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1 Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
       Volume 25, 2

         (June 2016)


Abstracts

Contents

Abstract PDF

Reviews

Prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency among patients with thyroid dysfunction
ARYN B COLLINS AND ROMAN PAWLAK
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(2):221-226.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.2.22

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Intake of added sugar in Malaysia: a review
MARIA SOFIA V AMARRA, GEOK LIN KHOR AND PAULINE CHAN
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(2):227-240.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.2.13

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Original Research Communications

Nutritional Measurement & Methodology

β-carotene losses due to handling and cooking in Kenyan leafy vegetables connote no comparative nutritional superiority over kales
SHADRACK O OIYE, RUTH K ONIANG’O AND KENNEDY SHIUNDU JEYAKUMAR HENRY
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(2):241-248.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.2.05

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Nutritional Risk Screening in patients with chronic kidney disease
RONGSHAO TAN, JIANTING LONG, SHI FANG, HAIYAN MAI, WEI LU, YAN LIU, JIANRUI WEI AND FENG YAN
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(2):249-256.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.2.24

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Validation of the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire in Arabs
SHAEA A ALKAHTNI, MICHELLE DALTON, OMAR ABUZAID, OMAR OBEID AND GRAHAM FINLAYSON

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(2):257-264.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.2.07

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Clinical Nutrition or Feeding Studies

Open-labelled observations of language dysfunction in old ischemic stroke patients with aphasia when given plant and marine-based nutrient supplements for 12 weeks
GUAN-YU LIN, HSIU-YU CHAN, CHUN-AN CHENG, LAN-PING LIN, GIIA-SHEUN PENG, PEI-MIN HSIAO, CHUN-CHIEH LIN, CHUN-CHIH LIN AND JIUNN-TAY LEE

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(2):265-272.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.2.27

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Nutritional risk, malnutrition and nutritional support among hospitalized patients in orthopedics/spinal surgery of a Hohhot teaching hospital
NANNAN WANG, YALIN DONG, TING HUO, YANQING SHAO, WENHUA XING AND SHUWEN LI
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(2):273-282.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.2.26

 

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Nutrition status and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in patients with virus - related cirrhosis
JIA YAO, LE CHANG, LILI YUAN AND ZHONGPING DUAN
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(2):283-291.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.2.06

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Prevalence of protein-energy wasting (PEW) and evaluation of diagnostic criteria in Japanese maintenance hemodialysis patients
SONOKO YASUI, YUMIKO SHIRAI, MAYU TANIMURA, SAYAKA MATSUURA, YU SAITO, KAZUAKI MIYATA, EIJI ISHIKAWA, CHIKAO MIKI AND YASUHIRO HAMADA
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(2):292-299.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.2.10

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Short-term consequences of continuous renal replacement therapy on body composition and metabolic status in sepsis
CHAO WU, XINYING WANG, WENKUI YU, PEI LI, SITONG LIU, JIESHOU LI AND NING LI
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(2):300-307.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.2.29

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Nutritional Status, Dietary Intake, and Body Composition

Relationship between bone mineral density and alcohol consumption in Korean men: the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2008-2009
JUNG HYEON HYEON, JONG SEOP GWAK, SUNG WOO HONG, HYUKTAE KWON, SEUNG-WON OH AND CHEOL MIN LEE
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(2):308-315.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.2.17

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Association between perceived stress, alcohol consumption levels and obesity in Koreans
SEUNG-JIN YOON, HAE-JOON KIM AND MIAE DOO
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(2):316-325.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.2.23

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Age-related decline in skeletal muscle mass and function among elderly men and women in Shanghai, China: a cross sectional study
HUI-JING BAI, JIAN-QIN SUN, MIN CHEN, DAN-FENG XU, HUA XIE, ZHUO-WEI YU, ZHI-JUN BAO, JIE CHEN, YI-RU PAN, DA-JIANG LU AND SULIN CHENG

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(2):326-332.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.2.14

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The relationship between obesity indices and serum vitamin D levels in Chinese adults from urban settings
YANLING ZHANG, XU ZHANG, FURONG WANG, WENWEN ZHANG, CHENGGANG WANG, CHUNXIAO YU, JIAJUN ZHAO, LING GAO AND JIN XU

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(2):333-339.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.2.15

 

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Maternal and Clild Nutrition

 

Factors associated with total mercury concentrations in maternal blood, cord blood, and breast milk among pregnant women in Busan, Korea
YOOJUN SONG, CHAE-KWAN LEE, KUN-HYUNG KIM, JONG-TAE LEE, CHUNHUI SUH, SE-YEONG KIM, JEONG-HO KIM, BYUNG-CHUL SON, DAE-HWAN KIM AND SANGYOON LEE
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(2):340-349
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doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.2.16

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Micronutrient powder use and infant and young child feeding practices in an integrated program
KELSEY R MIRKOVIC, CRIA G PERRINE, GIRI RAJ SUBEDI, SABA MEBRAHTU, PRADIUMNA DAHAL AND MARIA ELENA D JEFFERDS
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(2):350-355.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.2.19

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The effect of socio-demographic variables and dairy use on the intake of essential macro- and micronutrients in 0.5-12-year-old Indonesian children
YEKTI WIDODO, SANDJAJA SANDJAJA, EDITH SUMEDI, ILSE KHOUW AND PAUL DEURENBERG
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(2):356-367.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.2.09

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Nutritional Epidemiology and Public Health

Estimating dietary micronutrient supply and the prevalence of inadequate intakes from national Food Balance Sheets in the South Asia region
HENRY E MARK, LISA A HOUGHTON, ROSALIND S GIBSON, EVA MONTERROSA AND KLAUS KRAEMER
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(2):368-376.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.2.11

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Mediterranean diet adherence and risk of multiple sclerosis: a case-control study
FATEMEH SEDAGHAT, MAHSA JESSRI, MARYAM BEHROOZ, MOSTAFA MIRGHOTBI AND BAHRAM RASHIDKHANI
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(2):377-384.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.2.12

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Personal behaviors including food consumption and mineral supplement use among Japanese adults: a secondary analysis from the National Health and Nutrition Survey, 2003-2010
YOKO SATO, MEGUMI TSUBOTA-UTSUGI, TSUYOSHI CHIBA, NOBUYO TSUBOYAMA-KASAOKA, HIDEMI TAKIMOTO, NOBUO NISHI AND KEIZO UMEGAKI

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(2):385-392.

doi:10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.2.20

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Fast foods - are they a risk factor for functional gastrointestinal disorders?
JIAN-PING SHAU, PO-HON CHEN, CHAN-FAI CHAN, YUNG-CHENG HSU, TZEE-CHUNG WU, FRANK E JAMES AND WEN-HAN PAN
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(2):393-401.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.2.28

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Association between salt and hypertension in rural and urban populations of low to middle income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis of population based studies
ASVINI K SUBASINGHE, SIMIN ARABSHAHI, DOREEN BUSINGYE, ROGER G EVANS, KAREN Z WALKER, MICHAELA A RIDDELL AND AMANDA G THRIFT

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(2):402-413.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.2.25

 

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Dietary diversity no longer offsets the mortality risk of hyperhomocysteinaemia in older adults with diabetes: a prospective cohort study
MARK L WAHLQVIST, LILI XIU, MEEI-SHYUAN LEE, ROSALIND CHIA-YU CHEN, KUAN-JU CHEN AND DUO LI
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(2):414-423.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.112015.06.

 

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Nutrigenomics

 

Food cravings, food addiction, and a dopamine-resistant (DRD2 A1) receptor polymorphism in Asian American college students
JOANNA YEH, AMY TRANG, SUSANNE M HENNING, HOLLY WILHALME, CATHERINE CARPENTER, DAVID HEBER AND ZHAOPING LI
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(2):424-429.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.102015.05

 

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Case Study

Is jejunostomy output nutrient or waste in short bowel syndrome? Experience from six cases
MING-YI LIU, HSIU-CHIH TANG, HUI-LAN YANG AND SUE-JOAN CHANG
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(2):430-435.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.2.18

 

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Future Events

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(2):436.

 

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Prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency among patients with thyroid dysfunction ARYN B COLLINS AND ROMAN PAWLAK
Due to the non-specificity of symptoms and possibly severe consequences of untreated vitamin B-12 deficiency, screening is important for at-risk patients to ensure the prompt delivery of treatment. In this review, studies assessing the prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency in thyroid dysfunction are evaluated to determine whether regular vitamin B-12 screening is necessary. A literature search was conducted using multiple electronic databases. Only original studies assessing the prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency in thyroid dysfunction that reported their findings as percentages of the sample were eligible for inclusion. From a total of 7091 manuscripts generated, 6 were included in this review. The prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency in hypothyroidism was reported as 10, 18.6, and 40.5% in three separate studies. The prevalence of deficiency in autoimmune thyroid disease was reported as 6.3, 28, and 55.5% in three studies. The prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency in hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroid disease are reflective of the nutrition status of the population. Autoimmune thyroid disease is also associated with the autoimmune disorders pernicious anemia and atrophic gastritis which may lead to malabsorption of vitamin B-12. Vitamin B-12 screening is recommended upon initial diagnosis with autoimmune thyroid disease and then periodically thereafter. There is not enough evidence to recommend regular screening for patients with hypothyroidism unless the underlying cause is autoimmune thyroid disease.
Key Words: vitamin B-12, vitamin B-12 deficiency, thyroid, autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), hypothyroidism
 

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甲状腺功能紊乱患者中维生素B-12 缺乏症的患病率
由于维生素B-12缺乏症状没有特异性以及不治疗可能引起严重的后果,筛选出有风险的患者以确保及时治疗非常重要。本综述评估了甲状腺功能紊乱患者中维生素B-12缺乏症的患病率,以确定定期筛查维生素B-是否必要。在多个电子数据库中进行文献检索。并报告了患病率的原始研究才纳入分析。全部查到的7091篇文献中,有6篇纳入本综述。三个独立的研究报告甲状腺机能减退患者中维生素只有在甲状腺功能紊乱患者中评估维生素缺乏症的患病率、B-12缺乏的发生率分别为10%、18.6%和40.5%。三个研究报告自身免疫性甲状腺疾病维生素B-12的缺乏率分别为6.3%、28%和55.5%。甲状腺功能减退和自身免疫性甲状腺疾病患者中维生素B-12的缺乏反映了该人群的营养状 况。自身免疫性甲状腺疾病也与自身免疫性疾病恶性贫血和萎缩性胃炎有关,而恶性贫血和萎缩性胃炎又可能导致维生素B-12吸收不良。建议在初次诊断自身免疫性甲状腺疾病时筛查维生素B-12,之后定期检查维生素B-12。没有 足够的证据建议在甲状腺功能减退患者中需定期筛查维生素B-12,除非甲状腺功能减退的根本原因是自身免疫性疾病。
关键词:维生素B-12、维生素B-12 缺乏、甲状腺、自身免疫性疾病、甲状腺功能减退

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Intake of added sugar in Malaysia: a review
MARIA SOFIA V AMARRA, GEOK LIN KHOR AND PAULINE CHAN
The term ‘added sugars’ refers to sugars and syrup added to foods during processing or preparation, and sugars and syrups added at the table. Calls to limit the daily intakes of added sugars and its sources arose from evidence analysed by WHO, the American Heart Association and other organizations. The present review examined the best available evidence regarding levels of added sugar consumption among different age and sex groups in Malaysia and sources of added sugars. Information was extracted from food balance sheets, household expenditure surveys, nutrition surveys and published studies. Varying results emerged, as nationwide information on intake of sugar and foods with added sugar were obtained at different times and used different assessment methods. Data from the 2003 Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS) using food frequency questionnaires suggested that on average, Malaysian adults consumed 30 grams of sweetened condensed milk (equivalent to 16 grams sugar) and 21 grams of table sugar per day, which together are below the WHO recommendation of 50 grams sugar for every 2000 kcal/day to reduce risk of chronic disease. Published studies suggested that, for both adults and the elderly, frequently consumed sweetened foods were beverages (tea or coffee) with sweetened condensed milk and added sugar. More accurate data should be obtained by conducting population-wide studies using biomarkers of sugar intake (e.g. 24-hour urinary sucrose and fructose excretion or serum abundance of the stable isotope 13C) to determine intake levels, and multiple 24 hour recalls to identify major food sources of added sugar.
Key Words: sugar, intake, added sugars, sources, Malaysia


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马来西亚添加糖摄入量:一篇综述
“添加糖”是指在食品加工或准备过程中添加的糖和糖浆,或在餐桌茶桌上添加的糖和糖浆。呼吁限制每日添加糖及添加糖的来源是源自WHO、美国心脏协会和其他组织的证据分析。该综述分析了马来西亚不同年龄和不同性别人群中添加糖摄入水平及其来源的最佳可用的证据。信息是从食物平衡表、家庭消费调查、营养调查和已发表文献中提取的。全国范围内糖和添加糖的食物的摄入量在不同的时间、使用不同的评估方法得到的结果不同。2003马来西亚成人营养调查(MANS)使用食物频率调查问卷的数据表明,马来西亚成年人平均每天食用30 g 加糖的浓缩牛奶(相当于16 g 糖)和21 g 的餐糖,二者合在一起低于WHO推荐的可以降低慢性病的患病风险的2000 kal/d 能量中50 g 糖的标准。已发表研究表明,对于成年人和老年人,经常食用的含糖饮料(茶或咖啡)有加糖的浓缩牛奶和添加糖。更准确的数据应通过开展人群研究,检测糖摄入的生物标志物(如24-h 尿蔗糖和果糖排泄,血清稳定同位素13C 的丰度)确定糖摄入水平,以及多个24 小时回忆确定添加糖的主要食物来源。
关键词:糖、摄入、添加糖、来源、马来西亚

 

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β-carotene losses due to handling and cooking in Kenyan leafy vegetables connote no comparative nutritional superiority over kales
SHADRACK O OIYE, RUTH K ONIANG’O AND KENNEDY SHIUNDU

African leafy vegetables (ALVs) are known to be high in β-carotene content and are preferred over kales due to this nutritional superiority. Ten different vegetables were collected from farm and market locations and analyzed for β-carotene content. Cooked vegetables (in single or in combination) as well as solar dried samples were prepared by the community members in the study area in the usual way and without any instruction or conditions given. β-carotene content was analyzed using a High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The results provided new representative β-carotene content of the fresh, marketed, cooked and dried vegetables without controlling or simulating the household handling or processing methods in a laboratory. While edible portions of kales are relatively inferior as a β-carotene source as compare to ALVs when in raw form, this is not the case at market place where kales exhibit comparable level of the β-carotene. As much as 280 μRE/100 g (a dietarily significant amount) can be lost through β-carotene oxidation before farm-fresh ALVs are sold in the market place with the losses severe in some ALVs and only subtle and relatively lower in kales. Post – cooking, kales had statistically comparable β-carotene content to ALVs save for when compared with purple amaranths and blacknight shade. Due to losses experienced in ALVs, kales are not comparatively inferior vegetables in terms of β-carotene content. Measures to prevent β-carotene losses in ALVs between the farm and market, during cooking and drying should be instituted in order to benefit from their high β-carotene content.
Key Words: kales, β-carotene losses, market, cooking, Brasica oleracea var acephala

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肯尼亚叶菜处理和烹饪过程中β-胡萝卜素的损失意味着羽衣甘蓝没有营养比较优越
非洲的叶菜类蔬菜(ALVs)因富含β-胡萝卜素而著称,由于其营养优势,羽衣甘蓝被作为首选。在不同农场和市场选择10 种不同的蔬菜,分析β-胡萝卜素的含量。研究区域的社区成员采用常规方式,而不是指示或给定的条件制备煮熟的蔬菜(单一或组合),以及太阳晒干样品,使用高效液相色谱法 (HPLC) 分析β-胡萝卜素含量。在实验室不控制或模拟家庭处理或加工方法的条件下,研究结果提供了新的具有代表性的、新鲜、市场销售、熟食和干燥蔬菜中β-胡萝卜素含量。作为β-胡萝卜素的来源,与生的ALVs 相比, 羽衣甘蓝可食用部分β-胡萝卜素含量相对较低。这是在没有市场的地方,羽衣甘蓝的水平相当β-胡萝卜素。在市场出售农场新鲜ALVs 前,差不多 280μRE/100 g(饮食上有意义的数量)可以通过β-胡萝卜素的氧化过程丢失。这种丢失情况在一些ALVs 或者微小且含量低的羽衣甘蓝中更严重。加 工后的羽衣甘蓝β-胡萝卜素含量与紫苋菜和深色的蔬菜相当。由于ALVs 加工过程中的损失,就β-胡萝卜素含量而言,为了从高的β-胡萝卜素含量中受益,应在ALVs 农场和销售环节采取措施,阻止烹饪和干燥过程中β-胡萝卜素含量的损失。
关键词:羽衣甘蓝、β-胡萝卜素损失、销售、烹饪、巴西利亚变种羽衣甘蓝


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Nutritional Risk Screening in patients with chronic kidney disease
RONGSHAO TAN, JIANTING LONG, SHI FANG, HAIYAN MAI, WEI LU, YAN LIU, JIANRUI WEI AND FENG YAN
Knowledge concerning nutritional status of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is limited. Nutritional Risk Screening-2002 (NRS-2002) has been used to evaluate the nutritional aspects of patients according to the recommendation of European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Here we aim to assess the prevalence and characteristics of nutritional risk in CKD patients by using NRS-2002. NRS-2002 scores of 292 CDK patients were recorded in first 24 hours subsequent to their admission to hospital. All patients have never been on dialysis. BMI, weight and various biochemical parameters were also characterized for these patients. Possible correlations between these parameters and NRS-2002 score were investigated. The overall prevalence of nutritional risk was 44.9% (53.6% in CKD stage 4-5 patients and 38.3% in stage 1-3 patients). Statistically significant differences were found in serum Albumin, Haemoglobin B, and lymphocyte counts between patients with or without increased nutritional risk. Under the situation that attending physicians were completely unaware of NRS-2002 scores, only 35.1% of the patients at risk received nutritional support. The nutritional risk status was associated with CKD stages but independent from primary diagnosis type. More attention should be paid to the nutritional status in CKD patients (including early stage patients). We recommended using NRS-2002 for nutritional risk assessment among non-dialysis CKD patients in routine clinical practice.
Key Words: nutrition, nutritional risk screening 2002, chronic kidney disease, nutritional support, malnutrition
 

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慢性肾脏病患者的营养风险筛查研究
目前人们对于慢性肾脏病患者(CKD)的营养状况了解非常有限。根据欧洲临床营养与代谢协会推荐,营养风险筛查标准NRS-2002 已被广泛应用于评估其他疾病患者的营养风险。本研究旨在利用NRS-2002 评估CKD 患者的营养风险。我们针对292 例未经过透析的CDK 患者进行了NRS-2002 评估,记录了他们的体重指数(BMI)和各种生化指标,并对NRS-2002 评分与各种指标之间的相关性进行了分析。在所有样本中,处于营养风险状态的患者比例为44.9%(CKD 4-5 级患者中比例为53.6%,1-3 级为38.3%)。血清白蛋白、血红蛋白B 和淋巴细胞计数与患者的营养风险状态显著相关。在主治医师未得知NRS-2002 评分的状况下,仅有35.1%存在营养风险的患者接受了营养支持治疗。患者的营养风险状况与其初诊类型无关。本研究结果表明,临床实践中应该重视CKD 患者(包括早期病人)的营养状况,及时给予营养治疗。我们建议针对非透析的CKD 患者使用NRS-2002 进行营养风险评估。
关键词:营养状况、营养风险筛查2002、慢性肾病、营养支持、营养失调
 

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Validation of the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire in Arabs
SHAEA A ALKAHTNI, MICHELLE DALTON, OMAR ABUZAID, OMAR OBEID AND GRAHAM FINLAYSON

The Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire (LFPQ) is a computerised procedure that assesses liking, wanting and relative preferences for shared characteristics of food. This study adapted the LFPQ (LFPQ-A) to assess its cross-cultural validity in an Arab sample by examining its performance for food characteristics of fat (high or low) and taste (sweet or nonsweet), under fasted and fed states. Individual differences in eating behaviour were examined by testing for associations between the LFPQ-A outcomes and subscales of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ). Thirty healthy males (age: 36.3±10.0 years; body mass index: 29.7±5.3 kg/m2) participated in the study. All participants attended the laboratory in the morning following an overnight fast, and performed the LFPQ-A under fasted and fed conditions (after a standardised test meal). Results showed that implicit wanting and relative preference for non-sweet foods decreased in the fed compared to the fasted state, whereas scores for sweet foods increased. Explicit liking and explicit wanting were also higher for non-sweet foods in the fasted condition, and decreased to a greater extent in the fed condition compared to a lesser decrease for sweet foods. Scores on all LFPQ-A outcomes for high-fat non-sweet foods were positively associated with TFEQ Disinhibition. Outcome scores for low-fat non-sweet foods were positively associated with TFEQ Restraint. The LFPQ-A showed outcomes that were consistent with studies performed in Western samples, therefore the current study helps to confirm the validity of the LFPQ-A as a measurement of liking and wanting and preference for food among Arabs.
Key Words: food preferences, liking and wanting, fat preferences, Arabs, obesity
 

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在阿拉伯人中对利兹食物偏好调查问卷的验证
利兹食物偏好问卷(LFPQ)是一种计算机程序,用来评估喜欢、想要和相对偏好食物的共同特征。本研究采用LFPQ(LFPQ-A)在禁食和摄食状态下通过测试LFPQ 对阿拉伯样品的脂肪(高或低)和口味(甜或不甜)等食物的特征,来评估它的跨文化有效性。通过检测LFPQ-A 结果与三因子饮食问卷分量表(TFEQ)之间的关系来检测饮食行为的个体差异。30 名健康男性(年龄:36.3±10.0 岁,体质指数:29.7±5.3 kg/m2)参与了这项研究。所有参与者禁食一夜后早上来到实验室,分别在空腹和进食(标准化测试餐后)状态下用LFPQ-A 进行测试。结果表明:与空腹状态相比,进食后对非甜食隱性的想要 和相对偏好分数降低,而甜食的分数增加。对非甜食明确的喜欢和想要在空腹情况下得分更高,在进食状态下降低的程度更大,而甜食降幅较小。高脂肪非甜食物LFPQ-A 所有结果的得分与TFEQ 抑制解除呈正相关,而低脂肪非甜食物结果的得分与TFEQ 约束呈正相关。该LFPQ-A 显示的结果与在西方的样本中进行的研究一致,因此目前的研究有助于确认LFPQ-A 作为阿拉伯人一种对食物的喜欢、想要和偏爱的度量的有效性。
关键词:食物偏好、喜欢和想要、脂肪偏好、阿拉伯人、肥胖

 

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Open-labelled observations of language dysfunction in old ischemic stroke patients with aphasia when given plant and marine-based nutrient supplements for 12 weeks
GUAN-YU LIN, HSIU-YU CHAN, CHUN-AN CHENG, LAN-PING LIN, GIIA-SHEUN PENG, PEI-MIN HSIAO, CHUN-CHIEH LIN, CHUN-CHIH LIN AND JIUNN-TAY LEE
Background and Objectives: This study aimed to explore the effect of functional foods on aphasia related to a previous ischemic stroke. When stroke-related neurological deficits result in physical dependency and poor selfcare that persists longer than 6 months, full recovery is almost impossible and the patient often requires long-term care. The functional foods, EASE123 and BioBalance#6, include numerous plant and marine-based nutrient supplements that could prove beneficial for such patients. Methods and Study Design: This open-labelled study included 10 patients diagnosed with prior ischemic stroke and aphasia lasting longer than 6 months. Each patient was administered 6 tablets of EASE123 at 10:30 AM and at 90 minutes before sleeping, and 3 tablets of BioBalance# 6 at 2:30 PM. After a treatment period of 12 weeks, the patients were followed during a 4-week withdrawal period. Functional improvement was assessed by scores and subscores on the Concise Chinese Aphasia Test (CCAT) at weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16. Results: Average total CCAT scores and matching ability improved significantly at weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16 (p<0.05). Simple response scores improved significantly at weeks 8 and 12 (p<0.05). Auditory comprehension improved significantly at weeks 4 and 12 (p<0.05), and reading comprehension, at week 12 (p<0.05). Repetition ability improved significantly at weeks 8, 12, and 16 (p<0.05), and spontaneous writing, at weeks 4, 12, and 16 (p<0.05). Conclusions: Matching, repetition, and average total CCAT scores improved over the course of the study. Therefore, 6 months after ischemic stroke, EASE123 and BioBalance# 6 administration may improve stroke-related aphasia.
Key Words: infarction, ischemic stroke, aphasia, functional food, nutrition

 

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以植物与海产为基础的营养补充剂用于陈旧性缺血性中风失语症患者持续使用12 周的开放性观察试验
背景与目的:本研究旨在探索功能性食品应用于缺血性中风失语症的效果。当中风相关的神经功能障碍导致身体依赖以及无法自我照顾的时间持续超过6 个月,完全恢复几乎是不可能的,病人往往需要长期照顾。这里提到的功能性食品,EASE123 和BioBalance#6,包括许多以植物和海产为基础的营养补充剂,可以证明对此类患者有益。方法与研究设计:此开放标记的研究纳入10例确诊为陈旧性缺血性中风和失语症持续超过6 个月的患者。每个病人在10:30 AM 及睡前90 分钟分别服用6 粒EASE123,于2:30 PM 服用3 粒BioBalance#6。12 周的治疗期后是一个为期4 周的停药观察期。分别在第4、8、12 和16 周,使用简明中国失语症测试(CCAT)分数和子项目分数评估功能改善的效果。 结果:研究发现平均总CCAT 分数和图像配对能力在第4、8、12 和16 周有显著改善(p<0.05)。简单应答分数在第8 和12 周有显著改善(p<0.05)。听觉理解在第4 和12 周(p<0.05),及阅读理解在第12 周有显著改善(p<0.05)。复诵句子在第8、12 和16 周显著改善(p<0.05),且自发书写在第4、12 和16 周有显著改善(p<0.05)。结论:图物配对、复诵句子和平均总CCAT 分数于整个研究过程中皆有显著改善。因此,缺血性中风6 个月后,给予EASE123 和BioBalance#6 营养补充剂可以改善缺血性中风失语症。
关键词:脑梗塞、缺血性中风、失语症、功能性食品、营养

 

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Nutritional risk, malnutrition and nutritional support among hospitalized patients in orthopedics/spinal surgery of a Hohhot teaching hospital
NANNAN WANG, YALIN DONG, TING HUO, YANQING SHAO, WENHUA XING AND SHUWEN LI
The evolution of nutritional status (the prevalence of nutritional risk, malnutrition, overweight and obesity) and the nutritional support of the hospitalized patients from admission to discharge or over a two-week period in orthopedics/spinal surgery of a teaching hospital in Hohhot were investigated. 432 patients from two wards of the orthopedics/spinal surgery from Jan to Dec 2013, the traditional spinal surgery and the minimally invasive spinal surgery, were selected and detected in this study. The Nutritional Risk Score 2002 (NRS 2002) was used to determine the patients’ nutritional status within 48h after admission and during their hospitalization. The overall prevalence of nutritional risk, malnutrition, overweight and obesity at admission was 11.6%, 12.7%, 35.9% and 7.41%, respectively. Overall, there were 88.0% of the patients who were at nutritional risk received nutritional support, while 14.1% of non-risk patients received a redundant nutritional support. The overall prevalence of nutritional risk changed from 11.6% at admission to 19.4% upon discharge (p<0.05), and the prevalence of malnutrition changed from 12.7% to 20.6% (p<0.05). The prevalence of overweight and obesity, which changed from 35.9% to 31.0% and from 7.41% to 5.79% respectively, didn’t experience statistically significant evolution. NRS 2002 was a feasible nutritional risk screening tool for patients in spinal surgery of orthopedics department. Patients’ prevalence of nutritional risk and malnutrition increased significantly in spinal surgery of this hospital. Some inappropriate uses of nutritional support were observed in orthopedics/spinal surgery, and nutritional support guidelines or protocols should be promoted by a professional committee.
Key Words: Nutritional Risk Screening 2002, nutritional risk, nutritional support, spinal surgery, orthopedics
 

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呼和浩特教学医院脊柱骨科住院患者营养风险、营养不良及营养支持情况调查
调查呼和浩特教学医院脊柱骨科患者入、出院(或入院2 周后)时营养状况(营养风险、营养不良、超重及肥胖的发生率)的变化及其住院期间营养支持的应用情况。采用定点连续抽样的方法,对该院两个脊柱骨科病房(传统脊柱骨科及微创脊柱骨科)2013 年1 月至12 月的432 例符合入组条件的住院患者进行调查分析。于入院48 小时内采用营养风险筛查工具2002(NRS 2002)进行营养风险筛查,记录患者住院期间的营养支持情况。该院脊柱骨科营养风险、营养不良、超重及肥胖的总体发生率分别为 11.6%, 12.7%, 35.9% 及7.41%。88%有营养风险的患者住院期间接受了营养支持治疗;但该院仍有14.1%的无营养风险患者接受了额外的营养支持。调研的脊柱骨科患者中,营养风险发生率由入院时的11.6%变化为出院时的19.4% (p<0.05) ; 营养不良发生率由12.7% 变化为20.6%(p<0.05);超重及肥胖分别由入院时的35.9%和7.41%变化为出院时的31.0%和5.79%,变化无统计学意义。NRS 2002 是脊柱骨科患者有用的营养风险筛查 工具。该院脊柱骨科患者住院期间的营养风险及营养不良的发生率均显著增高,同时该院营养支持药物的使用存在较多不合理现象,营养支持的指南或方案应由专业委员会提出。
关键词:营养风险筛查2002、营养风险、营养支持、脊柱外科、骨科


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Nutrition status and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in patients with virus - related cirrhosis
JIA YAO, LE CHANG, LILI YUAN AND ZHONGPING DUAN
Malnutrition and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is frequently present in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC). However, the direct relationship between SIBO and nutrition status in the LC patients has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there was an association between nutrition status, evaluated by the subjective global assessment (SGA) and SIBO in patients with Hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) related cirrhosis. A total of 120 patients with HBV or HCV-related cirrhosis and 30 healthy controls were included. Nutritional status was determined according to SGA and anthropometry. All patients and healthy controls underwent a glucose hydrogen breath test for SIBO. The prevalence of malnutrition for the patients with HBV or HCV related cirrhosis ranged 19.4%-60% in China. The highest prevalence of malnutrition was detected by SGA, the lowest by triceps skinfold thickness. The frequency of SIBO was significantly higher in the malnourished (SGA-B/C) than in the well-nourished (SGA-A) patients with HBV or HCV related cirrhosis [41/72 (56.9%) vs 12/48 (25.0%) (p=0.001)]. Univariate analysis showed that SIBO, ascites, and Child–Turcotte–Pugh (CTP) class were associated with malnutrition. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that SIBO [odds ratio (OR) 8.10; p=0.002] and ascites (OR 4.56; p=0.022) were independently associated with the occurrence of malnutrition (SGA-B/C) in the same subjects. SIBO is independently related to the occurrence of malnutrition (SGA-B/C) in patients with HBV or HCV cirrhosis. We deduce that SIBO may play an important role in nutrition status in patients with HBV or HCV cirrhosis.
Key Words: nutritional status, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, liver cirrhosis
 

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病毒相关肝硬化患者营养状态和小肠细菌过度生长关系的研究
肝硬化患者常常合并营养不良和小肠细菌过度生长(SIBO),但是,营养状态和SIBO是否直接相关并未阐明。因此,本研究旨在探讨乙型肝炎(HBV)或丙型肝炎(HCV)相关的肝硬化患者的营养状态和SIBO的关系。本研究入组HBV或者HCV相关的肝硬化患者120名,健康对照30名。根据主观全面营养评估法(SGA)和人体测量学评价入组肝硬化患者的营养状态。所有入组患者及健康对照组均进行氢呼气检测。HBV或者HCV相关的肝硬化患者在中国的营养不良患病率率为19.4%60%。SGA检测法的营养不良检测率最高,三头肌皮褶厚度检测法的营养不良检测率最低。在营养不良(SGA-B/C)的肝硬化患者中的SIBO的发生率明显高于营养良好(SGA-A)患者[41/72 (56.9%) vs 12/48 (25.0%) (p=0.001)]。单因素分析显示:SIBO、腹水和Child–Turcotte–Pugh(CTP)分级与营养不良相关。多因素分析显示:SIBO [OR 8.10,p=0.002]和腹水(OR 4.56,p=0.022)是营养不良的独立危险因素。因此,在HBV或者HCV相关的肝硬化患者中,SIBO与营养不良(SGA-B/C)独立相关。从而,我们认为SIBO对于病毒相关的肝硬化患者的营养状态可能有重要的影响。
关键词:营养状态、小肠细菌过度生长、乙型肝炎、丙型肝炎、肝硬化

 

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Prevalence of protein-energy wasting (PEW) and evaluation of diagnostic criteria in Japanese maintenance hemodialysis patients
SONOKO YASUI, YUMIKO SHIRAI, MAYU TANIMURA, SAYAKA MATSUURA, YU SAITO, KAZUAKI MIYATA, EIJI ISHIKAWA, CHIKAO MIKI AND YASUHIRO HAMADA

Background and Objectives: The International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism (ISRNM) has recently recommended the use of the term “protein-energy wasting” (PEW). PEW is a state of malnutrition with decreased body stores of protein and energy fuel in hemodialysis patients and is known as a risk factor for morbidity and mortality. We examined the prevalence of PEW and the characteristics of PEW patients in a hemodialysis center in Japan. Methods and Study Design: Fifty-nine outpatients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis at Iga City General Hospital were evaluated. We observed their biochemical data, body composition, dietary intake, and the number of steps prospectively. PEW was defined according to ISRNM criteria. Results: Nine patients (15% of total) were diagnosed as having PEW. Among indicators of PEW criteria, the relevance ratios of “reduced muscle mass” and “unintentional low dietary energy intake” were significantly higher in PEW than in non-PEW. The number of steps was lower, and serum levels of glucose and C-reactive protein were higher in PEW. Conclusion: About 15% of Japanese hemodialysis patients are estimated to have PEW. Our results suggested that major contributing factors to PEW were reduced muscle mass, unintentional low dietary energy intake, lower amount of exercise, insulin resistance, and chronic inflammation.
Key Words: protein-energy wasting, hemodialysis, malnutrition, skeletal muscle, dietary intake

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日本维持性血液透析患者蛋白质能量消耗的患病率和诊断标准评估
背景与目的:国际肾营养与代谢协会(ISRNM)最近推荐使用术语“蛋白质能量消耗(PEW)”。PEW 是血液透析患者体内蛋白质和能量储存减少的一种营养不良状态,并且被认为是患病率和死亡率的危险因素。我们在日本的一个血液透析中心研究了PEW 的患病率和PEW 患者的特征。方法与研究设计:我们评估了58 名在伊贺市综合医院做维持性血液透析的门诊患者,并观察了他们的生化数据、体成分、膳食摄入量和行走的步数。根据ISRNM 标准诊断PEW。结果:9 名(占总数的15%)患者被诊断为PEW。在PEW 诊断标准指标中,PEW 患者“肌肉量减少”和“无意识的低膳食能量摄入”的比例高于非PEW 患者。 PEW 患者中行走的步数较低,而血清葡萄糖和C-反应蛋白水平较高。结论:约有15%的日本血液透析患者患有PEW。我们的研究结果表明:引起PEW 的主要因素是肌肉量减少、无意识的低膳食能量摄入、运动量低、胰岛素抵抗和慢性炎症。
关键词:蛋白质能量消耗、血液透析、营养不良、骨骼肌、膳食摄入量


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Short-term consequences of continuous renal replacement therapy on body composition and metabolic status in sepsis
CHAO WU, XINYING WANG, WENKUI YU, PEI LI, SITONG LIU, JIESHOU LI AND NING LI
Background and Objectives: Fluid overload and hypermetabolism frequently occur in sepsis patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting. These abnormalities correlate with inflammatory mediators released under stressful conditions. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is an extracorporeal life support technology that persistently and stably eliminates overhydration and cytokines. This study investigated the short-term consequence of CRRT on body composition and pattern of energy expenditure. Methods and Study Design: We prospectively observed 27 sepsis patients in our ICU treated with CRRT. Bioelectrical impedance analysis and indirect calorimetry were determined at admission and before and after CRRT. All parameters considered to affect body composition and metabolic state with short-term CRRT were recorded. We used correlation analysis to evaluate the relationship between the change of nutritional state and other parameters. Results: Patients had a decreased total body water load and an improved metabolic pattern, but the nutritional parameters had no significant change between pre- and post-CRRT. Furthermore, we observed the percentage variation of resting energy expenditure (REE) was positively correlated with intracellular water change (r=0.547, p=0.003) and CRRT duration (r=0.515, p=0.006). A negative correlation was found between the percentage variation of REE and dialysate temperature (r=−0.668, p=0.001). Conclusion: These results suggest that short-term CRRT reduces systemic volume in sepsis patients with overhydration and hypermetabolism, but has no significant impact on acute nutritional status. Meanwhile, CRRT may exert its optimum efficiency when accompanied by other medical practices and support methods.
Key Words: intensive care unit, sepsis, body composition, metabolic state, continuous renal replacement therapy
 

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连续性肾替代治疗在短期内对脓毒症患者机体组成和代谢状态的影响
背景和目的:重症监护接收治疗的脓毒症患者由于炎症介质的大量生成,往往会出现液体超负荷和代谢亢进的表现。连续性肾替代治疗是一种可以持续缓慢清除机体内过多的液体和细胞因子的有效的体外生命支持技术。本研究目的在于研究连续性肾替代治疗在短期内对机体组成成分和能量代谢的影响。方法和研究设计:本研究共纳入27名重症监护接受连续性肾替代治疗的脓毒症患者,在入院时、肾替代治疗前后分别进行机体成分分析和间接能量消耗检测,并记录其他可能对检测结果造成影响的临床因素,对各种因素与结果进行了相关性分析。结果:与肾替代治疗前相比,治疗后的患者液体超负荷和代谢亢进明显改善,患者静息能量消耗下降程度与细胞内水的变化及肾替代治疗持续时间呈正相关( r=0.547 , p=0.003 ; r=0.515 , p=0.006 ) , 而与置换液温度呈负相关(r=−0.668, p=0.001)。结论:连续性肾替代治疗可以在短期内显著改善脓毒症患者的液体负荷与代谢亢进状态,但对其营养状态并无显著影响;连续性肾替代治疗联合其他辅助支持治疗或许会发挥其最大临床优势。
关键词:重症监护病房、脓毒症、机体组成、代谢状态、连续性肾替代治疗

 

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Relationship between bone mineral density and alcohol consumption in Korean men: the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2008-2009
JUNG HYEON HYEON, JONG SEOP GWAK, SUNG WOO HONG, HYUKTAE KWON, SEUNG-WON OH AND CHEOL MIN LEE
Background and Objectives: Drinking is a risk factor of osteoporosis, but controversy surrounds the relationship between alcohol consumption and bone mineral density (BMD). We performed an analysis of the association between alcohol consumption and BMD. Methods and Study Design: A cross-sectional study was performed including 2421 men, aged 40-93 years, who participated in the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008-2009. Alcohol intake was determined by self-administered questionnaires, and BMD was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. ANOVA was used to determine the relationship between alcohol intake and BMD, and ANCOVA was performed after adjusting for age, body mass index, education, household income, smoking status, calcium intake, physical activity, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Results: BMD increased significantly in the lumbar spine, total femur, and femoral neck with increased alcohol intake (p for trend=0.028, <0.001, <0.001, respectively). However, after adjusting for age, the relation was no longer statistically significant in any of 3 bone sites (lumbar, p for trend=0.606; total femur, p for trend=0.342; femoral neck, p for trend=0.549). Additionally, after adjusting for all other confounders, no significant relationships were reported in the 3 bone sites (lumbar, p for trend=0.451; total femur, p for trend=0.150; femoral neck, p for trend=0.343). In the stratified analysis, there were no significant correlations according to age, smoking status, physical activity or obesity. Conclusions: After adjusting for age and other confounders, no significant relationship was found between alcohol intake and BMD.
Key Words: osteoporosis, alcohol, bone mineral density, KNHANES, Korean men
 

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韩国男性骨密度与饮酒的关系:2008-2009 年第四届韩国全国健康与营养调查(KNHANES)
背景与目的:饮酒是骨质疏松的一个危险因素,但关于饮酒和骨密度(BMD)之间的关系却存在争议。我们对饮酒和BMD 之间的关系进行了分析。方法与研究设计:在2008-2009 年参加韩国第四次全国健康与营养调查的2421 名年龄在40-93 岁的男性中进行横断面研究。酒精摄入量由自填问卷确定,BMD 的测量采用双能X 射线吸收法测量。采用方差分析确定饮酒和BMD 的关系,采用协方差分析校正年龄、体质指数、教育、家庭收入、吸烟、钙的摄入量、体力活动和血清25-羟基维生素D 的浓度。结果:随着酒精摄入量的增加,腰椎、全股骨和股骨颈的BMD 显著增加(p-趋势分别为0.028、<0.001 和<0.001)。然而,校正年龄之后,这三个部位与饮酒的关系不再有统计学意义(腰椎、全股骨和股骨颈的p-趋势分别为0.606、0.342 和0.549)。此外,在校正了其他所有的混杂因素之 后,这三个部位与饮酒之间也没有显著关系(腰椎、全股骨和股骨颈的p-趋势分别为0.451、0.150 和0.343)。根据年龄、吸烟、体力活动或肥胖分层分析,也没有发现饮酒与BMD 之间有显著关系。结论:校正年龄和其它混杂因素之后,饮酒与BMD 之间没有显著的关系。
关键词:骨质疏松、酒精、骨密度、KNHANES、韩国男性

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Association between perceived stress, alcohol consumption levels and obesity in Koreans
SEUNG-JIN YOON, HAE-JOON KIM AND MIAE DOO
Background and Objectives: Coping with stress often leads to unhealthy behaviors that can have an impact on the development of obesity. Therefore, this study is investigate the effect of perceived stress level on alcohol consumption habits, as well as the effect of the interaction between alcohol consumption habits and stress level on obesity in Koreans. Methods and Study Design: We analyzed perceived stress, alcohol consumption habits (alcohol consumption status, quantity, and alcohol use disorders identification test) and the anthropometrics of 6,229 subjects from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The gender-based differences of the effect of the perceived level of stress on alcohol consumption habits and anthropometric measurements, as well as the interaction of the perceived level of stress and alcohol consumption habits on prevalence or ORs of obesity were analyzed. Results: The subjects with high perceived stress showed higher proportions for unhealthy alcohol consumption habits than those with low perceived stress [ORs (95% CIs)=1.35 (1.19-1.54), 1.95 (1.68-2.26), and 1.87 (1.60-2.19) for alcohol consumption status, alcohol consumption quantity, and alcohol use disorders identification test, respectively]. Men showed significant interactions between the perceived stress and all alcohol consumption habits with respect to obesity [ORs (95% CIs)=1.28 (1.06-1.55), 1.81 (1.52-2.16), and 1.40 (1.17-1.68) for alcohol consumption status, alcohol consumption quantity, and alcohol use disorders identification test, respectively]. Among women, interactions between the perceived stress and alcohol consumption status [ORs (95% CIs)=0.70 (0.60-0.83)] and alcohol consumption quantity [ORs (95% CIs)=0.93 (0.54-1.36)] in relation to obesity were found to be significant. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that the perceived stress influenced alcohol consumption habits that may have impacted obesity.
Key Words: alcohol consumption habits, BMI, Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, obesity, perceived stress

 

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韩国居民主观压力和酒精消费水平与肥胖的关系
背景与目的:精神压力会导致不良的健康习惯,同时也是引起肥胖的原因之一。因此,该研究调查了韩国居民主观压力水平对酒精摄入习惯的影响,以及酒精摄入习惯和精神压力水平交互作用对肥胖的影响。方法与研究設計:本研究利用6229 名韩国居民健康和营养调查资料,分析主观压力、饮酒习惯 (目前是否饮酒、饮酒量和酒精使用障碍鉴别试验)和人体测量指标。探讨了基于性别差异的主观压力水平对饮酒习惯和人体测量指标的影响,以及主观压力水平和酒精摄入习惯交互作用对肥胖患病率或肥胖OR 值的影响。结果:主观压力高的不良饮酒习惯比主观压力低的人群高[目前是否饮酒、饮酒 量和酒精使用障碍鉴别试验的ORs(95% CIs)分别为1.35(1.19-1.54)、1.95(1.68-2.26)和1.87(1.60-2.19)]。在男性人群,主观压力与饮酒习惯对肥胖有显著的交互作用[目前是否饮酒、饮酒量和酒精使用障碍鉴别试验的ORs(95% CIs)分别为1.28(1.06-1.55)、1.81(1.52-2.16)和1.40(1.17- 1.68)]。在女性人群,主观压力与目前是否饮酒以及饮酒量对肥胖交互作用的ORs(95% CIs)分别为0.70(0.60-0.83)和0.93(0.54-1.36)。结论:该研究表明,主观压力会影响饮酒习惯,而饮酒习惯可能会影响肥胖。
关键词:饮酒习惯、BMI、韩国国民健康和营养调查、肥胖、主观压力


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Age-related decline in skeletal muscle mass and function among elderly men and women in Shanghai, China: a cross sectional study
HUI-JING BAI, JIAN-QIN SUN, MIN CHEN, DAN-FENG XU, HUA XIE, ZHUO-WEI YU, ZHI-JUN BAO, JIE CHEN, YI-RU PAN, DA-JIANG LU AND SULIN CHENG
Objective: To investigate the relationship of muscle mass and muscle function with age. Methods and Study Design: The study including 415 participants (aged 60-99 years). Upper (UMM) and lower (LMM) limbs muscle mass and whole body fat free mass (FFM) were measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. The appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) index (ASM/height2) was calculated. Muscle function was assessed by measuring hand grip strength (HGS) and gait speed. Results: Using ASM index cutoff values we found that higher prevalence of sarcopenia in women than in men (33.5% vs 23.6%, p=0.025). In the upper limb, HGS (β=-0.809) declined more rapidly with age than did UMM (β=-0.592) in men, but not in women (β=-0.389 and β=-0.486 respectively). In the lower limb, gait speed declined more rapidly than LMM in both men (β=-0.683 vs β=-0.442) and women (β=-1.00 vs β=-0.461). The variance of UMM explained 28-29% of the variance of HGS, and LMM explained 7-8% of the variance of gait speed in women and men respectively. In addition to the common predictors (BMI and age), the specific predictors were smoking, exercise and education for FFM and ASM, and smoking, drinking and exercise for HGS (p<0.05). Conclusions: Loss of muscle function is greater than the decline of muscle mass particularly in the upper limbs in men. However, women are more prone to have low muscle mass than the men. Exercise programs need to be designed gender specifically.
Key Words: sarcopenia, muscle mass, strength, physical performance, elderly
 

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中国上海老年人骨骼肌肌量与功能随年龄下降的横断面研究
目的:探讨与年龄相关的骨骼肌肌量与功能之间的关系。方法:本研究包括415 名年龄在6099 岁之间的受试者。采用人体成分仪测量上肢和下肢骨骼肌肌量、去脂组织。四肢骨骼肌肌量指数=四肢骨骼肌肌量/身高平方。采用握力与步速评价骨骼肌功能。结果:老年男性、女性骨骼肌肌量低于切点值的比例分别是( 23.6% vs 33.5% , p=0.025 ) 。老年男性随年龄的增加握力(β=0.809)下降快于上肢骨骼肌肌量(β=-0.592),但在老年女性中不存在同样的情况(β=0.389 和β=0.486)。在老年男性(β=0.683 vs β=0.442)与女性(β=1.00 vs β=0.461)中,步速下降快于下肢骨骼肌肌量。老年男性 与女性上肢骨骼肌肌量与握力的决定系数是2829%,下肢骨骼肌肌量与步速的决定系数是(78%)。除体重指数与年龄外,吸烟、运动和受教育情况与四肢骨骼肌肌量、去脂组织相关。吸烟、饮酒与握力呈负相关(p<0.05)。结论:老年男性上肢骨骼肌功能下降快于骨骼肌肌量。然而,老年女性骨骼肌肌量低于切点值的百分比大于男性。运动方案的制定需要考虑性别的因素。
关键词:肌肉衰减综合征、骨骼肌肌量、骨骼肌力量、骨骼肌功能、老年人

 

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The relationship between obesity indices and serum vitamin D levels in Chinese adults from urban settings
YANLING ZHANG, XU ZHANG, FURONG WANG, WENWEN ZHANG, CHENGGANG WANG, CHUNXIAO YU, JIAJUN ZHAO, LING GAO AND JIN XU
Background and Objectives: With an increased incidence of obesity in China, this study sought to investigate the correlation between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and adiposity phenotypes in Chinese adults from urban settings. Methods and Study Design: A total of 1277 subjects aged 20-82 years old were recruited into this cross-sectional study. Anthropometric parameters and blood biochemistry panels were measured. Statistical analysis using partial correlation, multivariable regression and covariance were performed to assess the impact of obesity parameters on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Results: After adjustment for age and gender, serum25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were found to be inversely related to body mass index, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, body fat, body fat percentage and waist fat to hip fat ratio. In multivariable regression analysis, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were negatively associated with waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, body fat, body fat percentage and waist fat/hip fat ratio (p<0.05), while there was no correlation with body mass index (p>0.05). After inclusion of body fat, body fat percentage and waist fat to hip fat ratio in one model, only waist fat to hip fat ratio remained significantly associated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (p<0.05). The covariance analysis results showed that abdominal obesity subjects had lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels compared to the counterpart group, as defined by waist circumference or waist/hip ratio (p<0.05). Conclusion: Our results affirm the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and abdominal obesity, suggesting that adiposity phenotypes were strongly linked to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels.
Key Words: vitamin D, abdominal obesity, general obesity, body fat, urban adult
 

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中国城市成年人肥胖指数与血清维生素D 的关系
背景与目的:在中国,肥胖发病率呈上升趋势,该研究主要探讨中国城市成年人血清25-OH D 浓度与肥胖类型的关系。方法与研究设计:共有1277 例年龄在20-82 岁间的调查对象纳入该横断面研究,测定人体测量学及血生化相关指标,应用偏相关、多元线性回归、协方差等统计学方法,探讨肥胖参数与血清25-OH D 浓度的关系。结果:校正年龄和性别后,发现血清25-OH D 与体重指数、腰围、腰臀比、体脂肪、体脂百分比和腰臀脂肪比呈显著负相关。多元线性回归分析显示,血清25-OH D 与腰围、腰臀比、体脂肪、体脂百分比及腰臀脂肪比呈负相关(p<0.05),但与体重指数无统计相关性。但当体脂肪、体脂百分比及腰臀脂肪比全部进入回归方程时,仅腰臀脂肪比与血清25-OH D 呈负相关(p<0.05)。根据腰围和腰臀比,将调查人群分为腹型肥胖组和非腹型肥胖组,协方差分析结果显示,腹型肥胖组血清25-OH D 浓度明显低于非腹型肥胖组(p<0.05)。结论:研究结果发现血清25-OH D 浓度与腹型肥胖有关,提示肥胖类型与血清25-OH D 浓度具有密切相关性。
关键词:维生素D、腹部肥胖、一般肥胖、体脂、城市成年人


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Factors associated with total mercury concentrations in maternal blood, cord blood, and breast milk among pregnant women in Busan, Korea
YOOJUN SONG, CHAE-KWAN LEE, KUN-HYUNG KIM, JONG-TAE LEE, CHUNHUI SUH, SE-YEONG KIM, JEONG-HO KIM, BYUNG-CHUL SON, DAE-HWAN KIM AND SANGYOON LEE
This study investigated the concentration of total mercury (THg) in maternal blood, cord blood, and breast milk, and its association with dietary factors. A total of 127 pregnant women in Busan, Korea were recruited. Maternal blood, cord blood, and breast milk were collected at 36 weeks of gestation, at delivery, and at one week after birth, respectively. Information about dietary habits and other factors were obtained from each subject. The mean THg concentrations in maternal blood, cord blood, and breast milk were 3.12±1.36 μg/L, 5.46±2.41 μg/L, and 0.91±2.08 μg/L, respectively. Positive correlations were found between log-transformed THg concentrations in maternal blood and cord blood (r=0.829, p<0.001), and between maternal blood and breast milk (r=0.296, p=0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the log-transformed concentration of THg in maternal blood was positively correlated with fish consumption (β=0.345, p<0.0001) and negatively correlated with bean consumption (β=−0.055, p=0.048). Fish consumption (β=0.482, p<0.0001) and maternal age (β=0.025, p=0.033) were positively associated with the concentration of THg in cord blood, while negative correlations were found for bean consumption (β=−0.134, p=0.027) and parity (β=−0.172, p=0.015). Beef consumption (β=0.031, p=0.007) was positively associated with log-transformed THg concentrations in breast milk, while negative correlations were found for bean consumption (β=−0.019, p=0.003) and maternal age (β=−0.083, p=0.004). Our study found that both the dietary and demographic factors differently affected to THg concentrations among samples of maternal blood, cord blood, and breast milk.
Key Words: breast milk, cord blood, diet, maternal blood, mercury concentration
 

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韩国釜山孕妇母亲血、脐带血、母乳中总汞浓度影响因素
本研究调查了母亲血、脐血和乳汁中总汞浓度(THg)及其与膳食因素的关系。在韩国釜山招募127 名孕妇。分别于怀孕36 周时采集母亲血,分娩时采集脐带血,出生1 周后采集母乳。收集每位志愿者的饮食习惯和其他因素方面的信息。母亲血、脐血和乳汁中平均汞浓度分别为3.12±1.36 μg/L,5.46±2.41 μg/L 和0.91±2.08 μg/L。对数转换后的母亲血和脐血THg 浓度( r=0.829, p<0.001 ) , 母亲血和乳汁THg 浓度呈正相关( r=0.296, p=0.001)。多重线性回归模型显示对数转换后的母亲血THg 浓度与鱼摄入量呈显著正相关( β=0.345, p<0.0001 ) , 与豆类摄入量呈显著负相关( β=−0.055, p=0.048 ) 。鱼摄入量( β=0.482, p<0.0001 ) 和母亲年龄(β=0.025, p=0.033)与脐血THg 浓度呈显著正相关,而豆类 (β=−0.134, p=0.027)和豆类似物摄入量 (β=−0.172, p=0.015)与脐血THg 浓度呈显著负相关。牛肉摄入 (β=0.031, p=0.007)与对数转换后的母乳THg 浓度呈显著正相关,而豆类摄入(β=−0.019, p=0.003)和母亲年龄(β=−0.083, p=0.004)与对数转换后的母乳THg 浓度呈显著负相关。本研究发现膳食因素和人口学因素对THg 浓度有影响,且在母亲血,脐血和母乳样本中影响程度不同。
关键词:母乳、膳食、脐血、母亲血、汞浓度

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Micronutrient powder use and infant and young child feeding practices in an integrated program
KELSEY R MIRKOVIC, CRIA G PERRINE, GIRI RAJ SUBEDI, SABA MEBRAHTU, PRADIUMNA DAHAL AND MARIA ELENA D JEFFERDS
Integrated infant and young child feeding (IYCF)/micronutrient powder (MNP) programs are increasingly used to address poor IYCF practices and micronutrient deficiencies in low-income settings; however, little is known about how MNP use may affect IYCF practices. We describe how MNP use was associated with IYCF practices in a pilot program in select districts of Nepal where free MNP for children 6-23 months were added to an existing IYCF platform. Representative cross-sectional surveys were conducted in pilot districts with mothers of eligible children at 3 months (plains ecozone, n=1054) or 15 months (hill ecozone, rural only, n=654) after implementation of an integrated MNP/IYCF program. We used logistic regression to assess how IYCF practices varied by MNP use (none, 1-30, 30-60 sachets). At both time points, consuming 30-60 MNP sachets vs. none was associated with achieving minimum dietary diversity and minimum acceptable diet. In the 3 month survey consuming 30-60 MNP sachets vs none was also associated with achieving minimum meal frequency and continued breastfeeding at 2 years. In this setting, addition of MNP to an existing platform of IYCF messaging did not appear detrimental to IYCF practices.
Key Words: micronutrient powders, Nepal, infant and young child feeding, breastfeeding, child nutrition
 

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综合方案中微量营养素粉的使用和婴幼儿喂养方法
婴幼儿综合喂养(IYCF)/微量营养素粉(MNP)被越来越多地在贫穷地区婴幼儿综合喂养和低收入人群微量营养素缺乏人群中推崇。然而,很少有人知道MNP 的使用如何影响IYCF 的实施。我们选择尼泊尔地区6-23 月龄幼儿为对象,将免费使用MNP 添加到现有的IYCF 平台中,描述试点地区MNP 的使用与IYCF 实施的关系。在试点地区开展有代表性的横断面调查,选择符合条件的3 个月龄孩子的母亲(平原生态区,n=1054)或实施综合MNP/IYCF 方案15 个月龄孩子的母亲(仅限农村山区生态区,n=654)。用logistic 回归模型评估IYCF 方案如何随着MNP 的使用而变化(未使用、1-30 袋、30-60 袋)。消耗30-60 袋MNP 与未使用MNP 在这两个时间点比较,实现最低饮食多样性和最低可接受饮食有关。在3 个月的调查中,消耗30-60 袋MNP 与未使用MNP与实现最低饮食频次和2 年的持续母乳喂养有关。在这一背景下,添加MNP对现有IYCF 平台的运行并未出现不利的影响。
关键词:微量营养奶粉、尼泊尔、婴幼儿喂养、母乳喂养、儿童营养
 

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The effect of socio-demographic variables and dairy use on the intake of essential macro- and micronutrients in 0.5-12-year-old Indonesian children
YEKTI WIDODO, SANDJAJA SANDJAJA, EDITH SUMEDI, ILSE KHOUW AND PAUL DEURENBERG
Background and Objectives: To study the associations between nutrient intake, dairy intake and socioeconomic variables. Methods and Study Design: Food consumption data using 24 h recall were collected in 3600 children, aged 0.5 to 12 years old in addition to frequency of dairy use and anthropometric and sociodemographic variables. Results: Overall height for age Z-score (HAZ) and body mass index for age Z-score (BAZ) values (mean±SE) were -1.40±0.03 and -0.48±0.03 respectively, associated with a high prevalence of stunting and thinness in the population. The overall percentage of children not using any dairy products was 71%, and this percentage increased steadily with age. The overall energy intake from dairy was 99±3 kcal/capita/day and the overall energy intake from dairy in dairy users was 291±7 kcal/day. Dairy use did not differ between boys and girls, but was higher in urban areas, higher if the education of the mother was higher and higher if the mother had a permanent job and if the wealth status of the family was in the upper levels. Nutrient intake after the age of 3 years was inadequate for energy and all nutrients except for protein. The achievement of Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for all nutrients was higher in dairy users compared to non-dairy users, also after correcting for the confounding effect of the higher energy intake (from dairy) and socio-demographic variables. The contribution increased with increasing frequency of dairy use. Conclusion: Adequate dairy intake can substantially add to the achievement of RDA in Indonesian children.
Key Words: Indonesia, children, nutrient intake, nutritional status, dairy use
 

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社会人口学因素和乳制品摄入对0.5-12 岁印度尼西亚儿童必须宏量和微量营养素摄入的影响
背景与目的:研究营养素摄入、奶制品摄入和社会经济因素之间的关系。方法与研究设计:采用24 小时膳食回顾法收集3600 名年龄为0.5-12 岁儿童的膳食摄入量,并收集其乳制品的使用频率、人体测量指标和社会人口学指标。结果:总的年龄别身高Z 分数和年龄别体质指数Z 分数(均数±标准误)分别为-1.40±0.03 和-0.48±0.03,其与人群中发育迟缓和消瘦的高发生率相关。不使用任何乳制品的儿童占总人数的71%,并且这一比例随着年龄的增长而稳步增长。乳制品来源的总能量摄入平均为99±3 千卡/人/天,乳制品使用者来自总乳制品的能量为291±7 千卡/人/天。乳制品的使用没有性别差异,但城市地区高 于农村地区。另外,如果母亲受教育程度越高、母亲有一份稳定的工作、或者家庭的收入状况处于偏上水平的儿童,其奶制品的使用频率也较高。3 岁之后,除了蛋白质,能量和所有营养素的摄入是不足的。校正乳制品来源的更高能量摄入和社会人口因素之后,与非乳制品使用者相比,乳制品使用者所有营 养素达到推荐膳食摄入量的比例更高,随着乳制品使用频率的增加贡献也增加。结论:摄入充足的乳制品将大大促进印度尼西亚儿童达到推荐膳食摄入量。
关键词:印度尼西亚、儿童、营养摄入量、营养状况、奶制品
 

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Estimating dietary micronutrient supply and the prevalence of inadequate intakes from national Food Balance Sheets in the South Asia region
HENRY E MARK, LISA A HOUGHTON, ROSALIND S GIBSON, EVA MONTERROSA AND KLAUS KRAEMER
Micronutrient deficiencies continue to be a major public health concern worldwide with many South Asian countries suffering a significant proportion of the global burden. A lack of nationally representative data on micronutrient deficiencies hampers sustained action to address the problem. Using data on the national food supply produced by the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, and international food composition tables, the present study estimated the prevalence of inadequacy of seven micronutrients (vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, folate, vitamin B-12, zinc and calcium) in seven South Asian countries - Bangladesh, India, Iran, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The estimated average requirement cut-point method was employed to determine the likelihood of inadequate micronutrient intakes. We report multiple micronutrient inadequacies in the food supply in the region, especially in the low and lower-middle income countries. Of the seven micronutrients investigated, calcium had the highest risk levels of inadequacy. Folate, riboflavin, vitamin B-12 and zinc were also deemed to be at high risk of inadequacy, although results differed markedly between countries. Various strategies to combat micronutrient deficiencies are currently underway in these countries. In order to facilitate the implementation of these efforts, the collection of nationally representative nutritional assessment survey data are urgently required to ascertain the true burden of micronutrient malnutrition.
Key Words: South-Asia, food, micronutrients, inadequacy, intake
 

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估计南亚地区膳食微量营养素的供给和国家食品平衡表摄入量不足的流行率
微量营养素缺乏依然是全球范围内重要的公共卫生问题,在南亚国家微量营养素缺乏造成的全球负担占很大比例。在微量营养素缺乏的国家,由于代表性数据的匮缺,阻碍了解决该问题的持续行动。目前的研究使用根据联合国粮农组织和国际食物成分表得出的国家食品供应的数据,在7 个南亚国家—孟加拉国,印度,伊朗、马尔代夫、尼泊尔、巴基斯坦和斯里兰卡,估计7 种微量营养素不足的流行率(维生素A、硫胺素、核黄素、叶酸、维生素B-12、锌、钙)。估计平均需求切入点法测定微量营养素摄入不足的可能性。我们报告了食物供给中多种微量营养素的不足,特别是在低收入和中等收入国家。虽然不同国家的结果有显著差异,但在调查的7 种微量营养素中,钙不足风险水平最高,叶酸、核黄素、维生素B-12 和锌也被视为高风险不足。这些国家正在采取不同的策略抵制微量营养素的缺乏。为了便于这些工作的实施,迫切需要收全国代表性的营养评估调查数据,确定微量营养素缺乏的真正负担。
关键词:南亚、食物、微量营养素、缺乏、吸收
 

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Mediterranean diet adherence and risk of multiple sclerosis: a case-control study
FATEMEH SEDAGHAT, MAHSA JESSRI, MARYAM BEHROOZ, MOSTAFA MIRGHOTBI AND BAHRAM RASHIDKHANI
Background and Objectives: We conducted a hospital-based, case–control study to examine the association between Mediterranean diet (MD) and the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Iran. Methods and Study Design: A total of 70 patients with MS and 142 controls underwent face-to-face interviews in the major neurological clinics of Tehran, Iran. Adherence to a MD was assessed using the 9-unit dietary score, to evaluate the level of conformity of the individual’s diet to the Mediterranean dietary pattern. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Higher consumption of fruits (OR=0.28, 95% CI: 0.12-0.63, p-value: 0.002) and vegetables (OR=0.23, 95% CI: 0.10-0.53, p-value: 0.001) were significantly associated with reduced MS risk. In both age adjusted and multivariate adjusted model, the OR of MS decreased significantly in the third as compared to the first tertile of MD score (age adjusted OR: 0.21, 95% CI: 0.06-0.67; p-trend: 0.01, Multivariate adjusted OR: 0.23, 95% CI: 0.06-0.89, p-trend: 0.04). Conclusions: Our study suggests that a high quality diet assessed by MD may decrease the risk of MS.
Key Words: multiple sclerosis, Mediterranean diet, case control study
 

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地中海式饮食依从性和多发性硬化症的风险:一项病例-对照研究
背景与目的:我们开展了以医院为基础的病例-对照研究,检查伊朗地区地中海式饮食(MD)和多发性硬化症(MS)之间的关系。方法与研究设计:对来自伊朗德黑兰主要神经科诊所的70 例多发性硬化症患者和142 例对照进行了面对面访谈,采用9 级评分评估MD 依从性,分析个人饮食水平与地中海式饮食模式间的遵从性程度。使用多变量logistic 回归模型计算OR 及95%置信区间(CI)。结果:较高的水果和(OR 0.28,95% CI:0.12-0.63, p:0.002)和 蔬菜消费量(OR 0.23,95% CI:0.10-0.53, p:0.001)与低MS 风险显著相关。在校正年龄和校正多变量两个模型中,与MD 得分第一分位数组相比,第三分位数MS 的OR 显著降低(年龄调整的OR:0.21,95% CI:0.06-0.67,趋势p:0.01;多变量调整的OR:0.23,95% CI:0.06-0.89,趋势p:0.04)。结论:该研究表明高质量MD 饮食能降低MS 的风险。
关键词:多发性硬化症、地中海式饮食、病例对照研究

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Personal behaviors including food consumption and mineral supplement use among Japanese adults: a secondary analysis from the National Health and Nutrition Survey, 2003-2010
YOKO SATO, MEGUMI TSUBOTA-UTSUGI, TSUYOSHI CHIBA, NOBUYO TSUBOYAMA-KASAOKA, HIDEMI TAKIMOTO, NOBUO NISHI AND KEIZO UMEGAKI
Background and Objectives: A daily mineral supplement is useful for those who are at risk of a deficiency. Some Western reports suggest that mineral supplement users have healthy behaviors and are not mineral-deficient. It is unknown whether the same phenomenon is observed in Japan where there is a different dietary culture. The aim of this study was to examine the characteristics of personal behaviors including food consumption nationwide among mineral supplement users from the National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan 2003-2010. Methods and Study Design: Data were obtained from 16,275 adults aged 20-59 years who completed sociodemographic, health status, and 1-day household dietary assessments. Supplement users were compared with non-users. Logistic regression models were utilized to identify the characteristics of food consumption and calcium and iron supplement use, using the medium intake group as a reference. Results: Overall, 2.1% and 1.4% of adults reported using calcium supplements and iron supplements, respectively. Calcium supplement users were more likely to be physically active, non-smokers, and eat less fat compared with non-users. Furthermore, they were more likely than non-users to consume a higher intake of calcium from foods such as tea, vegetables, seaweeds, and fruits. Iron supplement users were more likely than non-users to be non-smokers. These individuals tended to have a high intake of seaweeds and fruits. Conclusions: Japanese adults who had healthier behaviors were more likely to use mineral supplements, especially calcium. Mineral supplement users tended to choose healthy foods such as seaweeds and fruits, without considering their overall mineral consumption.
Key Words: Japanese adults, mineral supplements, personal behavior, food, National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan
 

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日本成人食物消费和矿物质补充剂使用的个人行为:2003-2010 年全国健康和营养调查的二次分析
背景与目的:每天补充矿物质对有缺乏风险的人是有用的。一些西方的报告表明:矿物质补充剂使用者拥有健康的行为,并且没有矿物质缺乏。但在有不同饮食文化的日本,是否也存在同样的现象还不知道。本研究的目的是探讨2003-2010 年全国健康与营养调查中矿物质补充者食物消费的个人行为特点。方法与研究设计:从16275 名年龄为20-59 岁完成社会人口学、健康状况和一天家庭膳食评估的成人中获得资料。补充剂使用者与未使用者进行比较。采用logistic 回归模型确定食物消费、钙和铁补充剂使用的特点,以中等摄入量组作为参考。结果:总体而言,分别有2.1%和1.4%的成人使用钙和铁补充剂。钙补充剂的使用者比不用者更倾向于锻炼身体、不抽烟和少吃脂肪。此外,他们比不补充者更可能从茶叶、蔬菜、海藻和水果等食物中摄入更多的钙。铁补充者比不补充者更可能不吸烟,这些人往往摄入大量的海藻和水果。结论:日本有健康行为的成人更可能使用矿物质补充剂,尤其是钙。不论矿物质补充剂使用者总矿物质的消费量是多少,他们更倾向于选择海藻和水果等健康的食物。
关键词:日本成人、矿物质补充剂、个人行为、食物、日本国家健康与营养调查

 

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Fast foods - are they a risk factor for functional gastrointestinal disorders?
JIAN-PING SHAU, PO-HON CHEN, CHAN-FAI CHAN, YUNG-CHENG HSU, TZEE-CHUNG WU, FRANK E JAMES AND WEN-HAN PAN
Background and Objectives: Fast-food consumption has greatly increased in Taiwan. Frequent fast food intake is associated with both allergy and obesity. The aim of this study was to describe fast food habit changes, and to assess the relationship between fast food intake and the risk of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) among Taiwanese adolescents. Methods and Study Design: This analysis used data from the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) of high school students conducted in 2011. A total of 2,042 adolescents (12-19 years) completed the questionnaire. The survey included the Rome III criteria for FGIDs, translated into Chinese for adolescents. Respondents with previously diagnosed chronic organic gastrointestinal diseases were excluded from the study. Results: In total, 2,034 children were enrolled. 545 subjects (26.8%) had history of at least one FGID. 88.1% of the subjects reported fast foods consumption. A significantly higher prevalence of FGIDs was noted in adolescents with a history of fast foods consumption, compared with those reported not to have ingested fast foods in the past 30 days (27.6% vs 20.6%, p=0.024). An increased risk of FGIDs in children and adolescents was associated with fast food intake (OR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.78-1.83). Conclusions: FGIDs were common among Taiwanese adolescents. Fast-food consumption may contribute to a positive association with the development of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Lower fiber intake and more frozen desserts in the diet may be complicit in FGIDs. The findings have public health relevance in regard to the global increase in fast food consumption.
Key Words: fast foods, frozen desserts, vegetables, functional gastrointestinal disorders, Rome III criteria
 

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速食是否為功能性胃腸病的風險因子?
背景和目的:速食的消費在台灣已有大幅的增加,而頻繁攝取速食與過敏及肥胖有關。本研究的目的在於描述食速食習慣的變遷,並評估在台灣青少年族群中速食攝取與功能性胃腸病風險間的關係。方法與研究設計:本分析資料源自於2011 年台灣學生營養健康狀況變遷調查,共有2,042 位青少年(12-19 歲)完成本問卷,之中含有功能性胃腸病羅馬III 標準的中文版調查。並將已被確診患有器官性腸胃道疾病之受訪者排除。結果:共有2,034 位孩童參與,其中545 位(26.8%)有至少一種功能性胃腸病的病史,88.1%有食速食史。而相較於在一個月內都無食速食孩童,食速食孩童有明顯更高的功能性胃腸病盛行率(27.6% vs 20.6%,p=0.024)。兒童及青少年罹患功能性胃腸病風險的增加(OR 1.8,95% CI:1.78-1.83)也與吃速食有所關聯。結論:功能性胃腸病在台灣青少年族群中是很普遍的,而常食速食與功能性胃腸病的產生有关。另外,低量纤维素的攝入与冰冷食物也可能與造成功能性胃腸病有關。我們的發現是與全球日益增加的速食消費相關的公共衛生議題。
关键詞:速食、冰冷食物、蔬菜、功能性胃腸病、羅馬III 標準

 

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Association between salt and hypertension in rural and urban populations of low to middle income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis of population based studies
ASVINI K SUBASINGHE, SIMIN ARABSHAHI, DOREEN BUSINGYE, ROGER G EVANS, KAREN Z WALKER, MICHAELA A RIDDELL AND AMANDA G THRIFT
Background and Objectives: The prevalence of hypertension, the greatest contributor to mortality globally, is increasing in low-and-middle income countries (LMICs). In urban regions of LMICs, excessive salt intake is associated with increased risk of hypertension. We aimed to determine whether this is the case in rural regions as well. Methods and Study Design: We performed a meta-analysis of studies in rural and urban areas of LMICs in which the association of salt and hypertension were assessed using multivariable models. Results: We identified 18 studies with a total of 134,916 participants. The prevalence of high salt intake ranged from 21.3% to 89.5% in rural and urban populations. When salt was analysed as a continuous variable, a greater impact of salt on hypertension was found in urban (n=4) (pooled effect size (ES) 1.42, 95% CI 1.19, 1.69) than in rural populations (n=4) (pooled ES 1.07, 95% CI 1.04, 1.10, p for difference <0.001). In studies where salt was analysed continuously, a greater impact of salt on hypertension was observed in lean rural populations (BMI <23 kg/m2) than in non-lean rural populations (BMI ≥23 kg/m2, p for difference <0.001). Conclusions: The prevalence of high salt intake is similar in rural and urban regions. Excessive salt intake has a greater impact on the prevalence of hypertension in urban than rural regions. BMI appears to modify the relationship between salt and hypertension in rural populations.
Key Words: hypertension, salt, rural, urban, meta-analysis
 

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低中收入国家城乡居民盐摄入量与高血压的关系:以人群为基础的系统性研究和meta 分析
背景与目的:在全球高血压患病率对死亡率贡献最大,在低中等收入国家高血压的患病率呈增加的趋势。在低中收入国家的城市,过量的盐摄入与高血压患病风险的增加有关,我们旨在研究农村地区是否亦如此。方法与研究设计:使用多变量模型,我们进行了低中收入国家盐与高血压关系的meta 分析。结果:共分析了来自18个研究的134,916 名参与者。农村和城市居民高盐摄入的比例在21.3%到89.5%之间。当盐摄入量作为连续型变量分析时,发现城市地区(n=4)[合并效应尺度(ES)为1.42,95% CI 为1.19-1.69]比农村地区(n=4)[合并效应尺度(ES)为1.07,95% CI 为1.04-1.10,p<0.001]。当盐摄入量作为连续型变量分析时,体型偏瘦的农村人群(BMI <23 kg/m2)比体型不偏瘦的农村人群(BMI ≥23 kg/m2,p<0.001)盐摄入对高血压患病的影响更大。结论:农村和城市地区高盐摄入的比例相近。与农村居民相比,城市居民过多的盐摄入对高血压患病率的影响更大。在农村居民中,BMI 能调节盐摄入和高血压的关系。
关键词:高血压、盐、城市、农村、meta 分析

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Dietary diversity no longer offsets the mortality risk of hyperhomocysteinaemia in older adults with diabetes: a prospective cohort study
MARK L WAHLQVIST, LILI XIU, MEEI-SHYUAN LEE, ROSALIND CHIA-YU CHEN, KUAN-JU CHEN AND DUO LI
Background and Objective: The increased mortality risk of hyperhomocysteinaemia in diabetes may be mitigated by dietary quality. Methods and Study Design: The Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan of 1999-2000 for elders formed this prospective cohort. Baseline health status, diet and anthropometry were documented and plasma homocysteine and biomarkers for B vitamins measured. Participants without diabetes (n=985) were referent for those who had diabetes or developed diabetes until 2006 (n=427). The effect of homocysteine on mortality risk during 1999-2008 was evaluated. Results: Men, smokers and those with poorer physical function had higher homocysteine, but less so with diabetes. Diabetes incidence was unrelated to homocysteine. In hyperhomocysteinaemia (≥15 vs <15 mol/L), those with diabetes had an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (95% CI) for mortality of 1.71 (1.18-2.46); p for interaction between homocysteine and diabetes was 0.005. Without diabetes, but with hyperhomocysteinaemia and a low dietary diversity score (DDS ≤4 of 6), where the joint mortality hazard for the greater DDS, (>4) and lower homocysteine (<15) was referent, the HR was 1.80 (1.27-2.54) with significant interaction (p=0.008); by contrast, there was no joint effect with diabetes. The contribution of DDS to mortality mitigation in hyperhomocysteinaemia could not be explained by B group vitamins, even though plasma folate was low in hyperhomocysteinaemic participants. With hyperhomocysteinaemia, heart failure was a major cause of death. Conclusions: In non-diabetic hyperhomocysteinaemia, a more diverse diet increases survival prospects independent of B group vitamins, but not in hyperhomocysteinaemic diabetes where the cardiomyopathy may be less responsive.
Key Words: homocysteine, type 2 diabetes, elderly, mortality, dietary diversity
 

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飲食多樣性無法抵銷高同半胱氨酸血症老年糖尿病患者的死亡風險:一個前瞻性世代研究
背景與目的:飲食品質可能減輕糖尿病患因高同半胱氨酸血症增加的死亡風險。方法與研究設計:1999 - 2000 年臺灣老人營養健康狀況調查形成這個前瞻世代。基線健康狀況、飲食和體位測量被記錄,血漿同半胱氨酸和B 群維生素生物標記被測量。非糖尿病的參與者(n=985)當作那些已經有糖尿病或至2006 年期間發生糖尿病者(n=427)之參考組,評估參與者於1999-2008 年間同半胱氨酸對死亡風險的影響。結果:男性、吸菸者和那些身體生理功能較差者,有較高的同半胱氨酸,但糖尿病患者並非如此。糖尿病發生率與同半胱氨酸無關。在高同半胱氨酸寫症患者中(≥15 vs <15 mol/ L),患有糖尿病者,其調整後之死亡危害比(HR)及95%信賴區間為1.71(1.18-2.46);同半胱氨酸與糖尿病之間的交互作用p 值0.005。非糖尿病患者,以有較高的飲食多樣性得分(DDS >4)及較低的同半胱氨酸血症者為參考組,高同半胱氨酸血症者加上較低的DDS(≤4)的聯合死亡風險更大HR 為1.80 (1.27-2.54)及顯著的交互作用(p=0.008);相較之下,對糖尿病並無聯合作用。儘管有高同半胱氨酸血症的參與者其血漿葉酸濃度較低,DDS 減輕同半胱氨酸血症對死亡的貢獻並無法被維生素B 群所解釋。心臟衰竭是高同半胱氨酸血症參與者的主要死因。結論:在非糖尿病的高同半胱氨酸血症患者,無論維生素B 群的狀況,較多樣化的飲食可以增加存活率。但是,對高同半胱氨酸血症的糖尿病患者,其心肌病變對飲食的反應可能較差。
關鍵字:同半胱氨酸、2 型糖尿病患者、老年人、死亡率、飲食多樣性

 

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Food cravings, food addiction, and a dopamine-resistant (DRD2 A1) receptor polymorphism in Asian American college students
JOANNA YEH, AMY TRANG, SUSANNE M HENNING, HOLLY WILHALME, CATHERINE CARPENTER, DAVID HEBER AND ZHAOPING LI
Background and Objectives: In an era where obesity remains an important public health concern, food addiction has emerged as a possible contributor to obesity. The DRD2 gene is the most studied polymorphism. The aim of this study was to investigate a relationship between food addiction questionnaires, body composition measurements, and a dopamine- resistant receptor polymorphism (DRD2 A1) among Asian Americans. Methods and Study Design: A total of 84 Asian American college students were recruited. Participants underwent body composition measurement via bioelectrical impedance, answered questionnaires (Food Craving Inventory and Power of Food Scale), and had blood drawn for genotyping (PCR). Results: There was no difference in body composition (BMI, percent body fat) between the A1 (A1A1 or A1A2) and A2 (A2A2) groups. There were statistically significant differences in food cravings of carbohydrates and fast food on the Food Craving Inventory between the A1 and A2 groups (p=0.03), but not for sugar or fat. Among Asian college females, there was also a difference on the Power of Food questionnaire (p=0.04), which was not seen among men. 13 out of 55 women also had >30% body fat at a BMI of 21.4 to 28.5 kg/m2. Conclusion: Greater carbohydrate and fast food craving was associated with the DRD2 A1 versus A2 allele among Asian Americans. Further studies examining the ability of dopamine agonists to affect food craving and to reduce body fat in Asian American are warranted. More studies in food addiction among obese Asian Americans are needed with careful definition of obesity, specifically for Asian women.
Key Words: dopamine, obesity, food addiction, food cravings, Asian American
 

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亚裔美国大学生食物渴求、食物成瘾和抗多巴胺(DRD2 A1)受体基因多态性
背景与目的:在肥胖仍然是一个重要的公共健康问题的时代,食物成瘾已经成为导致肥胖的一个可能因素。DRD2 基因多态性目前研究广泛。该研究的目的是探讨亚裔美国人食品成瘾、身体成分和抗多巴胺受体基因多态性(DRD2 A1)的关系。方法与研究设计:共招募84 名亚裔美国大学生,通过生物电阻抗方法对受试者进行身体成分测量,同时进行问卷(食物渴求库存和食物规模有效性)调查,并抽血进行基因分型(PCR)。结果:A1(A1A1 或A1A2)和A2(A2A2)两组人群身体成分(BMI、体脂百分比)差异无统计学意义。根据食物渴求库存,A1 和A2 组间在碳水化合物和快餐食品的渴求方面差异有统计学意义(p=0.03),但不包括糖或脂肪。在亚裔美国女大学生中,还发现食物问卷效能不同(p=0.04),但男性中并未发现差异。55 名女性中有13 名BMI 在21.4 至28.5 kg/m2 之间,身体脂肪成分>30%。结论:亚裔美国人对更多碳水化合物和快餐食品的渴求与DRD2 A1 和A2 等位基因有关。有必要进一步研究亚裔美国人多巴胺受体激动剂在影响食物渴求和减少身体脂肪方面的功能,需要更多的研究肥胖亚洲裔美国人对食物的渴求,谨慎定义肥胖的概念,特别是亚洲女性。
关键词:多巴胺、肥胖、食物成瘾、食物渴求、亚裔美国人

 

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Is jejunostomy output nutrient or waste in short bowel syndrome? Experience from six cases
MING-YI LIU, HSIU-CHIH TANG, HUI-LAN YANG AND SUE-JOAN CHANG
Background and Objectives: Certain patients who undergo proximal jejunum resection are unable to undergo primary anastomosis and require exteriorization of the proximal jejunum. These patients usually have major problems with short bowel due to the high output of the stoma. The output of a proximal jejunostomy contains abundant amounts of enzymes and electrolytes. Therefore, it is a feasible approach to re-infuse jejunostomy output to regain homeostasis. To evaluate the effects of proximal jejunostomy output reinfusion into the distal small bowel for patients with short bowel syndrome, and to determine whether reinfusion could avoid long-term parenteral nutrition (PN). Methods and Study Design: PN was initiated immediately after surgery. When patients started enteral nutrition, we started the proximal jejunostomy output reinfusion protocol. Proximal jejunostomy output reinfusion was performed by the patients, and continued by them after discharge. When proximal jejunostomy output reinfusion could be performed stably, PN was stopped. Results: The median length of the proximal jejunum was 20 cm and of the distal small bowel was 77.5 cm in patients who could stably receive proximal jejunostomy output reinfusion alone. Three patients did not require home PN; they only required PN during hospitalization. Four patients successfully underwent stoma takedown with intestinal anastomosis after 6-7 months without any nutritional or metabolic complications. Conclusion: Short bowel syndrome patients with an adequate length of small bowel and functional colon could avoid long-term PN by receiving reinfusion of proximal jejunostomy output into the distal small bowel.
Key Words: proximal jejunostomy output, reinfusion, short bowel syndrome, stoma takedown, parenteral nutrition
 

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短腸症病人的空腸造口排出物是營養素還是廢棄物?六個病人的經驗
背景與目的:術前營養不良的病人術後積極持續靜脈營養是必需的。但是對於接受近端空腸切除而無法馬上吻合的病人需要將近端的空腸外化(exteriorization)形成造口。這些病人通常有因造口液體的高排出量而造成有短腸症的問題。近端空腸造口的排出物(proximal jejunostomy output;PJO)包含豐富的酶和電解質。因此,PJO 重新回灌入遠端小腸來維持體內生理的平衡是一條可行途徑,並且評估是否能避免長期依賴靜脈營養(parenteral nutrition;PN)的問題。方法與研究設計:PN 在手術後立即開始。當患者開始腸內營養,我們開始了PJO 回灌遠端小腸。回灌的技巧需訓練由病人及其照顧者進行,出院後繼續進行。如果可以穩定地進行PJO 回灌,PN 就停止。結果:病人近端空腸的平均長度為20 公分,遠端小腸為77.5 公分,6 名病人當中3 名出院後不需要居家靜脈營養(Home PN);他們只在住院期間需要PN。四名病人6-7 個月後成功地進行小腸吻合術,沒有任何營養或代謝並發症。結論:針對有足夠長度的小腸和功能正常的結腸的短腸症病人,進行近端PJO 回灌進入遠端小腸可避免長期的PN。
關鍵字:近端空腸造口輸出、回輸、短腸綜合征、腸造口移除、腸外營養

 

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Last Updated: May 2016