Introduction  
  What is food?
  What happens to the food we eat?  
Our nutrient needs  
  Energy balance  
  Nutritional status  
  Laws & labels  
  Additives & colours  
  Toxicity in food  
  Processing food  
  Stability of food nutrients  
  Storage life of foods  
  Food- associated health problems  

- FIGURE 3-

FOODS GROUPED ACCORDING TO BIOLOGICAL SOURCE

Source Groups (select):
Animal, Plant, Confectionary, Microbiological, Insect, Water, Soil

GROUP: ANIMAL NUTRITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS
ANIMALS High content of good-quality protein
Eggs High cholesterol in yolk
Milk and dairy products High in saturated fat

High in calcium (except butter)

Lactose (milk sugar) is not tolerated by some individuals

Muscle meats:

  Fish - freshwater

  Fish - seawater

Less sodium than in seawater fish Source of essential fatty acids (i.e, eolyunsaturated fatty acids)
  Shellfish (e.g. mussels, oysters) Cholesterol level similar to fish, but contribute more essential fatty acids

High in trace elements and sometimes contaminated with 'heavy' metals (e.g, mercury)

  Crustaceans
  (e.g. prawns, lobster)
More cholesterol than in fish, but contribute more essential fatty acids
  Ruminants
  (e.g. sheep, cattle)
High iron content

High in saturated fat

  Monogastric - domesticated
  (e.g. pig)
The type of fat reflects the animal's dietary intake to a greater extent than in ruminants.
  Monogastric - game
   (e.g. kangaroo, rabbit)
Although lean, the type of fat again reflects the animal's dietary fat intake to a greater extent than in ruminants.
  Avian - poultry

  Avian - game birds

Usually low in fat (if skin removed)

Low in fat

Organ meats:
  Liver Good source of most vitamins and elements

High cholesterol content

High in nucleic acids

  Brain High cholesterol content
  Other
  (kidneys, heart, intestine, etc.)
High cholesterol content


GROUP: PLANT NUTRITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS
PLANTS All contain dietary fibre. Contain potassium rather than sodium.
Vegetables:
  Root (e.g. carrots, sweet
  potatoes, potatoes)
High in starch

Moderate vitamin C content Carotene (forms vitamin A) content high in yellow-orange vegetables

  Green leafy
   (e.g. spinach, cabbage)
High in carotene

High in vitamin K

  Marrow-like High in carotene (if yellow-orange)
  Flowers
  (e.g. broccoli, cauliflower)
High vitamin C content
  Stalks (e.g. celery) Low energy density
  Onion-like (e.g. spring onions) Low energy density
  Tomatoes Low energy density Moderate vitamin C content
  Peppers (e.g. capsicum) Low energy density High vitamin C content
  Legumes
  (e.g. beans, peas, lentils)
High in starch

Moderate amount of protein but relatively deficient in one essential component (the amino acid, methionine)

Cereals and grains: Contain dietary fibre that is rich in 'pentosans: which have a particular role in bowel function.

High in starch

Moderate protein content, but relatively deficient in one essential amino acid (lysine)

  Corn
  (e.g. sweetcorn, maize)
Relatively deficient in two amino acids (lysine and trytophan) and the B-group vitamin, niacin
Fruits:
  Citrus
  (e.g. oranges, lemons)
Dietary fibre rich in pectin, with gelling properties

High in vitamin C and moderate in folacin

  Stone fruit
   (e.g. plums, apricots,
    cherries, peaches)
Moderate carotene content

Low vitamin C content

  Apples and pears Mainly water, carbohydrate and dietary fibre, with little vitamin or mineral content
  Tropical fruit
  (e.g. mango, papaya)
High in carotene, High in vitamin C, Rich source of pectin
  Berries
  (e.g. raspberries, strawberries, blueberries, blackberries)
High in vitamin C
Nuts (e.g. peanuts, walnuts, macadamia,hazelnuts.etc.) High energy density, High content of fat with various types of fatty acids, Moderate protein content
Herbs and spices Low energy density


GROUP: CONFECTIONARY NUTRITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS
(e.g, sweets) High energy density, Low nutrient density


GROUP: MICROBIOLOGICAL NUTRITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS
Soil micro-organisms Vitamin 8-12 is produced by the micro-organisms; vegans who are very hygienic may be deficient in this vitamin.
Yeast Wide range of vitamins and trace elements, High in nucleic acids
Fermented beverages (e.g. beer, wines, spirits) Nutrient content depends on source of carbohydrate and extent of processing

Ethanol (alcohol)

Fermented foods (e.g. soya sauce, tempeh) High amino acid content, Sodium can be high


GROUP: INSECT NUTRITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS
Bodies High protein content
Honey High in simple sugars (e.g, fructose, glucose and sucrose)


GROUP: WATER NUTRITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS
WATER No energy (kilocalories), Variable element content


GROUP: SOIL NUTRITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS
(Usually a contaminant in food, but deliberately used in cooking by some ethnic groups, e.g. AboriginalFind out more about this term Australians and in Iran) Variable element and micro organism contribution Clay-eaters can suffer element deficiencies because these nutrients are trapped by the clay, and so cannot be absorbed.

 

Food Facts
- What is food ?
- The total diet
- Knowing the natural sources of food
Figures:
1: Components of food in the total diet
2: The food pyramid
3: Foods grouped according to biological source
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