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- Important Basics Food Charts -

9:  SATURATED AND POLY-UNSATURATED FAT:

There are several types of fats, the chief ones being called triglycerides, cholesterol esters, and phospholipids. They contain fatty acids, which may be saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated.

Some polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential for humans because they cannot be made in our bodies. One group of essential fatty acids comes from plant sources; these fatty acids are found in considerable quantity in polyunsaturated margarine and in vegetable oils. We need about 1 to 2 per cent of our energy to come from this type of fatty acid, although a higher intake, up to about 10 per cent of energy, may be protective against coronary heart disease. The requirements of another type of essential fatty acid have not been worked out, but they are obtained mainly from seafood and, in a different way, seem protective against coronary heart disease - they reduce the 'stickiness' of the bloodFind out more about this term. Both kinds of essential fatty acids can lower high levels of blood fats.

Saturated fatty acids come chiefly from ruminant animals, such as sheep and cattle, and from milk and dairy products of these animals. In the stomachs of ruminants the polyunsaturated fatty acids that are present in fodder are broken down to a large extent to saturated fatty acids so that the fatty tissues of animals such as cattle are mostly saturated. On the other hand, animals with a single stomach (monogastric) absorb the range of fatty acids, saturated and polyunsaturated, present in the diet. Pigs and humans are similar in this respect. Furthermore, domesticated animals have more carcass fat than wild animals so that the advent of animal production for human consumption has led to a great increase in the consumption of saturated fat.

Saturated fat increases the amount of cholesterol in blood. Monounsaturated fat does not increase the blood cholesterol level and may decrease it (olive oil and peanut oil provide monounsaturated fat). Polyunsaturated fat decreases it. Traditional cultures that use olive oil in food preparation or a lot of groundnuts (peanuts) have little coronary heart disease. Cholesterol in food increases the level of cholesterol in blood.

Saturated fat also increases the amount of triglyceride in the blood. Both blood cholesterol and blood triglyceride, when elevated, increase the risk of hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosisFind out more about this term), with consequent coronary heart disease.


The desirable ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fat in the diet is:

1 : 1 (i.e. 50 : 50).



SPECIAL POLYUNSATURATED PRODUCTS

Some novel food products have been developed to decrease the saturated and increase the polyunsaturated fat of the total diet. Foods traditionally high in saturated fat, such as icecream made with milkfat, are now available made from polyunsaturated vegetable oils.

Dairy and beef cattle have been fed polyunsaturated fat protected from digestive breakdown so that the dairy and beef products are more polyunsaturated. Eggs have also had the yolk, rich in cholesterol, removed and replaced with a polyunsaturated oil substitute -- hence 'polyunsaturated egg mix', with the main advantage being a low cholesterol content.

SATURATED AND POLYUNSATURATED FAT IN MARGARINE AND VEGETABLE OILS

Approximate amounts of saturated and polyunsaturated fat in different types of margarine are shown in Figure 47, and the amounts in different vegetable oils are shown in Figure 48.


Important Basics
- Energy
- Water
- Dietary Fibre
- Protein
- Phenylalanine
- Carbohydyrate
- Fat
- Cholesterol
Saturated and Unsaturated Fat
- Alcohol

Also on this page:
-  Desirable ratio
-  Special products
-  Fats in margarine/oils
-  Figure 47: Margarines
-  Figure 48: Oils

-  

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FIGURE 47:

APPROXIMATE AMOUNTS OF SATURATED AND POLYUNSATURATED FAT IN MARGARINES

TYPE OF MARGARINE SATURATED FAT POLYUNSATURATED FAT
  (grams per 100 grams of margarine)
Hard (animal and vegetable oils) 30 14
Hard (vegetable oils only) 30 10
Soft (animal and vegetable oils) 25 16
Soft (vegetable oils only) 26 18
Polyunsaturated 19 60


 
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FIGURE 48:

APPROXIMATE AMOUNTS OF SATURATED AND POLYUNSATURATED FAT IN DIFFERENT VEGETABLE OILS

TYPE OF OIL SATURATED FAT POLYUNSATURATED FAT
(grams per 100 grams of oil)
Coconut oil 85 2
Maize oil 16 49
Olive oil 14 11
Palm oil 45 8
Peanut oil 19 29
Safflower oil 10 72
Soya bean oil 14 57
Sunflower oil 13 50
 

 

SATURATED AND POLY-UNSATURATED FAT Food Charts:

 

Saturated
and poly-
unsaturated
FAT:
beverages

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BEVERAGES


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Food charts list:
beverages
cereals, biscuits,cakes,deserts
egg and cheese dishes
fats and oils
fish and seafoods
fruit
meat and meat products
milk and milk products
nuts
sauces and condiments
soups (as served)
sugars, jams and spreads
sweets
vegetables

 

Saturated
and poly-
unsaturated
FAT:
cereals/cakes

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CEREALS, BISCUITS, CAKES, DESERTS


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Food charts list:
beverages
cereals, biscuits,cakes,deserts
egg and cheese dishes
fats and oils
fish and seafoods
fruit
meat and meat products
milk and milk products
nuts
sauces and condiments
soups (as served)
sugars, jams and spreads
sweets
vegetables

 

 

Saturated
and poly-
unsaturated
FAT:
cereals/cakes

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Food charts list:
beverages
cereals, biscuits,cakes,deserts
egg and cheese dishes
fats and oils
fish and seafoods
fruit
meat and meat products
milk and milk products
nuts
sauces and condiments
soups (as served)
sugars, jams and spreads
sweets
vegetables

 

Saturated
and poly-
unsaturated
FAT:
egg & cheese
dishes

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EGG AND CHEESE DISHES

 

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Saturated
and poly-
unsaturated
FAT:
fats/oils

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FATS AND OILS

 

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Saturated
and poly-
unsaturated
FAT:
fish/seafood

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FISH AND OTHER SEAFOODS


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Food charts list:
beverages
cereals, biscuits,cakes,deserts
egg and cheese dishes
fats and oils
fish and seafoods
fruit
meat and meat products
milk and milk products
nuts
sauces and condiments
soups (as served)
sugars, jams and spreads
sweets
vegetables

 

Saturated
and poly-
unsaturated
FAT:
fruit

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FRUIT


fruit%20icon

Food charts list:
beverages
cereals, biscuits,cakes,deserts
egg and cheese dishes
fats and oils
fish and seafoods
fruit
meat and meat products
milk and milk products
nuts
sauces and condiments
soups (as served)
sugars, jams and spreads
sweets
vegetables

 

 

 

 

Saturated
and poly-
unsaturated
FAT:
fruit

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fruit%20icon

Food charts list:
beverages
cereals, biscuits,cakes,deserts
egg and cheese dishes
fats and oils
fish and seafoods
fruit
meat and meat products
milk and milk products
nuts
sauces and condiments
soups (as served)
sugars, jams and spreads
sweets
vegetables

 

Saturated
and poly-
unsaturated
FAT:
meats

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MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS


meat%20icon

Food charts list:
beverages
cereals, biscuits,cakes,deserts
egg and cheese dishes
fats and oils
fish and seafoods
fruit
meat and meat products
milk and milk products
nuts
sauces and condiments
soups (as served)
sugars, jams and spreads
sweets
vegetables

 

 

 

Saturated
and poly-
unsaturated
FAT:
meats

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meat%20icon

Food charts list:
beverages
cereals, biscuits,cakes,deserts
egg and cheese dishes
fats and oils
fish and seafoods
fruit
meat and meat products
milk and milk products
nuts
sauces and condiments
soups (as served)
sugars, jams and spreads
sweets
vegetables

 

Saturated
and poly-
unsaturated
FAT:
milk products

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MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS

 

milk-cheese%20icon

Food charts list:
beverages
cereals, biscuits,cakes,deserts
egg and cheese dishes
fats and oils
fish and seafoods
fruit
meat and meat products
milk and milk products
nuts
sauces and condiments
soups (as served)
sugars, jams and spreads
sweets
vegetables

 

Saturated
and poly-
unsaturated
FAT:
nuts

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NUTS


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Saturated
and poly-
unsaturated
FAT:
sauces

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SAUCES AND CONDIMENTS


sauces%20icon

Food charts list:
beverages
cereals, biscuits,cakes,deserts
egg and cheese dishes
fats and oils
fish and seafoods
fruit
meat and meat products
milk and milk products
nuts
sauces and condiments
soups (as served)
sugars, jams and spreads
sweets
vegetables

 

Saturated
and poly-
unsaturated
FAT:
soups

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SOUPS (as served)

 

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Saturated
and poly-
unsaturated
FAT:
sugars

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SUGARS, JAMS AND SPREADS

 

sugars%20icon

Food charts list:
beverages
cereals, biscuits,cakes,deserts
egg and cheese dishes
fats and oils
fish and seafoods
fruit
meat and meat products
milk and milk products
nuts
sauces and condiments
soups (as served)
sugars, jams and spreads
sweets
vegetables

 

Saturated
and poly-
unsaturated
FAT:
sweets

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SWEETS

 

 

 

Saturated
and poly-
unsaturated
FAT:
vegetables

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VEGETABLES


Food charts list:
beverages
cereals, biscuits,cakes,deserts
egg and cheese dishes
fats and oils
fish and seafoods
fruit
meat and meat products
milk and milk products
nuts
sauces and condiments
soups (as served)
sugars, jams and spreads
sweets
vegetables

 

 

 

 

Saturated
and poly-
unsaturated
FAT:
vegetables

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  bottom

vegetables%20icon

Food charts list:
beverages
cereals, biscuits,cakes,deserts
egg and cheese dishes
fats and oils
fish and seafoods
fruit
meat and meat products
milk and milk products
nuts
sauces and condiments
soups (as served)
sugars, jams and spreads
sweets
vegetables

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