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1 Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
       Volume 25, 4

         (December 2016)


Abstracts

Contents

Abstract PDF

Reviews

Fructans in the first 1000 days of life and beyond, and for pregnancy
AGUS FIRMANSYAH, NALINEE CHONGVIRIYAPHAN, DRUPADI HS DILLON, NGUYEN CONG KHAN, TATSUYA MORITA, KRAISID TONTISIRIN, LE DANH TUYEN, WEIPING WANG, JACQUES BINDELS, PAUL DEURENBERG, SHERLIN ONG, JO HAUTVAST, DIEDERICK MEYER AND ELAINE E VAUGHAN
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(4):652-675.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.092016.02

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Optimal nutrition therapy in paediatric critical care in the Asia-Pacific and Middle East: a consensus
JAN HAU LEE, ELIZABETH ROGERS, YEK KEE CHOR, RUJIPAT SAMRANSAMRUAJKIT, PEI LIN KOH, MOHAMAD MIQDADY, ALI IBRAHIM AL-MEHAIDIB, ANTONIUS PUDJIADI, SUNIT SINGHI AND NILESH M MEHTA
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(4):676-696.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.012016.07

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Melamine-contaminated milk formula and its impact on children
JIAN GUO WEN, XIN JIAN LIU, ZHI MIN WANG, TIAN FANG LI AND MARK L WAHLQVIST
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(4):697-705.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.072016.01

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Future food
MARK L WAHLQVIST
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(4):706-715.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.092016.01

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Original Research Communications

Clinical Nutrition or Feeding Studies

Children with atopic dermatitis in Daejeon, Korea: individualized nutrition intervention for disease severity and nutritional status
SEONG HEE KIM, JAE HO LEE AND SUN YUNG LY
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(4):716-728.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.092015.31

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Simultaneous coffee caffeine intake and sleep deprivation alter glucose homeostasis in Iranian men: a randomized crossover trial
BEHROUZ RASAEI, RUZITA ABD TALIB, MOHD ISMAIL NOOR, MAJID KARANDISH AND NORIMAH A KARIM
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(4):729-739.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.092015.46

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Enteral nutrition preference in critical care: fibre-enriched or fibre-free?
HATICE YAGMURDUR AND FIGEN LEBLEBICI
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(4):740-746.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.122015.12

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Combined chromium and magnesium decreases insulin resistance more effectively than either alone
MEI DOU, YAN MA, AI GUO MA, LEI HAN, MI MI SONG, YAN GANG WANG, MIN XIU YAO, XIAO FANG SUN, YING LI, SHAN GAO AND YAN ZHANG

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(4):747-753.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.092015.48

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Nutritional Status, Dietary Intake, and Body Composition.

25 hydroxy vitamin D is higher when a renal multivitamin is given with cholecalciferol at hemodialysis
HADIL S SUBIH, JANAYE BEHRENS, BROOKE BURT, LOUISE CLEMENT, RITA PANNELL, LAURA MACHA, JULIAN SPALLHOLZ AND MALLORY BOYLAN

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(4):754-759.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.012016.08

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Cod skin peptide reduces chemotherapy-induced toxicity in gastric cancer patients
LI-PING WU, XIAO-FEI HU, HUI-PING WAN, YAN-MIN YU, JIAN-HUA YU AND GUO-QIANG ZHANG
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(4):760-766.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.092015.27

 

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Coffee consumption is associated with lower serum aminotransferases in the general Korean population and in those at high risk for hepatic disease
MYUENG GUEN OH, MI AH HAN, MAN WOO KIM, CHAN GUK PARK, YOUNG DAE KIM AND JUN LEE
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(4):767-775.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.092015.36

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Habitual dietary calcium intakes and calcium metabolism in healthy adults Chinese: a systematic review and meta-analysis
AI-PING FANG, KE-JI LI, HAO-YU SHI, JING-JING HE AND HE LI
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(4):776-784.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.092015.30

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Population-based association between urinary excretion of sodium, potassium and its ratio with albuminuria in Chinese
LIUXIA YAN, XIAOLEI GUO, HUICHENG WANG, JIYU ZHANG, JUNLI TANG, ZILONG LU, XIAONING CAI, LONGJIAN LIU, EDWARD J GRACELY AND JIXIANG MA
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(4):785-797.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.092015.33

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Truncal and leg fat associations with metabolic risk factors among Chinese adults
MIN YANG, JIE LIN, XIAOGUANG MA, CHAONAN ZHU, CHEN WEI, LU WANG, JINGJING JIAO AND SHANKUAN ZHU
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(4):798-809.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.092015.35

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Maternal and Clild Nutrition

 

Pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain in Thai pregnant women as risks for low birth weight and macrosomia
TIPPAWAN PONGCHAROEN, SUEPPONG GOWACHIRAPANT, PURISA WECHARAK, NATNAREE SANGKET AND PATTANEE WINICHAGOON
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(4):810-817.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.092015.41

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An on-line database for human milk composition in China
SHI-AN YIN AND ZHEN-YU YANG

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(4):818-825.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.092015.47

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Obesity, non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors and dietary factors among Chinese school-aged children
CARMEN PIERNAS, DANTONG WANG, SHUFA DU, BING ZHANG, ZHIHONG WANG, CHANG SU AND BARRY M POPKIN

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(4):826-840.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.092015.37

 

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Nutritional Epidemiology and Public Health

 

An internet-based food frequency questionnaire for a large Chinese population
REN-NAN FENG, SHAN-SHAN DU, YANG CHEN, ZHEN LI, YING-FENG ZHANG, CHANG-HAO SUN AND YONG-SHUAI JIANG
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(4):841-848
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doi: 10.6133/apjcn.092015.26

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Dietary attitudes and behaviours of women in China after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in three seismically different zones
PING HU, LING-LI HAN, FENG-GANG HOU, XIANG-LONG XU, MANOJ SHARMA AND YONG ZHAO
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(4):849-857.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.092015.29

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Comparison of the prevalence and characteristics of food hypersensitivity among adolescent and older women
ANRI FUJIMORI, TOMOMI YAMASHITA, MASARU KUBOTA, HIROMI SAITO, NOBUE TAKAMATSU AND MITSUHIKO NAMBU
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(4):858-862.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.092015.39

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Middle-class household food providers’ views and experiences of food marketing in Vietnam
QUYNH TH PHAM AND ANTHONY WORSLEY
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(4):863-870.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.092015.45

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Salty food preference is associated with osteoporosis among Chinese men
ZHONG-HUA LIU, ZI-HUI TANG, KE-QIN ZHANG AND LING SHI
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(4):871-878.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.102015.06

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Comparison of salt taste thresholds and salt usage behaviours between adults in Myanmar and Korea
HYUNGJIN CHO, SO MI KIM, SEONG SU JEONG AND SOON BAE KIM

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(4):879-884.

doi:10.6133/apjcn.092015.32

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Vitamin D status of Māori and non-Māori octogenarians in New Zealand: a Cohort Study (LiLACS NZ)
CATHERINE J BACON, NGAIRE KERSE, KAREN J HAYMAN, SIMON A MOYES, RUTH O TEH, MERE KEPA, AVINESH
PILLAI AND LORNA DYALL
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(4):885-897.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.092015.42

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The physical examination content of the Japanese National Health and Nutrition Survey: temporal changes
HISAKO TANAKA, SHINO IMAI, MAKIKO NAKADE, ERI IMAI AND HIDEMI TAKIMOTO

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(4):898-910.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.092015.34

 

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Nutrigenomics

 

Endemic fluorosis in Henan province, China: ERα gene polymorphisms and reproductive hormones among women
GUO-YU ZHOU, LI-JUN REN, JIA-XIANG HOU, LIU-XIN CUI, ZHONG DING, XUE-MIN CHENG, JING-YUAN ZHU, RUI-RUI CUI AND YUE BA
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(4):911-919.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.062016.01

 

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Case Study

 

A huge ovarian mucinous cystadenoma associated with contralateral teratoma and polycystic ovary syndrome in an obese adolescent girl
PATCHARAPA THAWEEKUL, YUTHADEJ THAWEEKUL AND KARICHA MAIRIANG
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(4):920-923.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.092015.49

 

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Future Events

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(4):924.

 

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Fructans in the first 1000 days of life and beyond, and for pregnancy
AGUS FIRMANSYAH, NALINEE CHONGVIRIYAPHAN, DRUPADI HS DILLON, NGUYEN CONG KHAN, TATSUYA MORITA, KRAISID TONTISIRIN, LE DANH TUYEN, WEIPING WANG, JACQUES BINDELS, PAUL DEURENBERG, SHERLIN ONG, JO HAUTVAST, DIEDERICK MEYER AND ELAINE E VAUGHAN
Inulin-based prebiotics are non-digestible polysaccharides that influence the composition of the gut microbiota in infants and children, notably eliciting a bifidogenic effect with high short chain fatty acid levels. Inulin, a generic term that comprises β-(2,1)-linked linear fructans, is typically isolated from the chicory plant root, and derivatives such as oligofructose and long chain inulin appear to have different physiological properties. The first 1000 days of a child’s life are increasingly recognized as a critical timeframe for health also into adulthood, whereby nutrition plays a key role. There is an ever increasing association between nutrition and gut microbiota composition and development, with life health status of an individual. This review summarizes the latest knowledge in the infant gut microbiota from preterms to healthy newborns, as well as in malnourished children in developing countries. The impact of inulin or mixtures thereof on infants, toddlers and young children with respect to intestinal function and immunity in general, is reviewed. Possible benefits of prebiotics to support the gut microbiome of malnourished infants and children, especially those with infections in the developing world, are considered, as well as for the pregnant mothers health. Importantly, novel insights in metabolic programming are covered, which are being increasing recognized for remarkable impact on long term offspring health, and eventual potential beneficial role of prebiotic inulins. Overall increasing findings prompt the potential for gut microbiota-based therapy to support health or prevent the development of certain diseases from conception to adulthood where inulin prebiotics may play a role.
Key Words: review, inulin, infant, pregnancy, gut microbiota
 

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果聚糖在出生后 1000 天中的作用及其对远期健康和妊 娠的影响

菊粉益生元是一类非消化性多糖,能够影响婴幼儿肠道中微生态的构成,尤其 是增强双岐杆菌转化产生短链脂肪酸的作用。菊粉是一个通用的术语,包括 β(2,1)线性果聚糖(主要从菊苣植物根中分离所得)及其衍生品如低聚果糖和长 链菊粉,尽管各自具有不同的生理功能。婴儿出生后第一个 1000天被认为是影 响健康的一个关键期,甚至关系到成年期的健康,其中营养是关键因素之一。 在此关键期间营养和肠道微生物群组成之间的联系不断增强和发展,从而影响 个体的生命健康。本文总结了对健康新生儿和早产婴儿肠道微生态进行研究的 结果,以及在发展中国家对营养不良患儿进行观察的最新进展。这些研究内容 包括菊粉或其混合物对婴幼儿和较大年龄儿童的肠道功能和免疫力产生的影 响。这些研究结果显示,益生元可以支持营养不良患儿肠道中的有益微生物生 长从而抑制感染,因此特别有益于发展中国家的儿童和孕妇的健康。本文提出 了有关菊粉益生元在肠道微生态代谢编程方面的重要作用,明确了益生元对儿 童长期健康的潜在有益作用。上述研究进展为利用益生元对某些疾病进行肠道 微生态疗法治疗和预防的可能性提供了证据。

关键词:回顧、菊粉、婴儿、懷孕、肠道微生态

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Optimal nutrition therapy in paediatric critical care in the Asia-Pacific and Middle East: a consensus
JAN HAU LEE, ELIZABETH ROGERS, YEK KEE CHOR, RUJIPAT SAMRANSAMRUAJKIT, PEI LIN KOH, MOHAMAD MIQDADY, ALI IBRAHIM AL-MEHAIDIB, ANTONIUS PUDJIADI, SUNIT SINGHI AND NILESH M MEHTA
Background and Objectives: Current practices and available resources for nutrition therapy in paediatric intensive care units (PICUs) in the Asia Pacific-Middle East region are expected to differ from western countries. Existing guidelines for nutrition management in critically ill children may not be directly applicable in this region. This paper outlines consensus statements developed by the Asia Pacific-Middle East Consensus Working Group on Nutrition Therapy in the Paediatric Critical Care Environment. Challenges and recommendations unique to the region are described. Methods and Study Design: Following a systematic literature search from 2004-2014, consensus statements were developed for key areas of nutrient delivery in the PICU. This review focused on evidence applicable to the Asia Pacific-Middle East region. Quality of evidence and strength of recommendations were rated according to the Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Results: Enteral nutrition (EN) is the preferred mode of nutritional support. Feeding algorithms that optimize EN should be encouraged and must include: assessment and monitoring of nutritional status, selection of feeding route, time to initiate and advance EN, management strategies for EN intolerance and indications for using parenteral nutrition (PN). Despite heterogeneity in nutritional status of patients, availability of resources and diversity of cultures, PICUs in the region should consider involvement of dieticians and/or nutritional support teams. Conclusions: Robust evidence for several aspects of optimal nutrition therapy in PICUs is lacking. Nutritional assessment must be implemented to document prevalence and impact of malnutrition. Nutritional support must be given greater priority in PICUs, with particular emphasis in optimizing EN delivery.
Key Words: Asia Pacific, children, critical care, Middle East, nutrition


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亚太和中东地区儿科重症监护的最佳营养治疗共识

背景与目的:亚太中东地区儿科重症监护病房(PICU)营养治疗的现状和可用 资源与西方国家不同。现有的对危重症儿童营养管理的指南可能不能直接用于这 一地区。本文概述了亚太中东共识工作组制定的儿科重症监护环境下营养治疗的 共识声明,描述了这一地区独特的挑战和建议。方法与研究设计:系统检索了 2004-2014 年间的文献,形成了 PICU 营养应用关键领域的共识声明。本综述重 点关注适用于亚太中东地区的证据。推荐的证据和强度的质量是根据推荐评估、 制定和评价方法的分级评分的。结果:肠内营养(EN)是首选的营养支持模 式、应鼓励最优化 EN,其必须包括:评估和检测营养状态、给食途径的选择、 开始和增加 EN 的时间、EN 不耐受的管理策略和使用肠外营养的适应症。因为 存在患者营养状态的异质性、资源的可用性和文化的多样性,这个地区的 PICU 应该考虑营养师和/或营养团队的参与。结论:PICU 最佳营养治疗几个方面强有 力的证据是不足的。营养评估必须落实到患病率的记录和营养不良的影响。 PICU必须优先考虑营养支持,尤其强调最优化 EN的应用。
关键词:亚太地区、儿童、重症监护、中东、营养

 

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Melamine-contaminated milk formula and its impact on children
JIAN GUO WEN, XIN JIAN LIU, ZHI MIN WANG, TIAN FANG LI AND MARK L WAHLQVIST

The melamine contaminated milk powder contamination scandal occurred in China in 2008. Its main consequences so far have been urinary stone formation in children with associated renal damage and increased child mortality. Eight years have passed, but food safety issues still remain of concern in the daily lives of millions of Chinese. Vigilance is required to ensure no recurrence of such food safety problems. Ongoing studies focus on the early detection of food industry malpractice, mechanisms whereby these toxic substances induce disease and how its advent may be prevented and better managed. Melamine undergoes renal excretion, but is metabolized slowly and excreted largely unchanged in the urine. Urinary melamine measurement may provide a rapid and inexpensive way to identify exposure to melamine adulterated food items. Although most patients with melaminerelated urinary stones (MUS) have been responsive to conservative treatment, longer time follow-up is needed to assess chronic effects. Aside from MUS, melamine is a recognized carcinogen and can induce urinary tract tumours. Very little is known about the effects of excessive exposure to melamine contaminated milk powder in infants on growth, adolescent and adult health, although short-term effects have become apparent during the scandal.
Key Words: melamine, mechanism, clinical features, detection, follow up

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三聚氰胺污染奶粉及其对儿童的影响
2008 年,中国发生了三聚氰胺污染奶粉的丑闻事件。到目前为止,其主要后 果是引起众多婴幼儿患泌尿系结石,部分患儿出现肾衰竭,甚至死亡。八年过 去了,但食品安全仍是数以万计中国人日常关心的大事。我们仍需警惕类似食 品安全事件的发生。未来的研究应着重关注类似食品添加剂的早期检测、发病 机制和诊疗技术等。三聚氰胺在人体内通过肾脏代谢,且三聚氰胺代谢速度较 慢,大部分以原形经尿液排出。因此,检测尿液中的三聚氰胺可能是一种快 速、经济的检测三聚氰胺污染的有效方法。尽管三聚氰胺泌尿系结石患儿经保 守治疗后大部分可痊愈,但对这部分患儿的长期随访研究仍十分重要。除了泌 尿系结石,三聚氰胺也可能引起泌尿系肿瘤。尽管从三聚氰胺污染奶粉事件中 可以看出三聚氰胺对婴幼儿的短期影响,但过多暴露于三聚氰胺污染的奶粉对 婴幼儿生长发育、青少年和成年期健康的影响仍需进一步随访研究。
关键词:三聚氰胺、机制、临床特点、检测、随访


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Future food
MARK L WAHLQVIST
Food systems have changed markedly with human settlement and agriculture, industrialisation, trade, migration and now the digital age. Throughout these transitions, there has been a progressive population explosion and net ecosystem loss and degradation. Climate change now gathers pace, exacerbated by ecological dysfunction. Our health status has been challenged by a developing people-environment mismatch. We have regarded ecological conquest and innovative technology as solutions, but have not understood how ecologically dependent and integrated we are. We are ecological creatures interfaced by our sensoriness, microbiomes, shared regulatory (endocrine) mechanisms, immune system, biorhythms and nutritional pathways. Many of us are ‘nature-deprived’. We now suffer what might be termed ecological health disorders (EHD). If there were less of us, nature’s resilience might cope, but more than 9 billion people by 2050 is probably an intolerable demand on the planet. Future food must increasingly take into account the pressures on ecosystem-dependent food systems, with foods probably less biodiverse, although eating in this way allows optimal health; energy dysequilibrium with less physical activity and foods inappropriately energy dense; and less socially-conducive food habits. ‘Personalised Nutrition’, with extensive and resource-demanding nutrigenomic, metabolomic and microbiomic data may provide partial health solutions in clinical settings, but not be justified for ethical, risk management or sustainability reasons in public health. The globally prevalent multidimensional malnutritional problems of food insecurity, quality and equity require local, regional and global action to prevent further ecosystem degradation as well as to educate, provide sustainable livelihoods and encourage respectful social discourse and practice about the role of food.
Key Words: food systems, food security, econutrition, ecosystem health disorders (EHD), personalised nutrition, peopleless food outlets, clinical nutrition
 

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未來糧食

糧食系統隨著人類定居和農耕、工業化、貿易、移民以及現今的數位時代而 明顯改變。這些轉型的過程中,出現人口漸增至爆炸,及生態系統的淨流失 與崩壞。氣候變遷由於生態系統的失衡而加速惡化。我們的健康狀況已受到 一個發展中的人類-環境不搭的挑戰。我們將生態征服及創新技術當作解決方 案,但是還不了解我們如何對生態的依賴及我們是一個完整的體系。人類是 生態的生物,其介面為我們的感官、腸道微生物群、共享的調節(內分泌)機 制、免疫系統、生物時鐘及營養路徑。我們許多人是「自然剝奪」者。我們 可能正面臨名為「生態健康失調」(EHD)的困境。如果不是那麼多人,自然 的應變能力可能足以因應,但是面臨 2050 年超過 90 億的人口,地球可能無 法負荷這個需求。未來的糧食需逐漸增加考量糧食系統對生態系統依賴所造 成的壓力,導致糧食的有較少的生物多樣性,儘管這樣吃可以有較佳的健 康;較少運動與食物不當的能量密度所造成的能量失衡;以及較少有利於社 會的飲食習慣。「個人化營養」,包括資源需要很高的營養基因體學、代謝 體學以及腸道微生物資料,可能可提供臨床上的部分健康解答,但對公共衛 生的倫理、風險管理或是永續使用並不具正當性。糧食不安全、品質及平等 是全球盛行的多面向營養不良問題,需要在地、區域或是全球的行動,以預 防更進一步的生態系統崩壞;並教育提供永續生計以及鼓勵尊重糧食相關的 社會論述及作法。
關鍵字:糧食系統、糧食安全、生態營養、生態系統健康失調、個人化營 養、無人食物商場、臨床營養
 

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Children with atopic dermatitis in Daejeon, Korea: individualized nutrition intervention for disease severity and nutritional status
SEONG HEE KIM, JAE HO LEE AND SUN YUNG LY

Background and Objectives: Atopic dermatitis is one of the most common pediatric chronic inflammatory skin diseases, and certain food allergens and nutrients are closely related to the development and severity of atopic dermatitis. While avoidance of the causative foods is considered the mainstay of treatment, unverified excessive restriction might induce unnecessary limitations in the food intake, consequently leading to nutritional deficiencies and poor growth. This study aimed to identify the characteristics and nutrient intake status in children with atopic dermatitis and to investigate the effects of individualized nutrition intervention. Methods and Study Design: We retrospectively reviewed electronic medical records of 77 pediatric patients with atopic dermatitis who received 4 months of individualized nutrition intervention combined with an elimination diet. The patient characteristics, nutrient intake status, and clinical status were examined before and after the intervention. Results: Before the intervention, 5 children had a weight for height z-score below -2.0, and 48.1% had experienced food restriction; these children showed a significantly higher SCORing of Atopic Dermatitis index than those without experiences, with the number of restricted foods before the intervention positively correlating with the disease severity. The intakes of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids, calcium, folate, and vitamin D were lower than the recommended nutrient intakes for Koreans. After the intervention, the weight for height z-score of 35 children was significantly increased and their SCORing of Atopic Dermatitis index was significantly reduced (p<0.05). Conclusions: Individualized nutrition intervention appears useful for alleviating the severity of atopic dermatitis and improving the growth status by improving the nutrient intake.
Key Words: atopic dermatitis, individualized nutrition intervention, SCORAD index, growth, nutritional status
 

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韩国大田特应性皮炎患儿:个体化营养干预对疾病严重 程度和营养状况的影响
背景与目的:特应性皮炎是小儿最常见的慢性炎症性皮肤病之一,某些食物过 敏原和营养素与特应性皮炎的发展和严重程度密切相关。而避免致病的食物被 认为是主要的治疗方案,未经证实的过度限制会引起不必要的食物摄入受限, 从而导致营养缺乏,发育不良。本研究旨在确定特应性皮炎患儿的特点和营养 摄入状况,探讨个体化营养干预的效果。方法与研究设计:我们回顾性分析了 接受 4个月个性化营养干预与排除膳食限制的 77例特应性皮炎患儿的电子医疗 记录。检查患者临床特征、营养素摄入状况以及干预前后的临床状态。结果: 干预前,5 名儿童体重身高 Z 评分低于-2.0,48.1%的患儿有食物受限;这些患 儿的 SCORAD 指数显著高于没有特应性皮炎的儿童,干预前,限制食品的数 量与疾病严重程度呈正相关。n-6 和 n-3 脂肪酸、钙、叶酸和维生素 D 的摄入 量均低于韩国人的推荐摄入量。干预后,35 名患儿相对身高体重 Z 评分显著增 加,SCORAD 指数显著降低(p<0.05)。结论:个性化营养干预通过改善营养 素摄入,似乎有助于缓解特应性皮炎的严重程度,改善生长状态。
关键词:特应性皮炎、个体化营养干预、SCORAD指数、生长、营养状况

 

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Simultaneous coffee caffeine intake and sleep deprivation alter glucose homeostasis in Iranian men: a randomized crossover trial
BEHROUZ RASAEI, RUZITA ABD TALIB, MOHD ISMAIL NOOR, MAJID KARANDISH AND NORIMAH A KARIM
Background and Objectives: Sleep deprivation and coffee caffeine consumption have been shown to affect glucose homeostasis separately, but the combined effects of these two variables are unknown. Methods and Study Design: Forty-two healthy Iranian men, aged 20-40 years old, were assigned to three groups in a randomised crossover trial involving three treatments with two-week washout periods. Subjects were moderate coffee consumers (≤3 cups/day), and had a Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index ≤5. Each treatment involved three nights of deprived sleep (4 hrs. in bed) plus 3×150 cc/cup of boiled water (BW treatment), decaffeinated coffee (DC treatment, without sugar, 99.9% caffeine-free), and caffeinated coffee (CC treatment, without sugar, 65 mg caffeine/cup). DC and CC treatments were blinded. At the end of each treatment, fasting serum glucose (using enzyme assays) and insulin (using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay) were measured and, again, two hours after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Insulin resistance was quantified with the homeostasis model. Results: Repeated measures ANOVA indicated no significant difference between the treatments in fasting serum glucose (p=0.248) or insulin resistance (p=0.079). However, ANOVA demonstrated differences between treatments in fasting serum insulin (p=0.004) and glucose, as well as insulin after OGTT (p<0.001). Pairwise comparisons test (within subjects) showed that the CC treatment yielded higher serum glucose and insulin after OGTT (p<0.001), higher fasting serum insulin (p=0.001), and increased insulin resistance (p=0.039) as compared to the DC treatment. Conclusions: Thus caffeinated coffee was more adverse for glucose homeostasis compared to decaffeinated coffee in individuals who were simultaneously sleep deprived.
Key Words: coffee caffeine, sleep deprivation, glucose homeostasis

 

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咖啡中咖啡因的摄入和睡眠剥夺改变伊朗男性葡萄糖 稳态:一项随机交叉试验
背景与目的:睡眠剥夺和咖啡中咖啡因的摄入对葡萄糖稳态的影响已分别被证 明,但这两个变量的综合效果尚不知道。方法与研究设计:42 名年龄在 20-40 岁之间的伊朗男性在本随机交叉试验中被分配到 3 个试验组,试验组间有两周 的洗脱期。研究对象为中度咖啡消费者(≤3 杯/天),并且匹兹堡睡眠质量指 数≤5。每种试验包括 3 晚上的睡眠剥夺(在床上 4 小时),加 3 杯开水(BW 试验,每杯 150 毫升)、无咖啡因的咖啡(DC 试验,不加糖,99.9%无咖啡 因)或含咖啡因的咖啡(CC 试验,不加糖,每杯含 65 毫克咖啡因)。DC 和 CC 处理采用盲法。每种试验结束后,测量空腹血糖(采用酶法测定)和胰岛 素(采用电化学发光免疫分析法测定),口服葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT)两个 小时后再次测量血糖和胰岛素。胰岛素抵抗采用稳态模型量化。结果:重复测 量方差分析表明各试验组间的空腹血糖(p=0.248)和胰岛素抵抗(p=0.079) 没有显著差异。然而,方差分析表明各试验组间空腹血清胰岛素、血糖和 OGTT 后的胰岛素有差异。配对比较(研究对象间)表明:与 DC 试验组相 比,CC 试验组 OGTT 后血糖和胰岛素较高(p<0.001),空腹血清胰岛素 (p=0.001)和胰岛素抵抗(p=0.039)也增加。结论:对睡眠被剥夺的人,含 咖啡因的咖啡比不含咖啡因的咖啡更不利于葡萄糖稳态。
关键词:含咖啡因的咖啡、睡眠剥夺、葡萄糖稳态

 

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Enteral nutrition preference in critical care: fibre-enriched or fibre-free?
HATICE YAGMURDUR AND FIGEN LEBLEBICI
Background and Objectives: This study’s main aim was to observe the effects of a fibre-enriched nutrition solution on requisite feeding volume, which is directly proportional to energy intake in mechanically ventilated patients with enteral nutrition. Methods and Study Design: Some 120 patients who required mechanical ventilation and enteral nutrition with a nasogastric tube were studied. Upon ICU admission, the patient’s age, gender, weight, height, comorbidities, diagnosis and APACHE II score were recorded. We assigned two diets to the patients randomly. The control group received the fibre-free nutrition solution. The study group, received the fibreenriched nutrition solution. Prescribed feeding volume and administered feeding volume, gastric residual volume (GRV), volume ratio (VR), diarrhoea score and gastrointestinal complications (GIC) were recorded, along with daily biochemistry. Results: The two groups did not differ with respect to age, sex, weight, BMI, APACHE II score, target caloric intake or GRV (p>0.05). On days four and five, the study group had higher VR values (p<0.05). Seventy-one (59%) patients had at least one gastrointestinal complication; 44 (73%) of them were controls and 27 (45%) of them study patients. The most commonly observed GIC was diarrhoea. Thirty-eight patients had diarrhoea in control group, and twenty-two patients had diarrhoea in study group, and this difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). There were no significant differences between the groups about vomiting and regurgitation. Conclusions: We suggest that ICU staff initiate enteral nutrition with fibre-enriched formulas rather than fibre-free formulas to avoid frequent feeding interruptions that cause protein energy malnutrition in ICU patients.
Key Words: fibre-enriched nutrition, volume ratio, diarrhoea, enteral nutrition, gastric residual volume
 

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重症监护中的肠内营养选择:富含还是不含膳食纤维?
背景与目的:本研究的主要目的是观察一个富含纤维营养液对必要给与量的 影响,这与机械通气的肠内营养患者能量摄入成正比。研究设计与方法:对 需要机械通气和肠内营养鼻饲管的 120 例患者进行了研究。在进入 ICU 前, 记录患者的年龄、性别、体重、身高、疾病、诊断和 APACHE II 评分。我们 随机将患者分至两种饮食。对照组给予无膳食纤维营养液。研究组给与富含 膳食纤维营养液。在每日生化检测时,记录处方量和实际给予量、胃残留量 (GRV)、体积比(VR)、腹泻评分和胃肠道并发症(GIC)。结果:两组 患者的年龄、性别、体重、BMI、APACHEⅡ评分、热量摄入或 GRV 均无统 计学意义(p>0.05)。在第 4 和 5 天时,研究组的 VR(p<0.05)较高。71 (59%)例患者至少有 1 种胃肠道并发症,其中对照组 44 例(73%),研究 组 27 例(45%)。腹泻是最常见的 GIC。对照组 38 例、研究组 22 例患者有 腹泻(p<0.001)。两组间呕吐和反流的发生率无统计学意义。结论:我们建 议,对 ICU 患者启动肠内营养与富含膳食纤维的配方,而不是无膳食纤维配 方,以避免频繁喂养中断导致蛋白质-能量营养不良。
关键词:富含纤维营养、体积比、腹泻、肠内营养、胃残留量


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Combined chromium and magnesium decreases insulin resistance more effectively than either alone
MEI DOU, YAN MA, AI GUO MA, LEI HAN, MI MI SONG, YAN GANG WANG, MIN XIU YAO, XIAO FANG SUN, YING LI, SHAN GAO AND YAN ZHANG
Background and Objectives: Peroral supplementation with trivalent-chromium (Cr) or magnesium (Mg) has been shown to improve insulin resistance (IR). The objective of this study was to determine whether combined peroral supplementation with Cr and Mg improves IR more effectively than Cr or Mg alone. Methods and Study Design: Subjects (n=120, age range 45-59 years old) and diagnosed with IR were randomly divided into four groups and monitored for a period of 3 months: group 1 (the placebo control group), group 2 (160 μg/d Cr), group 3 (200 mg/d Mg), and group 4 (160 μg/d Cr plus 200 mg/d Mg). Fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin (FIns), erythrocyte Cr and Mg content, and glucose-transporter-4 (GLUT4) and glycogen-synthase-kinase-3β (GSK3β) mRNA levels in activated T-lymphocytes were measured, and insulin resistant index (IRI) was calculated. Results: Significant decreases between the baseline and study conclusion values of FBG (0.37 mmol/L, p<0.01), FIns (2.91 μIU/mL, p<0.01) and IRI (0.60, p<0.01) were observed in group 4, but not groups 1-3. Similarly, compared with baseline, significant changes in GLUT4 (2.9-fold increase, p<0.05) and GSK3β (2.2-fold decrease, p<0.05) mRNA levels in activated T-lymphocyte were observed at the study’s conclusion in group 4, but not in groups 1-3. Conclusions: Our results indicate that combining peroral supplementation with Cr and Mg improves IR more effectively than Cr or Mg alone, and this may be attributable to increased induction and repression, respectively, of GLUT4 and GSK3β expression.
Key Words: insulin resistance, trivalent chromium, magnesium, glucose transporter 4, T lymphocytes
 

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铬和镁联合补充比单独补充更能有效降低胰岛素抵抗
背景与目的:现有研究表明口服三价铬或镁可有效改善胰岛素抵抗。本研究旨在 确定铬和镁联合补充是否较单独补充铬或镁更能有效地改善胰岛素抵抗。方法与 研究设计:本研究纳入了 120 名诊断为胰岛素抵抗的病人(45-59 岁),随机将 其分为 4组,每组 30人,分别口服安慰剂、铬(160 μg/d)、镁(200 mg/d)、 镁+铬(铬 160 μg/d+镁 200 mg/d),持续 3个月。测定空腹血糖和胰岛素浓度、 红细胞中铬和镁的含量,以及激活的 T 淋巴细胞中葡萄糖转运载体 4(GLUT4) 和糖原合成酶激酶 3β(GSK3β)的 mRNA 水平,并计算胰岛素抵抗指数。结 果:与干预前相比,铬和镁联合补充可以显著降低空腹血糖 (0.37 mmol/L, p<0.01)和胰岛素 (2.91 μIU/mL,p<0.01)浓度,以及胰岛素抵抗指数 (0.60,p<0.01);同时铬和镁联合补充显著上调了活化的 T 细胞 GLUT4 mRNA 水平(升高 2.9 倍,p<0.05),并显著下调了 GSK3β mRNA 水平 (降低 2.2 倍,p<0.05)。对照组、铬或镁单独补充组与干预前相比改善效果不明显。 结论:铬和镁联合补充较单独补充铬或镁能更好地改善胰岛素抵抗,可能与铬和 镁联合补充使胰岛素信号传导通路中 GLUT-4mRNA 上调和 GSK3β mRNA 下调 有关。
关键词:胰岛素抵抗、三价铬、镁、葡萄糖转运载 4、T淋巴细胞

 

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25 hydroxy vitamin D is higher when a renal multivitamin is given with cholecalciferol at hemodialysis
HADIL S SUBIH, JANAYE BEHRENS, BROOKE BURT, LOUISE CLEMENT, RITA PANNELL, LAURA MACHA, JULIAN SPALLHOLZ AND MALLORY BOYLAN

Background and Objectives: Seventy six hemodialysis (HD) patients were used in a prospective randomized and clinical trial to determine if a multivitamin with vitamin D (cholecalciferol 12,000 IU/week) given during dialysis would improve the vitamin D status of hemodialysis subjects. Methods and Study Design: Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups: 37 subjects were in the renal multivitamin without vitamin D (MV) group and 39 subjects were in a multivitamin route with vitamin D (MVD) group (12,000 IU of cholecalciferol per week). All subjects were given 2 multivitamin tablets at their 3 HD sessions each week for 20 weeks. Serum 25(OH)D, calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P) levels were evaluated. Results: At baseline, mean serum 25(OH)D were below adequate (<30 ng/mL) in the MV group (23.5±12.2 ng/mL) and in the MVD group (20.8±10.3 ng/mL). A significant increase was seen in serum 25(OH)D levels (37.7±11.4 ng/mL; p<0.001) in the MVD group after vitamin D supplementation with no rise in the MV group value (21.7±11.4 ng/mL; p=0.06). Prior to supplementation, 17.9% of patients in the MVD group had adequate serum 25(OH)D level and post supplementation 76.9% in the MVD group had adequate serum 25(OH)D. In the MV group, 18.9% subjects had adequate serum 25(OH)D levels at baseline with 18.9% having 25(OH)D >30 ng/mL at the end of the study. There were no significant differences in group values for serum Ca and P. Conclusion: The majority of HD subjects given a multivitamin with cholecalciferol at dialysis had improvement in their vitamin D status.
Key Words: cholecalciferol, hemodialysis, vitamin D, calcium, supplementation

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患者在血液透析时给予含胆钙化醇的复合维生素其血清 25-羟维生素 D浓度高
背景与目的:为确定在透析时给予含维生素 D(胆钙化醇 12,000 IU/周)的复 合维生素是否能够改善血液透析患者的维生素 D 状态,进行该项包括 76 位血 液透析(HD)患者的前瞻性随机临床试验。方法与研究设计:受试者被随机分 为两组:37位分在不含维生素 D的复合维生素组(MV),另外 39位分在含维 生素 D 的复合维生素组(MVD,胆钙化醇 12,000 IU/周)。所有受试者在 HD 第 3阶段每周给予 2片复合维生素,持续 20周。评估其血清 25(OH)D、钙和磷 浓度。结果:两组患者基线平均血清 25(OH)D 均不足(<30 ng/mL),MV 组 为 23.5±12.2 ng/mL,MVD 组为 20.8±10.3 ng/mL。补充维生素 D 之后,MVD 组血清 25(OH)D 浓度显著升高 37.7±11.4 ng/mL;p<0.001,而 MV 组血清 25(OH)D 浓度没有升高(21.7±11.4 ng/mL;p=0.06)。补充前,MVD 组有 17.9%的患者血清 25(OH)D 充足,补充后,MVD 组有 76.9%的患者血清 25(OH)D充足。在 MV组,基线时有 18.9%的患者血清 25(OH)D充足,试验结 束时,血清 25(OH)D>30 ng/mL 的患者仍然只占 18.9%。两组血清钙和磷在补 充前后没有显著变化。结论:大多数 HD 患者在透析时给予含胆钙化醇的复合 维生素可以改善他们的维生素 D状态。
关键词:胆钙化醇、血液透析、维生素 D、钙、补充


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Cod skin peptide reduces chemotherapy-induced toxicity in gastric cancer patients
LI-PING WU, XIAO-FEI HU, HUI-PING WAN, YAN-MIN YU, JIAN-HUA YU AND GUO-QIANG ZHANG
Background and Objectives: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of cod skin peptide (CSPE) on chemotherapy-induced toxicity in gastric cancer patients. Methods and Study Design: A cohort of 60 gastric cancer patients for chemotherapy was randomly divided into two groups (n=30 per group), who were orally treated with either supplemental CSPE or placebo apart from chemotherapy. The hematologic and gastrointestinal toxicities experienced by the patients, as well as their Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) as an index of quality of life was evaluated. Results: Leukocyte counts and haemoglobin levels were significantly reduced in the group treated with peptide (p<0.05), while gastrointestinal toxicity was not affected (p>0.05). KPS consists of 11 categories of quality of life, and the score denoted in deciles ranges from 100 (asymptomatic, normal function) to 0 (death). The KPS score is used to evaluate a cancer patient’s ability to function at work and home, the severity of symptoms, and the patient’s need for personal and medical care. Treatment with CSPE significantly improved the quality of life of patients, as indicated by increased KPS scores (p<0.05). Conclusions: CSPE can potentially be considered as a food supplement that can be used to improve the quality of life of cancer patients.
Key Words: cod skin peptide, gastric cancer, chemotherapy, toxicity
 

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鱼皮寡肽降低胃癌患者化疗副反应
背景和目的:探讨鱼皮寡肽(CSPE)在降低胃癌患者化疗副反应的作用研 究。方法与研究设计:随机将 60 例胃癌化疗患者分为两组(n=30/组),两组 患者除化疗外,分别口服 CSPE 或安慰剂,比较两组患者血液学、胃肠道毒性 和生活质量 Karnofsky(KPS)评分。结果:安慰剂组白细胞计数和血红蛋白 水平显著低于肽治疗组(p<0.05),两组胃肠道毒性无差异(p>0.05),KPS 评分主要用于癌症患者工作、家庭生活状况、症状严重程度以及患者对医疗的 需求等 11 个类别的生活质量,得分范围从 100(无症状,功能正常)到 0(死 亡)。CSPE 组 KPS 评分显著高于安慰剂组(p<0.05),CSPE 明显提高了患 者的生活质量。结论:CSPE可作为食品补充剂改善癌症患者的生活质量。
关键词:鱼皮寡肽、胃癌、化疗、副反应

 

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Coffee consumption is associated with lower serum aminotransferases in the general Korean population and in those at high risk for hepatic disease
MYUENG GUEN OH, MI AH HAN, MAN WOO KIM, CHAN GUK PARK, YOUNG DAE KIM AND JUN LEE
Background and Objectives: The favourable effects of coffee on liver enzymes have been reported worldwide. This study investigated the association between coffee consumption and serum aminotransferase concentration in Korean adults. Methods and Study Design: Data were obtained from the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentration were defined as >30 IU/L for men and >19 IU/L for women. The risk of elevated ALT and AST according to general characteristics and frequency of coffee consumption were tested by chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analyses. Results: The prevalence of elevated ALT was 27.4%, 27.8%, and 26.9% in subjects who drank <1, 1, and ≥2 times/day, respectively. The proportions of individuals with elevated AST were 32.5%, 33.1%, and 26.7% in subjects who drank <1, 1, and ≥2 times/day, respectively. The aORs for elevated ALT and AST were significantly lower in subjects who drank ≥2 times of coffee/day than in those who drank <1 time/day (ALT: aOR=0.86, 95% CI=0.79-0.94; AST: aOR=0.83, 95% CI=0.76-0.91). In subgroup analysis, consumption of ≥2 times/day was associated with lower ORs for elevated ALT in the high-risk group overall and in the viral hepatitis and obesity subgroups, respectively. In sensitivity analysis, reduced frequency of coffee consumption was associated with an increased risk for elevated liver enzymes, although an association between coffee consumption and elevated ALT was not observed in women or current smokers. Conclusions: Higher coffee consumption was associated with lower risk of elevated aminotransferase concentration in Korean adults.
Key Words: adult, alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferases, coffee, risk factors
 

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韩国一般人群和肝病高风险人群咖啡消费量与较低的 血清转氨酶有关
背景和目的:咖啡对肝酶的有利影响已在世界范围内被报道。该研究调查了 在韩国成年人的咖啡消费量和血清转氨酶浓度之间的关系。方法与研究设 计:数据来自第四和第五次韩国国家健康和营养检测普查。男性丙氨酸氨基 转移酶(ALT)和谷草转氨酶(AST)大于 30 IU/L,女性大于 19 IU/L 为升 高。采用卡方检验和多因素 Logistic 回归分析,探讨一般特征和咖啡消费频率 与 ALT 和 AST 升高的风险。结果:咖啡摄入频率<1,1 和≥2 次/天的人群高 ALT 的发生率分别为 27.4%、27.8%和 26.9%,高 AST 的发生率分别为 32.5%、33.1%和 26.7%。咖啡摄入频率≥2 次/天的人群比<1 次/的人群调整 OR 显著降低(ALT:aOR=0.86,95% CI =0.79-0.94;AST:aOR=0.83,95% CI=0.76-0.91)。亚组分析显示,高危人群整体以及病毒性肝炎组和肥胖组中 咖啡摄入频率≥2 次/天的人群 ALT 升高的风险低。敏感性分析显示:减少咖 啡消费频率与肝酶升高的风险增加相关,但在女性和当前吸烟者中并未发现 咖啡消费量与 ALT 升高之间的关系。结论:韩国成人较高的咖啡消费量与氨 基转移酶浓度升高的风险较低有关。
关键词:成人、丙氨酸转氨酶、天冬氨酸转氨酶、咖啡、危险因素

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Habitual dietary calcium intakes and calcium metabolism in healthy adults Chinese: a systematic review and meta-analysis
AI-PING FANG, KE-JI LI, HAO-YU SHI, JING-JING HE AND HE LI
To investigate the metabolic differences of calcium requirements between Chinese and Westerners, we examined systematically the characteristics of calcium metabolism in Chinese adults with habitual dietary calcium intakes. We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, SinoMed, and National Index to Chinese Newspapers & Periodicals, from inception to March 17, 2015, as well as the bibliographies of any relevant papers and journals, for trials assessing calcium metabolism in healthy Chinese adults within 18-60 years of age on the typical Chinese diet. We extracted a standardized dataset from metabolic studies that reported intake, retention, urinary excretion, faecal excretion and/or fractional absorption of calcium. We pooled data with a random effects meta-analysis. Of 2,046 citations identified by the search strategy, 12 studies (comprising 137 participants, 13 aggregate data deriving from 257 individual data) met the inclusion criteria. Metabolic data with self-chosen or typical Chinese diets were analyzed. Mean daily intakes of calcium ranged between 288 and 948 mg. Mean calcium retentions of each study were between 13 and 294 mg/d. The overall pooled value for dietary intake, urinary excretion, faecal excretion, retention and fractional absorption of calcium were 583 mg/d, 117 mg/d, 381 mg/d, 72 mg/d and 33.3%. Dietary calcium intake and faecal calcium excretion explained almost 85% of the heterogeneity of calcium retention. Chinese adults could maintain a positive calcium balance with plant-based diets at calcium intakes as low as 300 mg/d through increasing fractional calcium absorption and decreasing calcium excretion in urine and faeces.
Key Words: calcium metabolism, Chinese adults, plant-based diets, meta-analysis, systematic review

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中国健康成人在习惯性膳食钙摄入水平下的钙代谢: 系统综述和荟萃分析
为了探讨中国人与西方人之间钙需要量的代谢差异,我们系统地研究了中国 成人在习惯性膳食钙摄入水平下的钙代谢特点。从 PubMed、Cochrane Library、中国生物医学文献数据库(SinoMed 中心网络版)、全国报刊索引数 据库—篇名库及相关论文和期刊的参考文献,检索 2015 年 3 月 17 日之前发 表的 18-60 岁中国健康成人在典型中国膳食条件下的钙代谢试验。采用结构 式数据库提取报道了钙摄入量、钙储留量、尿钙排出量、粪钙排出量和/或表 观钙吸收率的代谢试验信息。采用随机效应荟萃分析模型汇总数据。在检索 到的 2,046 篇文献中,有 12 个研究符合纳入标准,包括由 137 名受试者的 257 条个体数据汇总得到的 13 条聚合数据。分析以自选膳食或者典型中国膳 食为试验餐的代谢数据。各研究平均膳食钙摄入量介于 288-948 mg/d 之间, 平均钙储留量介于 13-294 mg/d 之间。汇总的膳食钙摄入量、尿钙排出量、 粪钙排出量、钙储留量和表观钙吸收率分别为 583 mg/d、117 mg/d、381 mg/d、72 mg/d和 33.3%。膳食钙摄入量和粪钙排出量共解释了约 85%的钙储 留量异质性。以植物性膳食为主的中国成人在钙摄入量低至 300 mg/d时仍能 通过增加表观钙吸收率和减少尿粪钙排出量来维持正钙平衡。
关键词:钙代谢、中国成人、植物性膳食、荟萃分析、系统综述


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Population-based association between urinary excretion of sodium, potassium and its ratio with albuminuria in Chinese
LIUXIA YAN, XIAOLEI GUO, HUICHENG WANG, JIYU ZHANG, JUNLI TANG, ZILONG LU, XIAONING CAI, LONGJIAN LIU, EDWARD J GRACELY AND JIXIANG MA
Background and Objectives: Albuminuria is a risk factor for cardiovascular and renal disease. However, little is known about the association of 24 h urinary sodium and potassium excretion with albuminuria in China. The aim of this study was to examine this association by analyzing the data from 1,975 Chinese adults living in north China. Methods and Study Design: Excretion of urinary sodium, potassium and albumin was assessed in a single 24-h urine sample for each participant. Height, weight, waist circumference and blood pressure were measured and body mass index was determined as weight divided by square height. Fasting blood sample was collected and fasting glucose was measured. Results: The average 24-h urinary sodium and potassium excretion were 232 mmol and 40.8 mmol, resulting a mean sodium to potassium ratio of 6.7. The median (Q1-Q3) 24-h urinary albuminuria excretion was 6.1 mg (4.5-8.7 mg). Overall, urinary sodium excretion was positively associated with albumin excretion (β=0.029, p<0.001). This association was independent of major cardiovascular risk factors including age, gender, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, fasting glucose, waist circumference, hypertensive drug treatment, and smoking. Moreover, the relation of sodium and albumin was similar in the subgroups stratified by gender, adiposity and diabetic status. No significant associations of potassium excretion or sodium to potassium ratio with urinary albumin excretion were observed. Conclusions: In cross-sectional analyses, high sodium intake was shown to be associated with increased urinary albuminuria in the general Chinese adult population, supporting salt restriction for renal and cardiovascular health benefit.
Key Words: albuminuria, China, potassium, sodium, 24-h urine
 

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中国人群尿钠、尿钾及其比值与蛋白尿的关系
背景与目的:研究表明蛋白尿是心脏病和肾病的一个危险因素。本研究的目的 是探讨 24 小时尿钠、尿钾及其比值与蛋白尿的关系。方法与研究设计:本研 究纳入了 1,975 名居住在中国北方人群,收集其完整的一次 24 小时尿样,测量 尿钠、尿钾和尿白蛋白,并测量身高、体重、腰围、血压和空腹血糖等。结 果:调查人群的 24 小时尿钠和尿钾均值为 232 mmol 和 40.8 mmol,尿钠钾比 值为 6.7。24 小时尿白蛋白的中位数为 6.1 mg,25 分位数和 75 分位数为 4.5 mg和 8.7 mg。尿钠与尿白蛋白排泄量呈显著正相关(β=0.029,p<0.001),独立 于年龄、性别、血压、体重指数、血糖等主要的心血管病危险因素。未发现尿 钾和尿钠钾比值与尿白蛋白的关联有统计学意义。结论:该横断面研究表明中 国人群高钠盐摄入与高尿白蛋白排泄密切相关,减盐对心血管和肾的健康有 益。
关键词:蛋白尿、中国、钠、钾、24小时尿

 

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Truncal and leg fat associations with metabolic risk factors among Chinese adults
MIN YANG, JIE LIN, XIAOGUANG MA, CHAONAN ZHU, CHEN WEI, LU WANG, JINGJING JIAO AND SHANKUAN ZHU
Background and Objectives: To examine the associations of regional body fat distribution with metabolic risk factors among Chinese. Methods and Study Design: Truncal fat (TF) and leg fat (LF) were measured by dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) among 947 adults, and abdominal visceral fat (VAT) and subcutaneous fat (SAT), upper leg SAT were measured by magnetic resonance image (MRI) among 103 adults during 2008-2013. Metabolic risk factors included fasting blood glucose, total triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Results: TF showed adverse effect while LF showed beneficial effect on metabolic risk factors, and all these effects were independent of body mass index (BMI) (mostly p<0.01). Individuals with higher TF and lower LF experienced the highest risk of MetS compared to other subgroups of combination of TF and LF (all p<0.05). Abdominal VAT was positively associated with risk of MetS (men: odds ratio (OR)=4.45, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18, 16.8; women: OR=6.54, 95% CI: 1.08, 39.6) and serum triglyceride (men: beta (β)=0.379, 95% CI: 0.090, 0.667; women: β=0.700, 95% CI: 0.327, 1.07). Upper leg SAT showed an opposite association with most metabolic factors compared to abdominal SAT and VAT, however, the association was not statistically significant. Conclusion: TF and LF showed opposite effects on metabolic risk factors among Chinese adults. Abdominal VAT, but not abdominal SAT, was positively associated with serum triglyceride and risk of MetS. Future studies are warranted to examine the potential mechanism of the opposite effects between TF and LF on metabolic risk factors among Chinese.
Key Words: truncal fat, leg fat, metabolic risks, Chinese, adults
 

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中国成年人躯干和腿部脂肪与代谢危险因素相关
背景与目的:检测中国人局部身体脂肪分布与代谢危险因素之间的相关性。方 法与研究设计:2008-2013 年期间,研究者采用双能 X 线吸收仪检测了 947 名 中国成年人的躯干和腿部脂肪,采用核磁共振检测了 103 名中国人腹部的内脏 脂肪和皮下脂肪,以及大腿的皮下脂肪。检测的代谢危险因素包括空腹血糖、 甘油三酯、总胆固醇、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇和代谢综合 征。结果:躯干脂肪对中国人代谢危险因素具有不利的影响,而腿部脂肪显示 出有利的影响,且所有这些影响独立于身体质量指数(BMI)(绝大多数 p<0.01)。躯干脂肪较高而腿部脂肪较低的个体,相对于其他亚组个体,具有 最高的代谢综合征发病风险(p<0.05)。腹部内脏脂肪与代谢综合征的发病风 险(男性:OR=4.45, 95% CI:1.18,16.8;女性: OR=6.54,95% CI:1.08, 39.6),以及血清甘油三酯(男性:β=0.379,95% CI:0.090,0.667;女性: β=0.700,95% CI:0.327,1.07)呈正相关。大腿皮下脂肪与大多数代谢危险 因素的关系,与腹部皮下脂肪和内脏脂肪相反,但差异无统计学意义。结论: 本研究表明中国成年人躯干和腿部脂肪对代谢危险因素具有相反的影响。腹部 的内脏脂肪而不是皮下脂肪,与血清甘油三酯和代谢综合征风险呈正相关。未 来的研究有必要在中国人中探讨躯干和腿部脂肪对代谢危险因素具有作用相反 的潜在机制。
关键词:躯干脂肪、腿部脂肪、代谢危险因素、中国人、成人


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Pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain in Thai pregnant women as risks for low birth weight and macrosomia
TIPPAWAN PONGCHAROEN, SUEPPONG GOWACHIRAPANT, PURISA WECHARAK, NATNAREE SANGKET AND PATTANEE WINICHAGOON
Background and Objectives: Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) have been reported to be associated with pregnancy outcomes. Due to the nutrition transition in Thailand, the double burden of malnutrition is increasing and this may have negative consequences on birth outcomes. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG with the risks of low birth weight and macrosomia. Methods and Study Design: We performed a secondary analysis of data obtained from an iodine supplementation trial in mildly iodine-deficient Thai pregnant women. Pre-pregnancy BMI was classified using the WHO classification. GWG was categorized using the IOM recommendation. Binary and multinomial logistic regressions were performed. Results: Among 378 pregnant women, the prevalence of pre-pregnancy underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m2) and overweight (BMI≥25 kg/m2) were 17.2% and 14.3%, respectively. Normal weight women had the highest median GWG [15.0 (12.0, 19.0) kg] when compared to overweight women [13.2 (9.0, 16.3) kg]. Forty-one percent of women had excessive GWG, while 23% of women gained weight inadequately. Women with a high pre-pregnancy BMI had a 7-fold higher risk of having a macrosomic infant. Women who had excessive GWG were 8 times more likely to deliver a newborn with macrosomia. Conclusions: Both high pre-pregnancy maternal weight and excessive weight gain during pregnancy increase risk of infant macrosomia. Therefore, maintaining normal body weight before and throughout pregnancy should be recommended in order to reduce the risk of excessive infant birth weight and its associated complications.
Key Words: pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, low birth weight, macrosomia, pregnant women
 

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泰国孕妇孕前体质指数和孕期增重是低出生体重和巨大 儿发生的危险因素
背景与研究目的:产妇怀孕前的体质指数(BMI)和孕期增重(GWG)与妊娠 结局有关已被报道。泰国由于营养过渡,营养不良的双重负担不断增加,这可能 会对妊娠结局产生负面影响。本研究旨在探讨孕前 BMI 和 GWG 与低出生体重 和巨大儿发生风险的关系。方法与研究设计:我们对轻度碘缺乏的泰国孕妇进行 碘补充试验的资料进行了二次分析。根据 WHO 的标准,对孕前 BMI 进行分 类,根据 IOM 推荐的标准对 GWG 进行分类。进行二分类和多项无序分类 logistic 回归分析。结果:378 名孕妇中,怀孕前低体重(BMI<18.5 kg/m2)和超 重(BMI≥25 kg/m2)的发生率分别为 17.2%和 14.3%。与超重女性 [13.2(9.0, 16.3)kg] 相比,正常体重女性的 GWG 的中位数最高 [15.0(12.0,19.0)kg]。 41%的女性 GWG过多,而 23%的女性 GWG不足。孕前 BMI高的孕妇生产巨大 儿的风险增加 7 倍。GWG 过多的孕妇生产巨大儿的风险增加 8 倍。结论:孕前 体重高和孕期体重过度增加均增加巨大儿的发生风险。因此,应推荐在孕前和整 个孕期均保持正常体重,以降低婴儿出生体重过重及其相关并发症的风险。
关键词:孕前体质指数、孕期增重、低出生体重、巨大儿、孕妇

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An on-line database for human milk composition in China
SHI-AN YIN AND ZHEN-YU YANG
Background and Objectives: Understanding human milk composition is critical for setting nutrient recommended intakes (RNIs) for both infants and lactating women. However, nationwide human milk composition remains unavailable in China. Methods and Study Design: Through cross-sectional study, human milk samples from 11 provinces in China were collected and their compositions were analyzed. Nutritional and health status of the lactating women and their infants were evaluated through questionnaire, physical examination and biochemical indicators. Results: A total of 6,481 breast milk samples including colostrum (1,859), transitional milk (1,235) and mature milk (3,387) were collected. Contents of protein, fat, lactose, total solid and energy of more than 4,500 samples were analyzed using a human milk analyzer. About 2,000 samples were randomly selected for 24 mineral analyses. Free B-vitamins including thiamin, riboflavin, pyridoxal, pyridomine, pyridoxamine, nicotinamide, nicotinic acid, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), biotin and pantothenic acid were analyzed in 1,800 samples. Amino acids (~800) and proteins (alpha-lactoalbumin, beta-casein, and lactoferrin) were analyzed. In addition, serum retinol and carotenoids, 25(OH)D, vitamin B-12, folic acid, ferritin and biochemical indicators (n=1,200 to 2,000) were analysed in the lactating women who provided the breast milk. Ongoing work: Fatty acids (C4-C24), fatsoluble vitamins and carotenoids, are on-going analysis. Conclusions: A regional breast milk compositional database is at an advanced stage of development in China with the intention that it be available on-line.
Key Words: human milk, composition, database, lactating women, China
 

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中国人母乳成分在线数据库
背景和目的:了解母乳成分对确定婴儿和乳母的营养素推荐摄入量(RNIs) 至关重要。然而,我国仍然缺少全国性的母乳成分。方法和研究设计:采用 横断面调查方法,采集了 11 个省市自治区的母乳样品,分析其营养成分。通 过问卷调查、体格检查和生化指标评价乳母及其婴儿的营养与健康状况。结 果:总共采集了 6,481 份母乳样品,包括初乳(1,859)、过渡乳(1,235)和 成熟乳(3,387)。使用母乳成分分析仪测定了超过 4,500 份母乳样品的蛋白 质、脂肪、乳糖、总固体和能量;随机选择 2,000 余份样品测定了 24 种矿物 质含量;测定了 1,800份样品中游离 B族维生素,包括硫胺素、核黄素、吡哆 醇、吡哆胺、吡哆醛、尼克酰胺、尼克酸、黄素腺嘌呤二核苷酸(FAD)、 生物素和泛酸;分析了约 800份母乳样品的氨基酸和蛋白质及不同蛋白质组份 (-乳白蛋白、-酪蛋白和乳铁蛋白)的含量。此外,还测定了 1,2002,000 例提供乳汁的乳母血清视黄醇和类胡萝卜素组份、25(OH)D、维生素 B-12、 叶酸、铁蛋白和生化指标。正在进行的工作:分析 8001,200 份母乳的脂肪酸 (C4-C24)、脂溶性维生素和类胡萝卜素组份的含量。结论:建立区域性母 乳成分数据库的工作处在进展阶段,最终努力建成在线可利用的母乳成分数据 库。
关键词:母乳、成分、数据库、乳母、中国
 

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Obesity, non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors and dietary factors among Chinese school-aged children
CARMEN PIERNAS, DANTONG WANG, SHUFA DU, BING ZHANG, ZHIHONG WANG, CHANG SU AND BARRY M POPKIN
Background and Objectives: China’s nutrition transition is characterized by dramatic increases in overweight and cardiometabolic (CM) risk. The burden of obesity, CM risk factors and dietary intake among Chinese children were explored. Methods and Study Design: Children 7-12 y old from the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey with available dietary intake data, anthropometry, blood pressure, and fasting blood samples were included (n=663). CM risk prevalence was calculated; logistic regression was used to investigate the association of nutrient intakes with CM risk, adjusting for age, gender, physical activity, area of residence and income. Results: 14% of Chinese school-aged children and ~20% of those from urban areas and higher income households had overweight/obesity (p<0.05). The prevalence of prehypertension was ~20% while hypertension was 14%. Around 20% of all children and ≥30% of those from urban areas and higher income households had impaired glucose/HbA1c (p<0.05). More than half of the studied children had pre-dyslipidemia (i.e. at least one lipid measurement above borderline levels) and 21% of children had dyslipidemia. Approximately 30% of all children had energy intakes above requirements and 38% of them had excessive proportions of dietary fat and saturated fat. Children with higher intakes of total daily energy and total and added sugars had a greater likelihood of having impaired blood pressure and glucose/HbA1c. Conclusions: Childhood overweight and CM risk is prevalent in urban and rural areas of China and across different socioeconomic groups although disparities between classes still pervade. Several dietary factors such as sugars were significant correlates of CM risk.
Key Words: obesity, cardiometabolic risk, dietary intake, children, China
 

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中国学龄儿童肥胖、非传染性疾病危险因素及膳食因 素研究
背景与目的:中国膳食变迁的特征是超重、心血管代谢性危险因素显著增 加,为此我们对中国儿童肥胖、心血管代谢性危险因素及膳食因素的影响进 行了研究。方法与研究设计:本研究样本为参加了 2009 年“中国健康与营养 调查”并提供了膳食摄入、体格测量、血压等数据及空腹血样的 663 名 7-12 岁学龄儿童。我们计算了心血管代谢性危险因素的患病率,并应用 Logistic 回归通过控制年龄、性别、体力活动、居住地、经济收入等因素对膳食摄入 与心血管代谢性危险因素的相关性进行了分析。结果:14%的学龄儿童超重 或肥胖,其中约 20%为城市及高收入家庭儿童(p<0.05)。14%的儿童患高 血压,约 20%的儿童为高血压前期,约 20%的儿童、超过 30%的城市及高收 入家庭儿童有糖耐量及糖化血红蛋白损伤(p<0.05),21%的儿童血脂代谢 异常、超过 50%的儿童有前期血脂代谢异常(即至少有一项血脂指标在临界 值之上)。约 30%的儿童能量摄入超过需求量,其中 38%的儿童膳食脂肪及 饱和脂肪摄入量高。摄入高能量及高糖的儿童更易患血压及糖耐量损伤。结 论:虽然社会经济各阶层的差别依然明显,但中国城乡儿童的超重、心血管 代谢性危险因素普遍较高,膳食因素如添加糖摄入量与心血管代谢性危险因 素显著相关。
关键词:肥胖、心血管代谢性危险因素、膳食摄入、儿童、中国
 

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An internet-based food frequency questionnaire for a large Chinese population
REN-NAN FENG, SHAN-SHAN DU, YANG CHEN, ZHEN LI, YING-FENG ZHANG, CHANG-HAO SUN AND YONG-SHUAI JIANG
Background and Objectives: National dietary surveys are needed and difficult to conduct in China. The current study aims to develop and validate an internet-based diet questionnaire for Chinese (IDQC) to assess intakes in Northern China. Methods and Study Design: We recruited 292 city residents by email and telephone in Harbin to obtain the IDQC and 3-day diet diaries. The food group and nutrient intakes from the IDQC were validated against those from the 3-day diet diaries. Paired sample t-tests were used to compare the methodological differences, and repeatability was estimated using Pearson’s correlations. Cross-classification was used to calculate the percentage agreement in quartiles for all food groups and nutrients. Results: Positive correlations were found between the IDQC and 3-day diet diaries for all food groups after energy adjustment (from 0.28 for seeds and nuts to 0.63 for dairy products). Positive correlations were observed for all nutrients between the IDQC and 3-day diet diaries, with correlations ranging from 0.37 for folic acid to 0.98 for iodine. The overall agreements for food groups and nutrients were above 69.2%, indicating satisfactory consistency between the IDQC and 3-day diet diaries. Conclusions: The IDQC can be used to estimate the food and nutrient intakes in a Northern China population for both clinical nutrition epidemiological and public health nutritional purposes. The questionnaire system IDQC (v1.0) is freely available at http://www.yyjy365.org/diet/.
Key Words: validation, internet, food frequency questionnaire, nutrients, China
 

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中国大人群营养素评价的网上膳食调查问卷
背景与目的:在中国进行全国性膳食调查紧迫且难以实行。本研究的目的是建 立一个适用于中国人的网上膳食调查问卷(IDQC)并在北方人群中验证其有 效性。方法与研究设计:通过电子邮件和电话招募 292 名哈尔滨居民,完成 IDQC 和 3 天膳食日记。通过与 3 天膳食日记中的数据比较,来验证 IDQC 中 食物组和营养素的准确性。应用配对样本 t 检验,比较两种调查方法中食物组 和营养素的平均水平,应用皮尔森相关系数分析问卷的重复性。将两种调查方 法中的食物组和营养素摄入量四等分后,应用交叉分组计算问卷一致率。结 果:校正总能量摄入后,所有食物组在 IDQC 和 3 天膳食日志间均呈正相关 (相关系数的变化范围从种子和坚果类的 0.28 到奶制品的 0.63)。所有营养 素在 IDQC和 3天膳食日志间仍然呈明显正相关,相关系数由叶酸的 0.37到碘 元素的 0.98。食物组和营养素的一致率均在 69.2%以上,表明 IDQC 和 3天膳 食日志间有令人满意的一致性。结论:在中国北方,IDQC 能够用于临床营养 流行病学和公共健康目的的食物和营养素摄入量估计。问卷调查系统 IDQC (v1.0)见:http://www.yyjy365.org/diet/。
关键词:验证、网络、食物频率问卷、营养素、中国
 

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Dietary attitudes and behaviours of women in China after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in three seismically different zones
PING HU, LING-LI HAN, FENG-GANG HOU, XIANG-LONG XU, MANOJ SHARMA AND YONG ZHAO
Background and Objectives: The sudden occurrence of the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake not only devastated people’s health, but also may have impacted on the psychological and dietary attitudes and behaviours of the survivors. Although the influence of natural disaster on people’s health has been extensively investigated, there is a lack of information about the effects on people’s dietary attitudes and behaviours. Our aim was to evaluate the influence of the Wenchuan earthquake on the dietary attitudes and behaviours of adult women from different zones of China in July 2008. Methods and Study Design: 736 women, aged 18-55 years old, were randomly selected and interviewed after the earthquake. Women were selected from three zones: the earthquake zone (n=206), the shaking zone (n=326), and the non-seismic zone (n=204). Results: Although nutrition knowledge mean scores of women in the three zones were relatively low, the women in the earthquake zone became more vigilant about the nutritional value and acceptability of food than women in the other two zones. Nevertheless, women in the earthquake zone also developed some arguably untoward, if understandable, behaviour after the disaster. They increased their consumption and tendency to stock instant food and snack items. That said, these findings were modulated by other factors such as age, residence, Body Mass Index (BMI), and nutrition knowledge itself, as were post-earthquake eating behaviours, as judged by the ordinal logistic regression analyses performed. Conclusions: The major Wenchuan earthquake was associated with differentials in dietary attitudes and behaviours among women by seismic zone.
Key Words: disaster, earthquake, women, dietary attitudes, dietary behaviours
 

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对中国三个不同地域的女性在 2008 年汶川地震后的饮 食态度和行为调查
背景和目的:2008 年突发的汶川地震不仅摧毁了人们的健康,还可能对幸存者的 心理、饮食态度和行为造成影响。尽管已有许多关于自然灾害对人们健康影响 的调查,但缺少对人们饮食态度和行为影响的相关研究。本研究的目的是评估 汶川地震对居住在中国不同地区的成年女性的饮食态度和行为的影响。方法与 研究设计:随机抽取了 736 名 18-55 岁的女性作为研究对象,分布为地震区 (206 名)、震感区(326 名)和非地震区(204 名)。结果:3 组女性的营养 知识平均得分均相对较低,但地震区的女性比其他两个地区的女性更加警惕食物 的营养价值和可吸收性。然而,在地震区的女性也养成了一些不良饮食行为,如 储存速食食品和增加零食消费。Logistic回归分析显示,年龄、地区、BMI和营 养知识得分是女性震后零食摄入行为的影响因素。结论:本研究表明汶川地震 对不同地区女性的饮食态度和行为带来了不同程度的影响。
关键词:灾害、地震、女性、饮食态度、饮食行为

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Comparison of the prevalence and characteristics of food hypersensitivity among adolescent and older women
ANRI FUJIMORI, TOMOMI YAMASHITA, MASARU KUBOTA, HIROMI SAITO, NOBUE TAKAMATSU AND MITSUHIKO NAMBU
Background and Objectives: Although food hypersensitivity is a public health concern, its documentation among the elderly is limited. The current study aims to compare the prevalence and characteristics of food hypersensitivity among adolescent women between aged 18-24 with among older women >50 years of age. Methods and Study Design: 660 female university students between the ages of 18 and 24 who volunteered were enrolled as adolescent subjects. 470 women >50 years old who visited the Health Care Centre of Kyoto Katsura Hospital for health check-ups were enrolled as the older subjects. A questionnaire created by ourselves asking the presence of food hypersensitivity, symptoms, causative food, personal or family history of other allergic disorders was distributed. Results: The prevalence of food hypersensitivity was statistically similar between adolescent (8.2%) and older women (8.9%). Among them, only 24.1% of the adolescent women and 26.2% of the older women had been diagnosed by physicians as having food allergy. The main causative foods (fruits, shellfish and fish) and the manifestations relating to food hypersensitivity were almost identical between adolescent and older women. In both adolescent and older women, food hypersensitivity positive group showed significantly higher prevalence of personal or family history of allergic disorders than that in food hypersensitivity negative group. Conclusions: These data indicate that food hypersensitivity in older women should be given more attention because the prevalence of this condition was as common as that in adolescent women.
Key Words: food hypersensitivity, questionnaire, prevalence, adolescent women, older women
 

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青年和老年女性食物过敏的患病率及特点比较
背景与目的:虽然食物过敏是一个公共健康问题,但在老年人中进行的研究有 限。本研究的目的是比较 18-24 岁的青年女性和 50 岁以上的老年女性食物过 敏的患病率和特点。方法与研究设计:纳入研究的青年研究对象是 660 名年龄 在 18-24 岁自愿参加的女大学生,老年研究对象是 470 名到京都桂医院保健中 心进行健康体检的 50 岁以上的女性。采用自编问卷询问研究对象食物过敏的 发生、症状、致敏食物、个人或家族其它过敏性疾病史。结果:青年女性和老 年女性食物过敏的患病率之间的差异无统计学意义,分别为 8.2%和 8.9%。她 们当中,只有 24.1%的青年女性和 26.2%的老年女性被医生诊断为食物过敏。 青年女性和老年女性的致敏食物(水果、贝类和鱼类)和食物过敏的表现几乎 相同。与食物过敏阴性组相比,青年女性和老年女性的食物过敏阳性组均显示 出较高的个人或家族过敏性疾病史。结论:这些数据表明,老年女性食物过敏 和年轻女性一样常见,应给予更多的关注。
关键词:食物过敏、问卷调查、患病率、青年女性、老年女性

 

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Middle-class household food providers’ views and experiences of food marketing in Vietnam
QUYNH TH PHAM AND ANTHONY WORSLEY
Background and Objectives: Food marketing has been identified as a target for intervention in the prevention of childhood overweight and obesity within countries and globally, and promotion of healthy diets has been classified as a key strategy to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases and health inequalities. The present study aims to investigate how Vietnamese middle-class household food providers are impacted by food advertising communications, their views of food marketing and the ways they think the government can control food marketing to assist people to consume healthier diets. Methods and Study Design: 810 household food providers participated in the online survey. Frequency counts were calculated using IBM SPSS version 21. Results: Many respondents had been exposed to food marketing; 82.8% had seen food advertising in magazines at least once a month, 65.1% had received free food samples in public places, 68.0% had received food advertising information via email. Many household food providers appeared to support food marketing; 73.3% approved of nutrition education in schools or on television being provided by soft drink or fast food companies, 63.7% supported the marketing of infant formula milk. There were mixed views about what actions the government could implement to control food marketing; 88.2% supported clearer food content on food labels, 84.1% believed that children should learn how to purchase and cook foods at school. Conclusions: A substantial majority of Vietnamese middle-class household food providers appeared unaware of the adverse effects of food marketing. Education and policy leadership in food and nutrition are urgently required.
Key Words: Vietnam, food marketing, household food providers, nutrition transition, food advertising communication
 

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越南中产阶级家庭食物提供者对食品营销的观点和经 历
背景与目的:食品营销已被国内和全球确定为预防儿童超重和肥胖的干预目 标,促进健康的膳食被列为降低非传染性疾病和亚健康负担的一项重要战 略。本研究旨在探讨越南中产阶级家庭食物提供者是如何被食品广告传播影 响,他们对食品营销的观点,和他们认为政府能够控制食品市场来协助人们 消费更健康膳食的方法。方法与研究设计:810位家庭食物提供者参加网上调 查。频率计数采用 IBM SPSS 21。结果:许多受访者已接触到食品营销, 82.8%的人每月至少在杂志上看到一次食品广告,65.1%的人在公共场所收到 过免费的食物样品,68.0%通过邮件收到过食品广告。许多家庭食品提供者似 乎支持市场营销,73.3%的人支持软饮料或快餐公司提供的在学校或通过电话 进行的营养教育,63.7%的人支持婴儿配方奶的营销。关于政府可以实施控制 食品营销的措施,大家的看法不一,88.2%的人支持食物标签上更清楚的食物 成分,84.1%的人认为孩子应该在学校学会如何购买和烹饪食物。结论:相当 多的越南中产阶级家庭食物提供者似乎没有意识到食品市场营销的不利影 响。迫切需要食物和营养的教育和政策引导。
关键词:越南、食品营销、家庭食物提供者、营养过渡、食品广告传播

 

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Salty food preference is associated with osteoporosis among Chinese men
ZHONG-HUA LIU, ZI-HUI TANG, KE-QIN ZHANG AND LING SHI
Background and Objectives: The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between salty food preference and osteoporosis (OP) in general Chinese men. Methods and Study Design: We conducted a largescale, community-based, cross-sectional study to estimate the associations by using self-report questionnaire to evaluate the salty food preference. The total of 1,092 men was available to data analysis in this study. Multiple regression models controlling for confounding factors to include salty food preference variables were employed to explore the relationships for OP. Results: We found negative correlations between preference for salty food and T-score (p=0.006). Multiple regression analysis showed that the preference for salty food was significantly positively associated with OP (p<0.05 for all). The men with preference for salty food habits had a higher prevalence of OP. Conclusion: The findings indicated that salty food preference was independently and significantly associated with OP. The prevalence of OP was more frequent in Chinese men preferring salty food habits.
Key Words: salty food preference, osteoporosis, Chinese men, association, large scale
 

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中国男性饮食咸淡嗜好与骨质疏松有关
背景与目的:评估中国男性饮食咸淡嗜好和骨质疏松症(OP)之间的关联。方 法与研究设计:我们以社区自然人群为基础进行了大规模的横断面调查,采用 问卷调查的方法评估饮食咸淡嗜好与 OP 的关联性,对 1092 名成年男性的相关 资料进行了数据分析,通过多元回归模型控制混杂因素,其中咸淡的饮食嗜好 变量被用来探索与 OP 的关系。结果:偏咸的饮食嗜好和骨密度检验 T 值之间 呈显著负相关(p=0.006)。多元回归分析表明,偏咸的饮食嗜好与 OP 显著正 相关(p<0.05)。偏咸饮食男性 OP 的患病率较高。结论:研究结果表明:偏 咸饮食与 OP显著正相关。
关键词:偏咸饮食嗜好、骨质疏松、中国男性、相关性、大样本

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Comparison of salt taste thresholds and salt usage behaviours between adults in Myanmar and Korea
HYUNGJIN CHO, SO MI KIM, SEONG SU JEONG AND SOON BAE KIM
Background and Objectives: Excessive oral salt intake can induce hypertension. According to previous studies, the prevalence of hypertension is higher in Myanmar than in Korea. We postulated that Myanmar adults had higher salt taste thresholds and eat much saltier food. This study aimed to compare salt taste thresholds and salt usage behaviour scores between adults in Myanmar and Korea. Methods and Study Design: This cross-sectional study enrolled patients who visited volunteer medical service clinics at Ansung in Korea and Hlegu and Bago in Myanmar in August 2014. We measured the vital signs, heights, and weights of each patient and evaluated detection thresholds, recognition thresholds, and salt preferences. All patients underwent urinalysis and spot urine Na tests. Additionally, they each completed a salt usage behaviour questionnaire. Results: A total of 131 patients were enrolled, including 64 Myanmarese patients and 67 Korean patients. Blood pressure was significantly higher in the Myanmarese than in the Koreans. Detection and recognition thresholds, salt preferences, and spot urine sodium and salt usage behaviour scores were also higher in the Myanmarese than in the Korean subjects. We calculated correlation coefficients between systolic blood pressure and parameters that were related to salt intake. The detection and recognition thresholds were significantly correlated with systolic blood pressure. Conclusion: All parameters related to salt intake, including detection and recognition thresholds, salt preference, salt usage behaviour scores and spot urine sodium concentrations, are significantly higher in Myanmarese than in Korean individuals.
Key Words: dietary sodium, hypertension, taste threshold, Myanmar, Korea

 

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缅甸和韩国成年人盐味阈值与盐使用行为比较
背景与目的:过量盐摄入可诱发高血压。根据以往研究,缅甸高血压的患病率 高于韩国。我们推测,缅甸的成年人有更高的盐味阈值及多吃咸食物的习惯。 该研究的目的是比较缅甸和韩国成人的盐味阈值和盐使用行为分数之间的差 异。方法与研究设计:采用横断面研究,于 2014 年 8 月,在韩国安城和缅甸 的莱古及勃固的医疗诊所招募志愿者。我们测量了每个患者的生命体征、身高 和体重,并评估检测阈值、识别阈值和盐偏好。所有患者均行尿常规和尿钠检 测。此外,他们每人完成了一份盐使用行为问卷调查。结果:共入选 131 例患 者,包括 64 例缅甸患者和 67 例韩国患者。缅甸患者的血压显著高于韩国患 者,且检测阈值、识别阈值、盐偏好、尿钠以及盐使用行为评分也高于韩国患 者。我们计算发现收缩压与盐摄入量相关参数之间有相关关系,检测阈值和识 别阈值与收缩压显著正相关。结论:缅甸人群盐摄入量相关的所有参数,包括 检测和识别阈值,盐偏好、盐使用行为评分和尿钠浓度均显著高于韩国。
关键词:膳食钠、高血压、味觉阈值、缅甸、韩国

 

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Vitamin D status of Māori and non-Māori octogenarians in New Zealand: a Cohort Study (LiLACS NZ)
CATHERINE J BACON, NGAIRE KERSE, KAREN J HAYMAN, SIMON A MOYES, RUTH O TEH, MERE KEPA, AVINESH PILLAI AND LORNA DYALL
Background and Objectives: This study assessed vitamin D status and its determinants in a cohort of octogenarians living within New Zealand’s Bay of Plenty and Lakes Districts. Methods and Study Design: Serum 25hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration was measured in 209 Māori (aged 80-90 years) and 357 non-Māori (85 years), along with demographic, lifestyle, supplement use and other health data. Results: Mean [95% CI] 25(OH)D concentration was 69 [67 to 72] nmol/L, with 15% >100 nmol/L and 6 individuals >150 nmol/L. Concentrations in Māori (59 [55 to 62] 4 nmol/L) were lower than in non-Māori (75 [72 to 78] nmol/L; p<0.001), a difference maintained when adjusted for day-of-year measured. Vitamin D supplementation was reported by 98 participants (18%): including a greater proportion of women (24%) than men (11%; p<0.001) and of non-Māori (24%) than Māori (7%; p<0.001). Of those taking vitamin D, 49% took high oral doses (≥25 µg/day or equivalent) and five individuals took >50 µg/day. Vitamin D supplement use strongly and independently predicted seasonally-adjusted 25(OH)D concentration and was associated with 28 nmol/L higher levels than non-use. Other predictors included Māori ethnicity (10 nmol/L lower concentration than for non-Māori), and female gender (11 nmol/L lower). Conclusions: Vitamin D status in New Zealand octogenarians appears higher than previously reported, particularly in non-Māori compared to Māori. Prescribed and non-prescribed oral vitamin D supplementation is prevalent in this group and a strong indicator of vitamin D status.
Key Words: calciferol, seasonal variation, ethnic groups, aged 80 and over, elderly
 

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新西兰毛利族和非毛利族八旬老人维生素 D 状况:一 项队列研究
背景与目的:本研究评估了队列研究中生活在新西兰湾和湖泊区域的八旬老人 的维生素 D 状况及其决定因素。方法与研究设计:测量 209 名毛利人(80-90 岁)和 357 名非毛利人(85 岁)的血清 25-羟维生素 D(25(OH)D)的浓度, 同时收集研究对象的体格测量指标、生活方式、补充剂的应用和其它健康资 料。结果:平均 25(OH)D浓度为 69(95% CI:67-72)nmol/L,其中 15%的研 究对象>100 nmol/L,6 个研究对象>150 nmol/L。毛利人的 25(OH)D 浓度(59 nmol/L,95% CI: 55-62 nmol/L)低于非毛利人(75 nmol/L,95% CI:72-78 nmol/L,p<0.001),校正测量日期后,差异仍然存在。98 名(占 18%)研究 对象报告补充了维生素 D,女性中补充者所占的比例(24%)高于男性 (11%,p<0.001),非毛利人中补充者所占的比例高于毛利人。补充维生素 D 的人中,49%的人摄入高剂量(每天≥25 µg 或相当剂量),5 个研究对象每 天摄入维生素 D≥50 µg。维生素 D补充剂的应用能够强而独立地预测季节校正 的 25(OH)D 浓度,并且使用者比不用者高 28 nmol/L。其它预测指标包括毛利 族(比非毛利族低 10 nmol/L)和女性性别(比男性低 11 nmol/L)。结论:新 西兰八旬老人维生素 D 浓度高于以前的报告,尤其是非毛利人。这个人群中 处方和非处方口服维生素 D 补充剂普遍存在,并且是维生素状态的强预测指 标。
关键词:骨化醇、季节变化、民族、年龄在 80岁及其以上、老年人

 

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The physical examination content of the Japanese National Health and Nutrition Survey: temporal changes
HISAKO TANAKA, SHINO IMAI, MAKIKO NAKADE, ERI IMAI AND HIDEMI TAKIMOTO
Background and Objectives: Survey items of the Japan National Nutrition Survey (J-NNS) have changed over time. Several papers on dietary surveys have been published; however, to date, there are no in-depth papers regarding physical examinations. Therefore, we investigated changes in the survey items in the physical examinations performed in the J-NNS and the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS), with the aim of incorporating useful data for future policy decisions. Methods and Study Design: We summarized the description of physical examinations and marshalled the changes of survey items from the J-NNS and NHNS from 1946 to 2012. The physical examination is roughly classified into the following six components: some are relevant to anthropometric measurements, clinical measurements, physical symptoms, blood tests, lifestyle and medication by interview, and others. Results: Items related to nutritional deficiency, such as anaemia and tendon reflex disappearance, and body weight measurements were collected during the early period, according to the instructions of the General Headquarters. From 1989, blood tests and measurement of physical activity were added, and serum total protein, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, blood glucose, red blood corpuscles and haemoglobin measurements have been performed continuously for more than 20 years. Conclusions: This is the first report on the items of physical examination in the J-NNS and NHNS. Our research results provide basic information for the utilization of the J-NNS and NHNS, to researchers, clinicians or policy makers. Monitoring the current state correctly is essential for national health promotion, and also for improvement of the investigation methods to apply country-by-country comparisons.
Key Words: national nutrition survey in Japan, national health and nutrition survey, physical examination, survey items, national survey
 

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日本国民健康和营养普查中体检内容随时间变化
背景和目的:日本国民营养普查(J-NNS)项目随时间变化。关于饮食调查的几 篇论文已经发表,但是,到目前为止,还没有关于体检的进一步论文发表。因 此,我们研究了 J-NNS 和国民健康和营养普查(NHNS)中体检项目的变化, 为进一步的政策制定提供有用的数据。方法与研究设计:我们总结了从 1946 年 J-NNS到 2012 年 NHNS体检项目的变化。体检大致分为以下六个部分:人 体测量相关参数、临床测量、身体症状、血液检测、生活方式和药物治疗及其 它。结果:根据总部的建议,早期就已经收集与营养缺乏有关内容,如贫血、 肌腱反射消失和体重测量。从 1989 年开始,增加了血液检测和身体活动的测 量,血清总蛋白、总胆固醇、甘油三酯、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇、血糖、红细胞 和血红蛋白,已连续检测 20 多年。结论:这是 J-NNS更名为 NHNS后的第一 份关于体检的报告。我们的研究结果为研究人员、临床医生和政策决策者使用 J-NNS和 NHNS提供了基本信息。正确监测当前状态是国民健康促进的必要手 段;也可改善普查方法,从而适用于国与国之间的相互比较。
关键词:日本国民营养普查、国民健康与营养普查、体格检查、调查条目、全 民普查

 

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Endemic fluorosis in Henan province, China: ERα gene polymorphisms and reproductive hormones among women
GUO-YU ZHOU, LI-JUN REN, JIA-XIANG HOU, LIU-XIN CUI, ZHONG DING, XUE-MIN CHENG, JING-YUAN ZHU, RUI-RUI CUI AND YUE BA
Background and Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the influence of fluoride exposure and ERα gene polymorphisms on reproductive hormone concentrations of women in accordance with endemic fluorosis residence. Methods and Study Design: A cross sectional study was conducted in Tongxu county, Henan Province, China. A total of 679 women were recruited using cluster sampling and each subject provided fasting blood and an associated urine sample. We measured the concentrations of serum gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and estradiol and urinary fluoride. Results: In the defluoridation project group (DFPG), serum GnRH was lower in women carrying C/C genotype compared to in those carrying C/T and T/T genotypes of ERα gene rs3798577 (p<0.05). In the endemic fluorosis group (EFG), serum GnRH was lower in women carrying Pp genotype compared to in those carrying PP and pp genotypes of ERα PvuII (p<0.05). Serum GnRH in women from EFG who carried Pp, pp, Xx and xx genotypes in ERα gene PvuII and XbaI was lower than in those in the control group (CG) who carried same genotypes (p<0.05). Furthermore, serum GnRH in women from EFG was significantly lower than in those in CG, regardless of whether the women were carrying C/C, C/T or T/T genotypes of ERα rs3798577 (p<0.05). Serum estradiol concentrations in EFG were significantly lower than in CG when the women were carrying the Pp, Xx and T/T genotypes in ERα gene (p<0.05). Conclusion: Interaction of ERα gene and fluoride exposure may influence women’s serum reproductive hormone concentrations.
Key Words: fluoride, ERα, gene polymorphism, women, reproductive hormones
 

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中国河南省氟病区女性 ERα 基因多态性与生殖激素的 关系
背景与目的:探讨氟暴露及 ERα 基因多态性对氟病区女性生殖激素浓度的影 响。方法与研究设计:按照饮用水中氟浓度分为氟病区组、改水组和对照组。 采用整群抽样的方法选择中国通许县居住的 679 名成年女性为研究对象,采集 研 究 对 象 空 腹 静 脉 血 及 晨 尿 样 本 , 并 测 量 血 清 促 性 腺 激 素 释 放 激 素 (gonadotropin releasing hormone, GnRH)、卵泡刺激素、促黄体生成素、雌二 醇和尿氟浓度。结果:改水组携带 ERα rs3798577 C/C基因型女性血清 GnRH浓 度低于携带 C/T 和 T/T 基因型女性(p<0.05)。氟病区组携带 ERα PvuII Pp 基 因型女性血清 GnRH 浓度低于携带 PP 和 pp 基因型女性(p<0.05)。携带 ERα PvuII Pp、pp 和 ERα XbaI Xx、xx 基因型的女性血清 GnRH 浓度低于对照区携 带相同基因型的女性(p<0.05)。此外,无论其携带的 ERα rs3798577基因型是 C/C、C/T 或 T/T, 氟病 区组 女性 血清 GnRH 浓 素均 低于 对照区 女 性 (p<0.05)。携带 ERα PvuII Pp, ERα XbaI Xx和 ERα rs3798577 T/T基因型的氟 病区女性血清雌二醇浓度低于携带相同基因型的对照区女性(p<0.05)。结 论:ERα基因和氟暴露的交互作用可能影响女性血清生殖激素的浓度。
关键词:氟、ERα、基因多态性、女性、生殖激素

 

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A huge ovarian mucinous cystadenoma associated with contralateral teratoma and polycystic ovary syndrome in an obese adolescent girl
PATCHARAPA THAWEEKUL, YUTHADEJ THAWEEKUL AND KARICHA MAIRIANG
A 13-year-old, obese girl presented with acute abdominal pain with abdominal distension for a year. The physical examination revealed marked abdominal distension with a large well-circumscribed mass sized 13×20 cm. Her body mass index (BMI) was 37.8 kg/m2. An abdominal CT scan revealed a huge multiloculated cystic mass and a left adnexal mass. She had an abnormal fasting plasma glucose and low HDL-C. Laparotomy, right salpingooophorectomy, left cystectomy, lymph node biopsies and partial omentectomy were performed. The left ovary demonstrated multiple cystic follicles over the cortex. The histologic diagnosis was a mucinous cystadenoma of the right ovary and a matured cystic teratoma of the left ovary. Both obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are associated with a greater risk of ovarian tumours, where PCOS could be either the cause or as a consequence of an ovarian tumour. We report an obese, perimenarchal girl with bilateral ovarian tumours coexistent with a polycystic ovary and the metabolic syndrome.
Key Words: epithelial ovarian tumour, teratoma, polycystic ovary syndrome, obesity, adolescent
 

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肥胖少女巨大卵巢粘液性囊腺瘤与对侧畸胎瘤和多囊卵 巢综合症有关
一个 13 岁肥胖女孩腹胀一年,急性腹痛入院。体格检查发现明显腹胀,有一个 尺寸为 13×20 cm 边界清楚的肿块。她的体质指数为 37.8 kg/m2。腹部 CT 扫描 发现一个巨大的多腔囊性肿块和左侧附件有一包块。她的空腹血糖异常,HDLC 低。进行剖腹探查,右侧输卵管卵巢切除术,左囊切除术,淋巴结活检和部 分网膜切除术。左侧卵巢皮质发现多个囊性卵泡。组织学诊断为右侧卵巢粘液 性囊腺瘤和左侧卵巢成熟囊性畸胎瘤。肥胖和多囊卵巢综合症与卵巢肿瘤高风 险有关,而多囊卵巢综合征可能是卵巢肿瘤的原因或是结果。我们报告了一个 肥胖、围初潮期女孩,双侧卵巢肿瘤合并多囊卵巢综合征和代谢综合征。
关键词:卵巢上皮肿瘤、畸胎瘤、多囊卵巢综合征、肥胖、青少年

 

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Last Updated: October 2016