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I N D E X
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


A
Aboriginals, 4, 8, 22, Fig 21
absorption, 3, 5, 21, Fig 19, Alcohol chart, Vitamin D chart
acetylcholine, Lecithin chart
acids/acidity, food, 6, Fig 26
activity, physical, 4, Fig 6, 15, 17; energy expenditure in, 16
additives, food, 3, 5, 27-9, 43, 251; code numbers 253-8; declaration of, 27; names 253-8; use of, 27
adipose tissue, 9, 17
adolescence, Fig 6; nutrient requirements of, Fig 6, 171, 195
affluent diet, 4, 10, 79
aflatoxins, 30, 31
agriculture, intensification of, 4
alcohol, 49, 105; abuse, 20, 105, and nutritional consequences, 3, 105, 129, 141, 147, 159, 177, 201, 237; allergy to, 42; content of beverages, 105; energy content of, 49, 105; intake, l05; alcoholism, 20, 105
alkalinity, food, 6
alkaloids, pyrrolizidine, 30
allergies, food, 28, 30, 42-3; foods responsible for, 43; symptoms of, 43
allowances, recommended dietary, 12, Fig 7, Fig 8, Fig 9; in Britain, Fig 8, in America, Fig 8, Fig 9; in Australia, 12, Fig 7, Fig 8, Fig 9
aluminium, 250
amino acids, 67, 73, 219; cooking, effects of, 67
anaemia, 67, 147, 153, 159, 207, 246; pernicious, 153
analgesics, 21
angina, 91
antacids, 21, 213
antibiotics, 2l
anti-caking agents, 27
antimony, 250
antioxidants, 27, 121, 245
appetite, 17, 21
arsenic, 250
arteries, hardening of, see atherosclerosis
arctic diet, 22
ascorbic acid, see vitamin C
aspartame, 79
atherosclerosis, 3, 20, 91, 93
atherosclerotic vascular disease, 4, 20, 91
Atwater factors, 49, 85
average serving sizes, 44
avidin, 171


B
baking soda, 6, 183
balance, food intake, 4
barium, 250
beer, 8, 27, 105; storage life of, 40
benzoic acid, 27, 42
Beriberi, 129
B-carotene, 107, 113, see also provitamin
bicarbonate of soda, 6, 183
biological sources of food, 8
biotin, 36, 171, food chart, 172-6; stability of, 36
blanching, 34, 35
bleaching agents, 27
blood, 3, 127, 207; calcium in, 119; cholesterol in, 3, 91, 93; clotting, 127, 159, 195; fats, 3, 22, 91, 93; glucose, 4, 244; blood pressure, high, see hypertension
bone, 195, 213, disease, 119, 195, 244, 249, 250
boron, 250
bowel, cancer of, 3, 4, 9, 61
bread, 27, 183, storage life of, 40
breast feeding, 4, 5, 11
bromine, 250
butter, 85; storage life of, 40
B-vitamins, l29, 135, 141, 147, 153, 213; see also niacin; vitamin B-1; vitamin 8-2; vitamin B-6; vitamin B-12


C
cadmium, 32, 33, 249; content in food, 249; poisoning, 32, 33
caffeine, 30, 31, 251; content in beverages, 251
calcium, 67, 195; food chart, 196-200
Calories, 4, 49
calorimeter, bomb, 49
cancer, 3, 4, 30; nutrition and, 3, 113
canned foods, 27, 35, 38; storage life of, 38
canning, 35
carbohydrate, 79, 213; energy content of, 49; food chart 80-4
caries, dental, 21, 23, 244
carotenoid, 28, 107, 113; see also provitamin A
cellulose, 61, 79
cereal grains, 8, 17, 33, 252; milling of, 33, 129
cereals, breakfast storage life of, 40
cheese, 27; allergy to, 42; storage life of, 40
cheilosis, 135
chemicals (industrial) in food, 32, 33
childhood, 11; element requirements, 183, 189, 195, 207, 213, 237, 244; nutritional problems, 11; intake, recommended daily, 12, 13, protein requirements, 67; vitamin requirements, 107, 119, 121, 127, 129, 135, 141, 147, 159, 165, 171, 177
Chinese food, 22, 183
chloride, 225
chlorine, 225; food chart, 226-30
chocolate, 27, 251; allergy to, Fig 42; storage life of, 40; see also confectionery
choice, food, 1, 13
cholecalciferol, see vitamin D
cholesterol, 3, 8, 61, 85, 91, 92, 93; food chart, 92
choline, 61, 251
chromium, 244
cigarettes, 3, 177, 249
citric acid, 27
cobalt, 153, 246
cocoa, 27, 251
coeliac disease, 20, 42, 252
coffee, 30, 31, 251; storage life of, 40
cola-type drinks, 27, 22, 31, 251
colours, food, 5, 27, 28, Fig 27
comfrey, 31, 153
components of food, 5
confectionery, 8, 21, 23, 27
constant weight, energy requirements for, 15
constipation, 11, 22, 61
contaminants, food, 5, 31, 32, 33
contraceptives, oral, 21, 147, 177
controlled atmosphere storage, 34
convenience foods, 22, 183, 252
cooking, 32, 34-5, 42; effects of, 5, 34; effects on nutrient content, 34-5; methods, 35; utensils, 32, 42
cookware, 32
copper, 231; food chart 232-36
cot death, 171
culture, dietary intake and, 22
cyanide, 30
cyano-cobalamin, see vitamin B-12
cyclamate, 24, 79
cystic fibrosis, 20


D
dairy foods, 8, 27, 93; allergy to, 42, 43; storage life of, 40
date-marking of food, 23, 24, Fig 22
DDT, 32
decay, dental, 21, 23, 24, 244
defects, birth, 22, 251
deficiencies, nutrient, 3; see also individual chart introductions
dehydration, of food, 35; in humans, 19, 55, 79
deoxyribonucleic acid, see DNA
depression, 147
dermatitis, 141, 147, 237; seborrhoeic, 171
diabetes, 3, 4, 20, 24, 26, 105; diet and, 4, 20, 105; incidence of, 4; mellitus, 21; nutritional problems of, 20; weight and, 4, 61
diarrhoea, 26, 22, 141; nutrient losses of, 183, 189, 201, 225
diet, 1, 3-4, 5, 10; components of food in, 6; 'elimination', 42; evolution of, 4, 10, Fig 5; gluten-free, 252; healthy, 6, 7, 10; weight-reduction, 15, 17
dietary foods, special, 24-6, Figs 24, 25, 26, 27
dietary guidelines, 4, 5; for gluten-free diet, 252
dietary intake, 45; and culture, 22; calculations of, Fig 10, 15, 45, 46
digestibility of foods, 34
digestion of nutrients, 5, 21, 61, 67, 73, 251
diuretics, 21, 22, 251
diverticular disease, 61
DNA, 153, 159
drying, 35
dystrophy, 67, 79


E
eggs, 8, 43, 93, 171; storage life of, 40
elderly, the, 3, 11; element requirements, 195, 244; vitamin requirements, 159, 177
elements, 183, 189, 195, 201, 213, 219, 225, 231, 237, 243-250; energy content of, 49; labelling requirements for, 23; stability of, 36; see also charts for individual elements
emulsifiers, 27, 251
energy, 4, 9, 49, 79, 93, 213; balance, 15-16; expenditure, 15-16; food charts, 50-4; intake to maintain constant weight, 15; requirements, 4, 15-16; units of, 49
energy-density of food, 4, 8, 17, Fig 15, 49, 85
enzymes, 129; elements associated with, 195, 201, 231, 245, 246; vitamins associated with, 135, 147, 171
ethanol, 105
ethnic foods, 258


F
faddism, food, 6, 31
fat 17, 85, 93, 213; energy content, 49; energy-density of, 85; food charts, 86-90
fats, 85, 91, 93; saturated and polyunsaturated, food charts, 94-103; see also mono-unsaturated fats; polyunsaturated fats; saturated fats
fatty acids, 85, 93, 251; essential, 93
fatty tissue, see adipose tissue
favism, 30
Feingold diet, 43
fertilizers, use of, 33
fibre, dietary, 3, 8, 9, 10, 49, 61, 79, 91; components of, 61; food chart, 62-6
flavours, food, 5, 27, Fig 26, 28; enhancers, 27
flour, 27, 34, 252; fibre content 61; storage life of, 40
fluoridation, 55, 244
fluoride (and fluorine), 55, 244
fluorosis, 244
folacin, 153, 159; food tables, 160-4; stability of, 36
folic acid, see folacin
food charts, starts at 49; use of, 45-7
food composition charts, see food charts food intake, assessment of, 18
food laws, 23-5, 28, 29
food poisoning, 41; avoidance of, 42 fortified foods, 23
freezing, 35, 37
frozen foods, 35, 37, 41
fructose, 79
fruit, 8, 34, Fig 34, Fig 35; allergy to, 42, 43; drinks, 27; juice, 29, 36; ripening of, 34, 38, 79; storage of, 34, 37, 38, Fig 34, Fig 35; waxing, 34
fruit sugar, see fructose
frying, 34


G
gallbladder disease, 21
gastric acid, 225
glucose, 79
Glucose Tolerance Factor (GTF), 244
gluten, 252
glycerol, 27, 85
glycogen, 9, Fig 4
goitre, 30, 243
goitrogens, 30, 243
gold, 250
gout, 20
grape sugar, see glucose
grilling, 34
growth, 3, 11, 67; retardation, 20, 67, 135; requirements of, 67, 73, 195, 237, 243
gums (food), 61


H
habits, eating, 3, 4
haemoglobin, 207 haemorrhage, 127
haemorrhoids, 22, 61
hazardous substances in food, Fig 29, 31-2, 33
health and nutrition, 1, 3, 4, 5
health conditions, nutritional needs of, 20
healthful diet, 10
heart disease, 3, 20, 22, 61, 91, 93, 105, 183, 189, 251
hemicellulose, 61
hiatus hernia, 61
honey, 21; storage life of, 40
hormones, 91
humectants, 27
hunger, 17
hunter-gatherer diet, 10, 22
hygiene, 41, 42
hypercholesterolaemia, 91; see also blood cholesterol
hyperglycaemia, 244; see also blood glucose
hyperkinesis, 43
hyperlipidaemia, 20; see also blood fats
hypertension, 3, 20, 21, 105, 183, 189, 249; in Australia, 183; potassium and, 189; sodium and, 3, 183


I
infancy, 11; element requirements, 183, 189, 207, 237, 244; vitamin requirements, 121, 127, 129, 135, 141, 159,165, 171, 177
ingredient labelling, 23, 25
insulin, 4, 195
intake, recommended dietary, see RDI iodine, 243
iron, 207; food charts, 208-12


J
'junk food', 22, 23


K
kava plant, 31
keshan disease, 245
ketosis, 22, 79
kidney stones, 55
kilojoules, 4, 46, 49


L
labels on foods, 23-6, 28, 29
lactation, 11; element requirements, 195, 201, 207, 213; protein requirements, 67; vitamin requirements, 107, 121, 129, 135, 141, 147, 159, 177
lactose, 8, 79
laws, food, 23-5, 28, 29
laxatives, 21
lead, 32, 33, 250; poisoning, 32
lecithin, 61, 251; fatty acids in, 251
legislation, food, see food laws
legumes, 8, 17
life expectancy, 4, 5, 17; in developed countries, 5
lignin, 61
lipids, 61, 93, 251; see also fats
low-calorie foods, 24, 25
low-energy foods, 24, 25


M
macronutrient 5, 9, 10, 49
magnesium, 201; food chart, 202-6
malnutrition, 3, 13, 67
malt sugar, see maltose
maltose, 79
manganese, 245
margarine, 27, 85, 93; fats present in, 93; storage life of, 40
meat, 40, 43, 93; cured, 27, 40
medications, nutritional effects of, 21, Fig 20
Mediterranean diet, 22
menstruation, iron loss in, 207
mercury, 32, 33, 250; poisoning, 32
metabolic disorders, 73, 147, 171, 231
metabolism, 15, 49, 55, 73, 119, 245; basal, 15, 49; carbohydrate in, 189, 213, 237; efficiency of, 15, 49; lipid in, 213; protein in, 189, 213, 237
metals, heavy, 8, 32, 33, 177
methionine, 219; see also amino acids
micronutrient, 5, 9, 46
micro-organisms, 8, 41, Fig 38
microwave cooking, 35
migraine, 42-3; causes of, 42-3
milk 8, 27, 36, 43, 135; human, 5, 171; spoilage and nutrient losses, 36, 22, 135
milk sugar, see lactose
milling of cereals, 33, 61, 129
minerals, see elements
modified carbohydrate foods, 24, 26, 26
molybdenum, 246
monogastric, 93
mono-saturated fats, 85, 93; see also fats
monosodium glutamate (MSG), 22, 27, 183
multicultural diet, 22
muscular dystrophy, 67, 79
mycotoxins, 30, 31


N
nervous system, 246; central, 153, 231
neurotransmitters, 195, 251
niacin, 141; equivalents, 141; food chart 142-6; stability of, 36
nickel, 247; sensitivity, 247
night blindness, l07
nucleic acids, see DNA; RNA
nutrient density of, food, 4, 8, 17
nutrient, intake, 15; calculation of, 15, 45-6
nutrients; in body function, 9; in cooking, 34, 35; stability of in food, 34-8
nutrition, importance of, 3; labelling 23; principles of good, 4
nutritional needs, 3, 4, 9; and age, 11; effects of medication on, 21; individual,10-11; of individual groups, 12-13; of particular health conditions, 20, 67, 244, 245
nutritional status, assessment of, 18-19 nutritive value of food (calculation of), 45-6


O
obesity, 3, 4, 18, 21, 85
oedema, 67
oils, composition of, 93; see also fat
orange drinks, 29
oriental diet, 22
osteoarthritis, 20
osteomalacia, 119
osteoporosis, 195, 244
overeating, 21, 85
overweight, 3, 15, 18, 21, 85
oxalic acid, 30, 177, 195


P
palatability of foods, 34, 85
pancreas, 4
pancreatitis, 105
pantothenic acid, 165; food chart 166-70; stability of, 36
pasteurization, 36
peas, 33, 36
pectin, 61
peeling (of fruit, vegetables), 34
pellagra, 141
pesticides, 32, 33
phenylalanine, 73; food chart, 74-8; in pregnancy, 73
phenylketonuria, see PKU
phospholipids, 61, 93, 251
phosphorus, 213; food chart, 214-18
physical activity, 4, 5, 16, 85
physical form of food, 5
physiology, 9
phytic acid, 195
pill, the, see contraceptives, oral
'pinch test', 18, 19 , Fig 17
PKU, 73
platelets, 3, 20, 159
plaque, dental, 21
polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 32, 33
polyunsaturated fats, 3, 85, 91, 93; sources of, 93, 251; special products, 93
potassium, 183, 189; food chart, 190-94
potatoes, 8, 30, 31, 38; toxicants in, 31
pregnancy, 3, 11, 73; element requirements, 195, 201, 207, 213; protein requirements, 67; vitamin requirements, 121, 129, 135, 141, 147, 159, 177; weight in, 11
preparation, food, 33, 34-35, 41;
precautions, 42
preservation, food, 5, 37-9, 41
preservatives, 27, 43
pressure cooking, 35
processed foods, 183
processing food, 33-6
proof (of alcohol), 105
protein, 8, 67, 73; energy content of, 49; food chart 68-72; metabolism of, 73, 213, 219
provitamin A, 35, 107, 113; food chart, 114-18; stability of, 36
p/s ratio, 93
pyridoxal, 147; see also vitamin B-6
pyridoxamine, 147; see also vitamin B-6
pyridoxine, 147; see also vitamin B-6


Q
quality of food, 24a, 24b, 37, 38
quantity of food, 4, 6

R
range, dietary, 12-13
recommended dietary intake (RDI), 12-13, 46; in America, 14; in Australia, 14; in Britain, l4; of individual groups,12-13; variation between countries, 13; see also allowances, recommended dietary; (for RDls of individual nutrients see individual food charts)
retardation, mental, 73, 243
retinol, 107; activity, 107, 113
retinol equivalents, 107
riboflavin, see vitamin B-2 ribonucleic acid, see RNA
rickets, 119
ripening, 34, 38
RNA, 153, 159
roughage, see fibre, dietary
rubidium, 250
ruminants, 93, 246


S
saccharin, 24, 79
safety, food, 37, 41, 42
salicylates, 43
salt, 183, 225; common, 183, 225; intake, 3, 4, 183, 195, iodized, 183, 243
saturated fats, 3, 85, 91, 93; sources of, 93, 251
scurvy, 177
seafood, 8, 91, 231, 243
selenium, 245
sensitivity, food, 11, 22, 42-3
servings, food, see average serving sizes
silicon, 248
silicosis, 248
silver, 250
skinfold thickness, Fig 16, Fig 17, 19
smoking (tobacco), 3, 177
snacking, 23
sodium, 3, 4, 183; food chart 184-8; salts of, 6, 22, 27, 183, 225
solanine, 30, 31, 38
sorbitol, 24, 26, 79
spirits, 8, 105
spoilage, food, 36, 42
sprouts, seed, 36
stabilizers, 27
staples, food, 4
starch, 79
sterol, 91
storage life, 36, 37-40; of canned foods, 38; of fruit 37-9; at home, 38, 22, 41; of vegetables, 37-9, 40
storage of foods, 5, 34, 37-40, 41, 42
strontium, 250
sucrose, see sugar
sudden infant death syndrome, 171
sugar, no added, 26
sugar (sucrose), 21, 79; storage life of, 40
sugars, 79
sulphur, 219; food charts, 220-4
sweeteners, 24, 25, 26, 79


T
take-away foods, 21, 22, 183, 258
tardive dyskinesia, 251
tartrazine, 27, 28, 43
tea, 30, 31, 251; herbal, 31
teeth, 21, 195, 213, 244
testing of foods, 27
thawing, 35, 41
theobromine, 251
thiaminase, 129
thiamine, see vitamin B-1
thickeners, 27, 61
thirst, 4, 55
thyroid gland, 243, 250
tin, 247
toasting, 36
tocopherols, see vitamin E
tocotrienols, see vitamin E
toxic levels of intake (of nutrients), see individual food charts
toxic substances, 5, 30-2, Fig 29
triglycerides, 9, 85, 93; in blood, 93
tuberculosis, 147
tryptophan, 141


U
units, conversion table, 46
units of energy, 4, 46, 49
use-by date, see date-marking of food


V
vanadium, 249
variety, food, 4, 9, 31, 67
vascular disease, see atherosclerotic vascular disease
vegan diet, 22, 67; see also vegetarian diet
vegetables, 8, 34, 35; allergy to, 42, 43; storage of, 40; waxing of, 34
vegetarian diet, 22, 67, 153
vision, 107
vitamin A, 107, 113, activity, 107; food chart, 108-12; stability of, 36
vitamin A precursors, see provitamin A
vitamin B, see B-group vitamins
vitamin B-1, 35, 129; food chart 130-4; stability of, 36
vitamin B-2, 35, 135, food chart, 136-40; stability of, 36
vitamin B-6, 147; food chart 148-52; stability of, 36
vitamin B-12, 153, 246; food chart, 154-8; stability of, 36
vitamin C, 6, 32, 33, 35, 177, 207; food chart, 178-82; stability of, 36
vitamin D, 119; food chart 119; stability of, 36
vitamin E, 121; activity of, 121; food chart 122-6; stability of, 36
vitamin K, 127; food chart, 127; stability of, 36
vitamins, 8, 9, 105, 107; destruction of, 35; energy content of, 49; fat-soluble, 107, 113, 119, 121, 127; labelling requirements of, 23; stability of, 36; storage of, 9; water-soluble, 35, 129, 135, 141, 147, 153, 159, 165, 171, 177
vulnerable groups, nutritionally, 3, 127, 141, 147, 159, 177


W
warfarin, 21, 127, 177
water, 4, 8, 55; in the body, 17, 19, 55, 225; food chart 56-60
water, fluoridation, 244
waxing, 34
weight desirable, 17; and health, 3, 18; status, Fig 16, Fig 17, 18-19
weight-to-height table, 17-18
weight-reduction, 15, 17
weights and measures, 46
Wemicke-Korsakoff psychosis, 129
wheat, 8, 252
wine, 8, 105


Y
yeast, 8; brewers, 244


Z
zinc, 237; food chart, 238-42

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