg., prawns, lobster) More cholesterol than in fish, but contribute more essential fatty acids.
Ruminants (eg., sheep, cattle) High iron content.

High in saturated fat.

Monogastric- domesticated (eg., pig) The type of fat reflects the animal's dietary intake to a greater extent than in ruminants.
Monogastric- game

(eg., kangaroo, rabbit)

Although lean, the type of fat present reflects the animal's dietary fat intake to a greater extent than in ruminants.
Avian- poultry Usually low in fat (if skin removed)
Avian - game birds Low in fat.
Organ meats:
Liver Good source of most vitamins and minerals.

High cholesterol content.

High in nucleic acids.

Brain High cholesterol content.
Other (kidneys, heart) High cholesterol content


PLANT

Vegetables:

All contain dietary fibre. Contain more potassium than sodium.
Root

(eg., carrots, sweet potatoes, potatoes)

High in starch

Moderate vitamin C content

Carotene (forms vitamin A) content high in yellow-orange vegetables

Green leafy

(eg., spinach, cabbage)

High in carotene.

High in vitamin K.

Marrow-like flowers

(eg., broccoli, cauliflower)

High in carotene (if yellow-orange).

High vitamin C content.

Stalks (eg., celery) Low energy density.
Onion-like (eg., spring onions) Low energy density.
Tomatoes Low energy density.

Moderate vitamin C content.

Peppers

(eg., capsicum)

Low energy density.

High vitamin C content.

Legumes

(eg., beans, peas, lentils)

High in starch.

Moderate amount of protein but relatively deficient in one essential amino acid, methionine.

Cereals and grains: Contain dietary fibre that is rich in 'pentosans', which have a particular role in bowel function.

High in starch.

Moderate protein content, but relatively deficient in one essential amino acid (lysine).

Corn, maize Relatively deficient in two amino acids (lysine and trytophan) and the B-group vitamin, niacin.
Fruits:

Citrus (eg., oranges, lemons)

Dietary fibre rich in pectin, with gelling properties.

High in vitamin C and moderate in folacin

Stone fruit (eg., plums, apricots, cherries, peaches) Moderate carotene content

Low vitamin C content.

Apples and pears Mainly water, carbohydrate and dietary fibre, with little vitamin or mineral content.
Tropical fruit

(eg., mango, papaya)

High in of carotene.

Good source of vitamin C.

Rich source of pectin.

Berries (eg., raspberries, strawberries, blueberries, blackberries) Good source of vitamin C.
Nuts

(eg., peanuts, walnuts, macadamia, hazel nuts, etc.)

High energy density.

High content of fat with various types of fatty acids.

Moderate protein content.

Herbs and spices Low energy density.


CONFECTIONERY
(eg., lollies, chocolates)
High energy density.

Low nutrient density.

MICROBIOLOGICAL

Soil micro-organisms

Vitamin B-12 is produced by the micro-organisms; vegans who are very hygienic may be deficient in this vitamin.
Yeast Wide range of vitamins and trace minerals

High in nucleic acids

Fermented beverages
(eg., beer, wines, spirits)
Nutrient content depends on source of carbohydrate and extent of processing.

Ethanol (alcohol)

Fermented foods
(eg., soya sauce, tempeh)
High amino acid content.

Sodium can be high

INSECT

Bodies

High protein content
Honey High in simple sugars (eg., fructose, glucose and sucrose)
WATER No energy (kilocalories).

Variable mineral content

SOIL

(Usually a contaminant in food, but deliberately used in cooking by some ethnic groups, eg., Aboriginal Australians and in Iran)

Variable mineral and microorganism contribution.

Clay-eaters can suffer mineral deficiencies because these nutrients are trapped by the clay, and so cannot be absorbed.