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1 Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
       Volume 25, 1

         (March 2016)


Abstracts

Contents

Abstract PDF

Reviews

Health benefits of legumes and pulses with a focus on Australian sweet lupins
ANTIGONE KOURIS-BLAZOS AND REGINA BELSKI
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(1):1-17.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.1.23

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Original Research Communications

Nutritional Measurement & Methodology

Rapid estimation of the energy content of composite foods: the application of the Calorie Answer™
EVELYN LAU, HUI JEN GOH, RINA QUEK, SIANG WEE LIM AND JEYAKUMAR HENRY
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(1):18-25.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.1.14

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Dialysis Malnutrition and Malnutrition Inflammation Scores: screening tools for prediction of dialysis – related protein-energy wasting in Malaysia
GILCHARAN SINGH HARVINDER, WINNIE CHEE SIEW SWEE, TILAKAVATI KARUPAIAH, SHARMELA SAHATHEVAN, KARUTHAN CHINNA,GHAZALI AHMAD, SUNITA BAVANANDAN AND BAK LEONG GOH
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(1):26-33.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.1.01

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Conventional MRI for diagnosis of subacute combined degeneration (SCD) of the spinal cord due to
vitamin B-12 deficiency
CUI-PING XIAO, CUI-PING REN, JING-LIANG CHENG, YONG ZHANG, YING LI, BEI-BEI LI AND YI-ZHE FAN

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(1):34-38.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.1.04

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Daily salt intake estimated by overnight urine collections indicates a high cardiovascular disease risk
in Thailand

HIROHIDE YOKOKAWA, MOTOYUKI YUASA, SUPALERT NEDSUWAN, SAIYUD MOOLPHATE, HIROSHI FUKUDA,
TSUTOMU KITAJIMA, KAZUO MINEMATSU, SUSUMU TANIMURA AND EIJI MARUI

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(1):39-45.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.1.22

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Clinical Nutrition or Feeding Studies

Early enteral nutrition in neonates with partial gastrectomy: a multi-center study
WEIWEI JIANG, JIE ZHANG, QIMING GENG, XIAOQUN XU, XIAOFENG LV, YONGWEI CHEN, XIANG LIU AND WEIBING TANG
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(1):46-52.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.1.16

 

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Amino acid dosing in parenteral nutrition for very low birth weight preterm neonates: an outcome assessment
NOR AINI KAMARUDIN, MOHAMED MANSOR MANAN, HANIS HANUM ZULKIFLY, CHIN FEN NEOH, SALMIAH MOHD ALI AND LONG CHIAU MING
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(1):53-61.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.2.02

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Folic acid fortified milk increases blood folate to concentrations associated with a very low risk of neural tube defects in Singaporean women of childbearing age
MAGDALIN CHEONG, HUANG YING XIAO, VICKY TAY, CRYSTAL D KARAKOCHUK, YAZHENG AMY LIU, SARAH HARVEY, YVONNE LAMERS, LISA A HOUGHTON, DAVID D KITTS AND TIM J GREEN
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(1):62-70.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.1.08

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Correction of hypovitaminosis D does not improve the metabolic syndrome risk profile in a Chinese population: a randomized controlled trial for 1 year
XIAO YIN, LING YAN, YONG LU, QIANG JIANG, YING PU AND QIANG SUN
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(1):71-77.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.1.06

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A randomised trial of the feasibility of a low carbohydrate diet vs standard carbohydrate counting in adults with type 1 diabetes taking body weight into account
JEREMY D KREBS, AMBER PARRY STRONG, PIP CRESSWELL, ANDREW N REYNOLDS, AOIFE HANNA AND SYLVAN HAEUSLER
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(1):78-84.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.1.11

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Effect of food service form on eating rate: meal served in a separated form might lower eating rate
HYUNG JOO SUH AND EUN YOUNG JUNG
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(1):85-88.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.1.12

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Nutritional Status, Dietary Intake, and Body Composition

Plasma isoflavones in Malaysian men according to vegetarianism and by age
RAFIDAH HOD, WIDED KOUIDHI, MUSTAFA ALI MOHD AND RUBY HUSAIN

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(1):89-96.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.1.02

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Differential dietary habits among 570 young underweight Japanese women with and without a desire for thinness: a comparison with normal weight counterparts
NAGISA MORI, KEIKO ASAKURA AND SATOSHI SASAKI

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(1):97-107.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.2.04

 

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Measurements and profiles of body weight misperceptions among Taiwanese teenagers: a national survey
YA-WEN HSU, TSAN-HON LIOU, YIING MEI LIOU, HSIN-JEN CHEN AND LI-YIN CHIEN
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(1):108-117
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doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.2.08

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Maternal and Clild Nutrition

Survey of contemporary feeding practices in critically ill children in the Asia-Pacific and the Middle East
JUDITH JM WONG, CHENGSI ONG, WEE MENG HAN, NILESH M MEHTA AND JAN HAU LEE
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(1):118-125.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.1.07

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Insulin resistance, body composition, and fat distribution in obese children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
HYE RAN YANG AND EUN JAE CHANG

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(1):126-133.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.1.15

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Influence of proximities to food establishments on body mass index among children in China
JI ZHANG, HONG XUE, XI CHENG, ZHIHONG WANG, FENGYING ZHAI, YOUFA WANG AND HUIJUN WANG
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(1):134-141.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.1.17

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Salt intake and iodine status of women in Samoa
MARY-ANNE LAND, JACQUI L WEBSTER, GARY MA, MU LI, SARAH ASI FALETOESE SU'A, MERINA IEREMIA, SATU VIALI, GAVIN FAEAMANI, A COLIN BELL, CHRISTINE QUESTED, BRUCE C NEAL AND CRESWELL J EASTMAN
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(1):142-149.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.1.09

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Distribution of iron status among urban Chinese women
LIJUAN WANG, JIAN HUANG, HONG LI, JING SUN, JIANHUA PIAO, XIAOGUANG YANG, GUANSHENG MA AND JUNSHENG HUO

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(1):150-157.

doi:10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.1.03

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Self-reported health problems related to traditional dietary practices in postpartum women from urban, suburban and rural areas of Hubei province, China: the ‘zuò yuèzi’
LIMEI MAO, LIPING MA, NIAN LIU, BANGHUA CHEN, QINGGUI LU, CHENJIANG YING AND XIUFA SUN
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(1):158-164.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.2.03

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Nutritional Epidemiology and Public Health

Factors associated with irregular breakfast consumption among high school students in a Japanese community
SHINO OBA, KAZUHIRO OOGUSHI, HIROMITSU OGATA AND HIROMITSU NAKAI

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(1):165-173.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.1.05

 

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Excessive screen viewing time by adolescents and body fatness in a developing country: Vietnam
PHUONG VAN NGOC NGUYEN, TANG KIM HONG, DUNG THE NGUYEN AND ANNIE R ROBERT
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(1):174-183.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.1.21

 

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Alcoholic beverage preferences and associated drinking patterns by socioeconomic status among high-school drinkers in three metropolises of China
SHIJUN LU, SONGMING DU, QIAN ZHANG, XIAOQI HU, SIYU CHEN, ZHENGYUAN WANG, LIXIN LU AND GUANSHENG MA
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(1):184-194.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.1.20

 

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Validity of a food frequency questionnaire in a population with high alcohol consumption in Japan
NORIKO TSUNEMATSU NAKAHATA, AKIHIKO NAKAMURA TAKADA, NAHOMI IMAEDA, CHIHO GOTO, KAZUYO HIRASADA KUWABARA, HIDESHI NIIMURA, YUSUKE ARAI, KATSUSHI YOSHITA AND TOSHIRO TAKEZAKI
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(1):195-201.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.1.10

 

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Novel dietary intake assessment in populations with poor literacy
ASVINI K SUBASINGHE, AMANDA G THRIFT, ROGER G EVANS, SIMIN ARABSHAHI, ODURU SURESH, KAMAKSHI KARTIK, KARTIK KALYANRAM AND KAREN Z WALKER
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(1):202-212.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.1.19

 

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Nutrigenomics

Melanocortin-4 receptor rs17782313 polymorphisms are associated with serum triglycerides in older Chinese women
JIANJUN YANG, QINGHAN GAO, XIANGHUI GAO, XIUJUAN TAO, HUIZHEN CAI, YANNA FAN, NA ZHANG,
YUHONG ZHANG, LIN LI AND HONGYU LI
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(1):213-219.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.1.18

 

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Future Events

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(1):220.

 

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Health benefits of legumes and pulses with a focus on Australian sweet lupins
ANTIGONE KOURIS-BLAZOS AND REGINA BELSKI

Background and Objectives: The 68th United Nations General Assembly declared 2016 the International Year of Pulses. Therefore it is timely to review the current evidence of the benefits of legumes for human health with a focus on Australian sweet lupins. Methods and Study Design: Medline, Pubmed, Cochrane library were searched to identify cross-sectional/epidemiological studies, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews. Results: The strongest evidence appears to be for links between eating legumes and reduced risk of colorectal cancer as well as eating soy foods and reduced LDL cholesterol. However, epidemiological studies and RCTs suggest that replacing several meat-based meals a week with legumes can have a positive impact on longevity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and weight management, potentially via favourable effects on the gut microbiome. Sweet lupins are unique among legumes with one of the highest combined amounts of digestible plant protein (38%) and dietary fibre (30%). Unlike other legumes, their low amount of anti-nutritional factors negates the need for soaking/cooking and they can therefore be eaten uncooked. Sweet lupins may lower blood pressure, improve blood lipids and insulin sensitivity and favourably alter the gut microbiome. There is growing interest in pulses, especially sweet lupins, as ingredients to improve the nutritional value of baked goods (particularly gluten free) and to create novel products to replace meat. Conclusion: Legumes form part of most traditional diets. They, including sweet lupins, can play a useful role in health maintenance.
Key Words: pulses, legumes, sweet lupins, health, cardiovascular
 

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豆科植物及豆類如澳洲甜羽扇豆的健康效益
背景和目的:第68屆聯合國大會宣布2016年為國際豆類年。這是一個好時機來查證豆科植物,特別是澳洲甜羽扇豆,對人體健康的現有證據。方法與研究設計:搜尋Medline、Pubmed、Cochrane圖書館資料庫以找出橫斷性/流行病學研究、隨機控制試驗(RCTs)以及系統性回顧文獻。結果:最強的證據是食用豆類與降低大腸直腸癌,以及食用黃豆食物與降低低密度脂蛋白膽固醇的關聯性。再者,流行病學研究及RCT建議每週以豆類取代幾餐以肉為主的餐食,透過腸道菌相潛在有益作用,對於延壽、糖尿病、心血管疾病及體 重控制有正面影響。甜羽扇豆在豆類中的獨特性是它們有合併最高量的可消化植物性蛋白(38%)及膳食纖維(30%)。不同於其它豆類,他們的抗營養因子低,所以不需要浸泡/烹調,即可生食。甜羽扇豆可降低血壓、改善血脂及胰島素敏感性,並對腸道菌相有利。越來越多對豆類的興趣,特別是甜羽扇豆,如作為改善烘焙食物(特別是無麩質)營養價值的成分,及取代肉類的創新產品。結論:豆類是最傳統飲食中的一部份。豆類,包括甜羽扇豆,可在健康維持上扮演有用的角色。
關鍵字:豆類、豆科植物、甜羽扇豆、健康、心血管

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Rapid estimation of the energy content of composite foods: the application of the Calorie Answer™
EVELYN LAU, HUI JEN GOH, RINA QUEK, SIANG WEE LIM AND JEYAKUMAR HENRY
The estimation of calories in foods is central in the maintenance of body weight and energy regulation. Conventional laboratory analysis using bomb calorimetry to determine calorie content is expensive and time-consuming. There is a need to explore alternative techniques for calorie estimation that requires less processing and resources. The potential of using near infrared spectroscopy for calorie measurements with Calorie Answer™ was evaluated in this study. The caloric content of 105 different foods was measured, and compared against values reported on nutrition labels. The average percentage relative standard deviation for triplicate measurements was 1.7% for all foods. The percentage difference between stated and measured calories was modest, at 4.0% for all foods. Stated and measured calorie contents were significantly and highly correlated (R2=0.98, p<0.001). The use of near infrared spectroscopy, using Calorie Answer™, is a rapid, reproducible and cost-effective way of measuring calorie content in a diverse range of foods. Its application in many parts of Asia Pacific and other emerging nations will generate much needed information on the calorie content of complex foods consumed by people living in these regions.
Key Words: calories, food composition, nutrition labels, near infrared spectroscopy, non destructive food analysis

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快速估计复合食品的能量含量:卡路里答案的应用™
食物中热量的估计是维持体重和能量调节的核心。传统的实验室分析使用炸弹量热法确定卡路里含量,费用昂贵且耗时。需要探索热量估计的替代技术,这种技术需要较少的处理和资源。该研究评价了近红外光谱技术的卡路里答案™在热量测量中的潜力。对105 种不同食物的热量含量进行了测定,并与营养标签的值进行了比较。所有食品按一式三份测量,得到的平均相对标准差为1.7%。所有食物标签所述热量和测量热量之间的百分比差异适中,为4%,且两者卡路里含量高度相关(R2=0.98,p<0.001)。使用近红外光谱分析技术的 卡路里回答™,是一种快速、重现性好、性价比高的测量不同食物热量含量的方法。将这种技术应用在亚太和其他新兴国家的许多地区,对居住在这些地区居民消费的复合食品热量含量的估计将会得出许多需要的信息。
关键词:热量、食物成分、营养标签、近红外光谱、非破坏性食品分析

 

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Dialysis Malnutrition and Malnutrition Inflammation Scores: screening tools for prediction of dialysis – related protein-energy wasting in Malaysia
GILCHARAN SINGH HARVINDER, WINNIE CHEE SIEW SWEE, TILAKAVATI KARUPAIAH, SHARMELA SAHATHEVAN, KARUTHAN CHINNA,GHAZALI AHMAD, SUNITA BAVANANDAN AND BAK LEONG GOHBackground and Objectives: Malnutrition is highly prevalent in Malaysian dialysis patients and there is a need for a valid screening tool for early identification and management. This cross-sectional study aims to examine the sensitivity of the Dialysis Malnutrition Score (DMS) and Malnutrition Inflammation Score (MIS) tools in predicting protein-energy wasting (PEW) among Malaysian dialysis patients. Methods and Study Design: A total of 155 haemodialysis (HD) and 90 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients were screened for risk of malnutrition using DMS and MIS and comparisons were made with established guidelines by International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism (ISRNM) for PEW. Results: MIS cut-off score of ≥5 indicated presence of malnutrition in all patients. A total of 59% of HD and 83% of PD patients had PEW by ISRNM criteria. Based on DMS, 73% of HD and 71% of PD patients exhibited moderate malnutrition, whilst using MIS, 88% and 90%, respectively were malnourished. DMS and MIS correlated significantly in HD (r2=0.552, p<0.001) and PD (r2=0.466, p<0.001) patients. DMS and MIS had higher sensitivity values in PD (81% and 82%, respectively) compared to HD (59% and 60%, respectively) patients. Conclusions: The MIS cut-off scores for malnutrition classification were established (score ≥5) for use amongst Malaysian dialysis patients. Both DMS and MIS are valid tools to be used for nutrition screening of dialysis patients especially those undergoing peritoneal dialysis. The DMS may be a more practical and simpler tool to be utilized in the Malaysian dialysis settings as it does not require laboratory markers.
Key Words: protein-energy malnutrition, nutritional assessment, dialysis, Dialysis Malnutrition Score, Malnutrition Inflammation Score

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透析营养不良和营养不良炎性评分:在马来西亚预测透析相关的蛋白质- 能量消耗的筛选工具
背景与目的:在马来西亚透析患者中,营养不良的发生率很高,需要一种能够早期识别和管理患者的有效的筛查工具。本横断面研究目的是在马来西亚透析患者中探讨透析营养不良评分工具(DMS)和营养不良炎症评分工具(MIS)预测蛋白质能量消耗(PEW)的敏感度。方法与研究设计:用DMS 和MIS 筛查155 名血液透析(HD)和90 名腹膜透析(PD)患者营养不良的风险,并与国际肾脏营养与代谢协会(ISRNM)已经制定的PEW 指南进行比较。结果:MIS 截点得分≥5 表示所有的患者存在营养不良。根据ISRNM 标准,59%的HD和83%的PD 患者有PEW。基于DMS,73%的HD 和71%的PD 患者存在中度 营养不良,而使用MIS,分别有88%和90%的患者为营养不良。在HD(R2=0.552,p<0.001)和PD(R2=0.466,p<0.001)患者中,DMS 和MIS 显著相关。与HD 患者相比(分别为59%和60%),PD 患者对DMS 和MIS 有较高的灵敏度值(分别为81%和82%)。结论:在马来西亚透析患者中,确定了MIS区分营养不良的截点值(得分≥5)。对于透析患者,尤其是接受腹膜透析的患者,DMS 和MIS 是有效的营养筛查工具。DMS 可能是用在马来西亚透析装置中更实用更简单的工具,因为它不需要实验室指标。
关键词:蛋白质-能量营养不良、营养评估、透析、透析营养不良评分、营养不良炎症评分
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Conventional MRI for diagnosis of subacute combined degeneration (SCD) of the spinal cord due to vitamin B-12 deficiency
CUI-PING XIAO, CUI-PING REN, JING-LIANG CHENG, YONG ZHANG, YING LI, BEI-BEI LI AND YI-ZHE FAN
Subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord (SCD) is often found in vitamin B-12 deficiency and typically shows hyperintensity on T2-weighted images of the lateral and posterior columns. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the use of conventional magnetic resonance examination in diagnosing SCD. Thirty-six patients were clinically confirmed and retrospectively analyzed; conventional spine MRIs were available for all patients andeight of them had contrast enhancement MRIs. 19 out of 36 patients showed abnormal signal intensity on T2 weighted images with a sensitivity of 52.8%, among which 18 in the posterior aspect of the spinal cord and 1 in the anterior horn of the thoracic spinal cord The spinal cord abnormalities were seen at the cervical spine in 12 patients (33.3%) and at the thoracic spine in the other 7 patients (19.4%). Axial T2-weighted images showed symmetric linear T2-hyperintensity as an “inverted V” at the cervical spinal cord in 5 patients, which has been reported as a typical sign of SCD. For patients with thoracic spinal cord abnormalities, the bilateral paired nodular T2-hyperintensity looked like “binoculars” at the thoracic spinal cord. Only one out of the eight patients showed slight enhancement after injection with contrast agent. All the 36 patients reported clinical improvement after appropriate vitamin B-12 treatment. The two follow-up spine MRIs showed a decreased extent of the lesion. Therefore, conventional MRI is useful in the diagnosis and management of SCD caused by vitamin B-12 deficiency.
Key Words: conventional magnetic resonance imaging, subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord, vitamin B-12, deficiency, nutrition
 

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脊髓亚急性联合变性的常规 MRI 诊断价值分析
脊髓亚急性联合变性(SCD)常发生于维生素B-12 缺乏的患者,T2 加权像上通常显示为脊髓后索及侧索的异常高信号。本文研究目的在于评估常规磁共振检查对诊断SCD 的价值。回顾性分析经临床确诊的SCD 患者36 例,所有患者均行脊柱MRI 扫描,其中8 例行增强MRI 扫描。36 例患者中19 例表现为T2 加权图像上异常信号,灵敏度为52.8%,其中18 例病变位于脊髓后份,1 例病变发生于胸髓前份。所有MRI 表现异常的患者中,12 例异常信号位于颈髓(33.3%),7 例病变位于胸髓(19.4%)。颈髓出现异常信号者5 例,在轴位T2 加权像上呈对称线性高信号,即“倒V”字征,是SCD 的典型影像学表现。胸段脊髓异常信号在T2 加权像上呈对称性“望远镜”样高信号。8 例增强MRI 检查的患者仅有1 例病变表现出轻度强化。所有36 例患者在适当补充维生素B-12治疗后临床症状得到改善。2 例MRI 随访见异常信号范围较前缩小。因此,传统的MRI 检查对诊断及评估维生素B-12 缺乏引起的亚急性脊髓联合变性具有价值。
关键词:常规磁共振、脊髓亚急性联合变性、维生素 B-12、缺乏、营养
 

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Daily salt intake estimated by overnight urine collections indicates a high cardiovascular disease risk in Thailand
HIROHIDE YOKOKAWA, MOTOYUKI YUASA, SUPALERT NEDSUWAN, SAIYUD MOOLPHATE, HIROSHI FUKUDA, TSUTOMU KITAJIMA, KAZUO MINEMATSU, SUSUMU TANIMURA AND EIJI MARUIThis cross-sectional study (February 2012 to March 2013) was conducted to estimate daily salt intake and basic characteristics among 793 community-dwelling participants at high risk of cardiovascular disease (Framingham risk score >15%), who had visited diabetes or hypertension clinics at health centres in the Muang district, Chiang Rai, Thailand. We performed descriptive analysis of baseline data and used an automated analyser to estimate the average of 24-hour salt intake estimated from 3 days overnight urine collection. Participants were divided into two groups based on median estimated daily salt intake. Mean age and proportion of males were 65.2 years and 37.6% in the higher salt intake group (≥10.0 g/day, n=362), and 67.5 years and 42.7% in the lower salt intake group (<10.0 g/day, n=431), respectively (p=0.01, p<0.01). The higher salt intake group comprised more patients with a family history of hypertension, antihypertensive drug use, less ideal body mass index (18.5-24.9), higher exercise frequency (≥2 times weekly) and lower awareness of high salt intake. Among higher salt intake participants, those with lower awareness of high salt intake were younger and more often had a family history of hypertension, relative to those with more awareness. Our data indicated that families often share lifestyles involving high salt intake, and discrepancies between actual salt intake and awareness of high salt intake may represent a need for salt reduction intervention aiming at family level. Awareness of actual salt intake should be improved for each family.
Key Words: awareness, hypertension, behaviours salt intake, family environment, Chiang Rai
 

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隔夜尿液評估泰國高心血管疾病風險參與者每日鹽攝取量
此橫斷性研究(2012 年2 月至2013 年3 月)為評估居住在社區具高心血管疾病風險(Framingham 危險分數>15%)的793 名參與者的鹽攝取量及其基本特性,他們曾因糖尿病或是高血壓至泰國清萊府Muang 區的健康中心就診。我們分析參與者的基本特性,並使用自動化分析儀評估所收集的三天隔夜尿液,藉此推估平均24 小時鹽攝取量。依照估算的每日鹽攝取量中位數將參與者分成高鹽(≥10.0 g/day,n=362)及低鹽(<10.0 g/day,n=431)攝取量組,兩組對象平均年齡及男性比例分別為65.2 歲、67.5 歲及37.6%、42.7%(p=0.01, p<0.01)。高鹽攝取組有較多參與者有家族高血壓病史、使用抗高血壓藥、較少人介於理想身體質量指數範圍(18.5-24.9)、較高的運動頻率(每週大於等於兩次)與較低的高鹽攝取認知。在高鹽攝取組中,那些對高鹽攝取認知低者比起相對認知高者,較為年輕且有較多人有家族高血壓病史。我們的資料顯示,家庭成員經常共有涉及高鹽攝取的生活習慣。而實際鹽分攝取量與對高鹽攝取認知之間的差異可能代表需要將減鹽介入的目標放在家庭層次。每個家庭之實際鹽分攝取量的認知應該被改善。
關鍵字:認知、高血壓、鹽攝取行為、家庭環境、清萊

 

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Early enteral nutrition in neonates with partial gastrectomy: a multi-center study
WEIWEI JIANG, JIE ZHANG, QIMING GENG, XIAOQUN XU, XIAOFENG LV, YONGWEI CHEN, XIANG LIU AND WEIBING TANG
Background and Objectives: Compared with total parenteral nutrition (TPN), enteral nutrition is more suitable for patients post-operatively. Our aim was to determine the safety and feasibility of early enteral nutrition (EEN) using a jejunum feeding tube in neonates after undergoing a partial gastrectomy. Methods and Study Design: This was a retrospective review of 46 patients who underwent partial gastrectomies for gastric perforation in our hospital. These patients were categorized into two groups (EEN group [n=24 patients], a jejunal feeding tube was inserted during surgery; and a control group [n=22 patients], a jejunal feeding tube was not placed). Differences in operative time, time to first defecation post-operatively, time to first oral feeding post-operatively, length of hospital stay post-operatively, nutrition indices, and post-operative complications (died due to septic shock, cholestasis, pneumonia, abdominal distension, and diarrhea) were reviewed. Results: There were no significant differences in the operative time and the time to first oral feeding post-operatively between the two groups; however, the time to first defecation post-operatively in the EEN group and the hospital length of stay post-operatively for the EEN group were significantly shorter than the control group. The levels of albumin, retinol binding protein, and prealbumin were not significantly different between the two groups pre-operatively and 14 days postoperatively. The incidence of cholestasis and abdominal distention in the EEN group was significantly lower than the control group. Conclusion: EEN using a jejunal feeding tube in neonates who have undergone a partial gastrectomy for gastric perforation is safe, easy, and has fewer complications than TPN.
Key Words: early enteral nutrition, partial gastrectomy, neonate, total parenteral nutrition, gastric perforation

 

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新生儿胃部分切除术中的早期肠内营养:一个多中心研究
背景与目的:研究表明肠内营养比完全肠外营养更适合在术后运用。本文主要目的是研究新生儿胃部分切除术后运用空肠营养管的安全性和可行性。方法与研究设计:回顾性研究46例胃穿孔行胃部分切除术的病人。这些病人被分为两组,早期肠内营养组(24例),空肠营养管在术中放置;完全肠外营养组即对照组(22例),未放置空肠营养管。比较两组的手术时间、术后首次排便时间、术后首次经口喂养时间,术后住院时间,营养指标、术后并发症如脓毒症导致的死亡率,胆汁淤积、肺炎、肠粘连、腹泻等。结果:手术时间和术后首次经口喂养时间两组间差异无统计学意义。术后首次排便时间和术后住院时间肠内营养组均明显短于完全肠外营养组。总蛋白、视黄醇结合蛋白及前白蛋白肠内两组间术前和术后14 天差异均无统计学意义。胆汁淤积和肠梗阻的发生率肠内营养组明显低于完全肠外营养组。结论:采用空肠营养管的早期肠内营养方法在新生儿胃穿孔行胃部分切除术后使用是安全和可行的,且并发症较少。
关键词:早期肠内营养、胃部分切除术、新生儿、完全肠外营养、胃穿孔

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Amino acid dosing in parenteral nutrition for very low birth weight preterm neonates: an outcome assessment
NOR AINI KAMARUDIN, MOHAMED MANSOR MANAN, HANIS HANUM ZULKIFLY, CHIN FEN NEOH, SALMIAH MOHD ALI AND LONG CHIAU MING
This study aimed to investigate the effects of parenteral nutrition (PN) administration of amino acids (AA) on physical changes among very low birth weight infants in a local hospital setting in Malaysia. A retrospective study was carried out at a hospital in Malaysia. Records of neonates prescribed PN in the neonatal unit in 2012 were screened for eligibility. A total of 199 premature neonates received PN support in the year 2012 and, of these, 100 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The median value of AA intake on the first day of PN was 2.00 (<28 weeks group); 1.00 (28-31 weeks group) and 0.75 (>31 weeks group). Neonates in the <28 weeks group were more likely to receive AA at an earlier time and higher initial dose compared with the other age groups. The study also found that there was no statistically significant difference in the dose of AA on the first day of PN administration and that the significant variations in nutritional parameters among the subjects did not lead to differences in physical outcomes. This study identified that when PN is provided in the local hospital setting, it is likely that the current nutritional practices are inadequate to achieve the standard growth recommendations. Our findings call for a need to optimize AA and calorie intake since growth restriction is a morbidity which will affect the infants’ growth and development. Current prescriptions for PN in this hospital need to be reviewed in order to improve patient outcomes.
Key Words: birth weight, nutritional requirements, growth and development, nutritional support, nutritional therapy
 

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极低出生体重早产儿肠外营养中氨基酸的剂量效果评价
本研究旨在马来西亚当地一家医院进行回顾性研究,探讨极低体重儿肠外营养(PN)氨基酸(AA)对体格改变的影响。在2012年间,从新生儿病房登记的新生儿记录中按规定筛选出合格的新生儿,一共有199名早产儿接受PN支持,其中100名符合纳入标准。早产儿第一天肠外营养AA摄入量的中位数是2.00(<28周组)、1.00(28-31周组)和0.75(>31周组)。与其他两组相比,<28周组早产儿更容易在较早的时间接受较高的初始AA剂量。本研究还发现PN管理的第一天AA的使用剂量没有统计学差异,而且受试者营养参数的显著差异并没有导致生理结果的差异。本研究确定了在当地医院环境下提供PN的时间,很有可能目前的营养做法不足以达到早产儿标准生长建议。由于增长限制的发病率会影响婴儿生长发育,我们的研究结果呼吁需要优化AA和热量的摄入量。为了改善患者的治疗效果,需要对这家医院当前的PN处方进行审查。
关键词:出生体重、营养需求、生长发育、营养支持、营养治疗


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Folic acid fortified milk increases blood folate to concentrations associated with a very low risk of neural tube defects in Singaporean women of childbearing age
MAGDALIN CHEONG, HUANG YING XIAO, VICKY TAY, CRYSTAL D KARAKOCHUK, YAZHENG AMY LIU, SARAH HARVEY, YVONNE LAMERS, LISA A HOUGHTON, DAVID D KITTS AND TIM J GREEN
Background and Objectives: Folic acid (400 μg/d) taken during the periconceptional period reduces neural tube defect (NTD) risk by >75%. Achieving red cell folate (RCF) or plasma folate (PF) >905 nmol/L and >35 nmol/L, respectively, has been associated with a low risk of NTDs. We determined whether daily consumption of folic acid fortified milk increases blood folate concentrations to levels associated with a low risk of NTDs in Singaporean women of childbearing age. Methods and Study Design: In this double-blind placebo-controlled trial, 70 non-pregnant women (21-35 y) were randomly assigned to receive fortified milk (FM) powder providing 400 μg folic acid per day or unfortified placebo milk (PM) powder for 12 weeks. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 6 and 12 weeks. Results: At 12 weeks, mean (95% CI) RCF and PF concentrations were 376 (240, 512) and 39 (26, 51) nmol/L higher in the FM group compared with the PM group (p<0.001). Of the women receiving FM, 71% (n=25) and 86% (n=30) achieved a RCF and PF associated with a very low risk of NTDs, respectively. Conclusion: Folic acid fortified milk increased blood folate concentrations in women of childbearing age to levels associated with a reduced risk of an NTD-affected pregnancy.
Key Words: folate, folic acid, fortification, milk, neural tube defect
 

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新加坡育龄妇女通过服用叶酸强化牛奶提高血液叶酸浓度,与低神经管缺陷风险有关
背景与研究目的:围孕期服用叶酸(400微克/天)可以降低患有神经管缺陷的几率75%以上。红细胞叶酸(RCF)含量大于905nmol/L或血浆叶酸(PF)大于35 nmol/L时与神经管缺陷的低风险有关。我们确定育龄新加坡妇女每天摄入叶酸强化牛奶是否会增加血液中叶酸浓度,与神经管畸形的低风险水平有关。方法与研究设计:在为期12周的双盲安慰剂对照试验中,70名非孕期妇女(21至35岁),分别随机给予添加了含量为每天400微克叶酸的奶粉(FM)和未添加叶酸的安慰剂奶粉(PM)。分别在实验初始、6周以及12周对研究对象进行血液样本采集。结果:在12周时,相比于PM组,FM组研究对象的红细胞叶酸与血浆叶酸浓度的平均值(95% CI)分别高出376(240,512)和39(26,51)nmol/L (p<0.001)。在FM组中,分别有71%(n=25)以及80%(n=30)的研究对象实现了RCF和PF与极低神经管缺陷风险有关。结论:育龄妇女服用添加了叶酸的牛奶可以提高血液叶酸含量并与降低神经管缺陷影响的怀孕有关。
关键词:叶酸盐、叶酸、强化、奶、神经管缺陷

 

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Correction of hypovitaminosis D does not improve the metabolic syndrome risk profile in a Chinese population: a randomized controlled trial for 1 year
XIAO YIN, LING YAN, YONG LU, QIANG JIANG, YING PU AND QIANG SUN

Background and Objectives: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with a variety of chronic metabolic diseases. In vitro and animal studies suggest that vitamin D may play a crucial role in obesity and related metabolic disorders. Limited evidence regarding vitamin D deficiency exists within the Chinese population. The aims of the present study were to assess whether supplementation with vitamin D would improve metabolic indices in a middle-aged urban Chinese population. Methods and Study Design: We designed a randomized placebo controlled trial involving 126 metabolic syndrome sufferers with vitamin D deficiency, allocated to receive either a daily oral tablet contain 700 IU vitamin D or a matching placebo. Metabolic indices including body mass index, plasma glucose, lipid profile and other parameters were measured in subjects who completed a 12 months intervention trial. Results: There were significantly higher serum 25(OH)D and lower serum parathyroid hormone in vitamin D treatment group after the 12 months intervention, but no significant effect was observed for the metabolic variables which included body mass index, blood pressure, blood glucose and lipids in both treatment and control groups. Conclusions: Correction of hypovitaminosis D did not improve the metabolic syndrome in this urban Chinese cohort. Further studies are warranted in order to elucidate the cause-effect relation between vitamin D status, obesity and related metabolic disorders.
Key Words: vitamin D deficiency, metabolic syndrome, vitamin D supplementation, obesity, Chinese

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纠正维生素D 缺乏没有改善代谢综合征患者的心血管危险因素:中国的一项前瞻性随机对照試驗
背景与目的:维生素D缺乏与许多慢性代谢性疾病相关。研究证实血清维生素D水平与肥胖症及其相关代谢异常有重要的相关关系,但目前针对中国人群维生素D缺乏研究的数据还相对匮乏。本研究选择中国北方地区城市中年人群,研究维生素D干预治疗对代谢综合征的影响。研究设计与方法:在体检人群中筛选代谢综合征合并维生素D缺乏者126例,随机分为干预治疗组和安慰剂对照组,治疗组每天口服700IU维生素D,在基线及干预12月后检测两组代谢指标。结果:维生素D干预治疗组12月后血清25(OH)D水平显著升高,血清甲状旁腺激素水平显著下降。但体重指数、血压、血糖、血脂等代谢性指标两组在干预前后都没有显著差异。结论:在中国城市中年人群中补充维生素D可纠正其缺乏状态,但并没有显著改善代谢综合征的各种代谢异常。以后需进一步深入相关研究阐明维生素D状态与肥胖及相关代谢异常发生之间的因果关系。
关键词:维生素D 缺乏、代谢综合征、维生素D 补充、肥胖症、中国


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A randomised trial of the feasibility of a low carbohydrate diet vs standard carbohydrate counting in adults with type 1 diabetes taking body weight into account
JEREMY D KREBS, AMBER PARRY STRONG, PIP CRESSWELL, ANDREW N REYNOLDS, AOIFE HANNA AND SYLVAN HAEUSLER
Background and Objectives: To determine the effect of a low carbohydrate diet and standard carbohydrate counting on glycaemic control, glucose excursions and daily insulin use compared with standard carbohydrate counting in participants with type 1 diabetes. Methods and Study Design: Participants (n=10) with type 1 diabetes using a basal; bolus insulin regimen, who attended a secondary care clinic, were randomly allocated (1:1) to either a standard carbohydrate counting course or the same course with added information on following a carbohydrate restricted diet (75 g per day). Participants attended visits at baseline and 12 weeks for measurements of weight, height, blood pressure, HbA1c, lipid profile and creatinine. They also completed a 3-day food diary and had 3 days of continuous subcutaneous glucose monitoring. Results: The carbohydrate restricted group had significant reductions in HbA1c (63 to 55 mmol/mol (8.9-8.2%), p<0.05) and daily insulin use (64.4 to 44.2 units/day, p<0.05) and non-significant reductions in body weight (83.2 to 78.0 kg). There were no changes in blood pressure, creatinine or lipid profile and all outcomes in the carbohydrate counting group were unchanged. There was no change in glycaemic variability as measured by the mean amplitude of glycaemic excursion in either group. Conclusions: A low carbohydrate diet is a feasible option for people with type 1 diabetes, and may be of benefit in reducing insulin doses and improving glycaemic control, particularly for those wishing to lose weight.
Key Words: type 1 diabetes, carbohydrate metabolism, low carbohydrate diet, glycaemic control, carbohydrate counting
 

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成人1 型糖尿病患者低碳水化合物摄入与标准碳水化合物计数结合体重计数随机试验的可行性
背景与目的:在1型糖尿病患者中,与标准碳水化合物计数比较,确定低碳水化合物饮食对血糖控制、血糖波动以及每日胰岛素使用的影响。方法与研究设计:参加二级保健门诊使用普通膳食以注射胰岛素为治疗方案的10例1型糖尿病患者,按照1:1的比例随机分配到一个标准的碳水化合物计数组,或限制碳水化合物饮食组(每天75 g)。测量了所有志愿者基线和12周的体重、身高、血压、糖化血红蛋白、血脂和肌酐,志愿者完成了为期3天的食物日记和3天持续皮下血糖监测。结果:碳水化合物限制组HbA1c(63-55mmol/mol(8.9-8.2%),p<0.05)和每日胰岛素用量(64.4-44.2U/d,p<0.05)显著减少,体重(83.2-78 kg)的变化无显著差异。碳水化合物计数组血压、肌酐或血脂所有指标均无显著改变。通过平均血糖波动幅度计算的血糖变异性在任何一组中均无改变。结论:低碳水化合物饮食是1型糖尿病患者一个可行的选择,可以减少胰岛素剂量和改善血糖控制,特别是对那些希望减肥的患者。
关键词:1 型糖尿病、糖代谢、低碳水化合物饮食、血糖控制、碳水化合物计数

 

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Effect of food service form on eating rate: meal served in a separated form might lower eating rate
HYUNG JOO SUH AND EUN YOUNG JUNG
In this study, we investigated the association between food form (mixed vs separated) and eating rate. The experiment used a within-subjects design (n=29, young healthy women with normal weight). Test meals (white rice and side dishes) with the same content and volume were served at lunch in a mixed or separated form. The form in which the food was served had significant effects on consumption volume and eating rate; subjects ate significantly more (p<0.05) when a test meal was served as a mixed form (285 g, 575 kcal) compared to a separated form (244 g, 492 kcal). Moreover, subjects also ate significantly faster (p<0.05) when the test meal was served as a mixed form (22.4 g/min) as compared to a separated form (16.2 g/min). Despite consuming more when the test meal was served as a mixed form than when served as a separated form, the subjects did not feel significantly fuller. In conclusion, we confirmed that meals served in a separated form might lower the eating rate and, moreover, slower eating might be associated with less energy intake, without compromising satiety.
Key Words: eating habit, eating rate, energy intake, food mixing, obesity
 

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食物提供的形式对食用率的影响:餐食分开提供形式可能会降低食用率
在这项研究中,我们调查食物形式(混合或分开)和食用率之间的关系。该实验使用了受试者设计(n=29,年轻健康体重正常的女性)。具有相同内容和重量的测试餐(白米饭和小菜)以混合或分开的形式提供。食物提供的形式显著影响消费量和进食速度:当测试餐以混合形式提供(285 g, 575 kcal)的时候,受试者吃的显著多于测试餐以分开形式提供(244 g,492 kcal)。此外,当测试餐以混合形式提供时受试者吃的也显著快(22.4 g/min)于以分开形式提供(16.2 g/min)。尽管当测试餐以混合的形式提供比以分开形式提供受试者消费更多,但受试者并没有感到更显著的饱腹感。总之,我们证实食物以分开形式提供可能降低食用率,而且更慢的进食速度与较少的能量摄入相关,而不影响饱腹感。
关键词:饮食习惯、进食速度、能量摄入、食物混合、肥胖

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Plasma isoflavones in Malaysian men according to vegetarianism and by age
RAFIDAH HOD, WIDED KOUIDHI, MUSTAFA ALI MOHD AND RUBY HUSAIN
Epidemiological studies indicate lower prevalences of breast and prostate cancers and cardiovascular disease in Southeast Asia where vegetarianism is popular and diets are traditionally high in phytoestrogens. This study assessed plasma isoflavones in vegetarian and non-vegetarian Malaysian men according to age. Daidzein, genistein, equol (a daidzein metabolite), formononetin, biochanin A, estrone, estradiol and testosterone were measured by validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS). Plasma isoflavone and sex hormone concentrations were measured in 225 subjects according to age (18-34, 35-44 and 45-67 years old). In all age groups, vegetarians had a higher concentration of circulating isoflavones compared with non-vegetarians especially in the 45-67 year age group where all isoflavones except equol, were significantly higher in vegetarians compared with omnivores. By contrast, the 18-34 year group had a significantly higher concentration of daidzein in vegetarians and significantly higher testosterone and estrone concentrations compared with non-vegetarians. In this age group there were weak correlations between estrone, estradiol and testosterone with some of the isoflavones. This human study provides the first Malaysian data for the phytoestrogen status of vegetarian and nonvegetarian men.
Key Words: isoflavones, vegetarian, sex-hormones, LCMSMS, Malaysians

 

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马来西亚男性血浆异黄酮浓度因素食和年龄而不同
流行病学研究表明东南亚乳腺癌、前列腺癌和心血管疾病的发病率较低,素食在这些地区备受欢迎,传统饮食中富含植物雌激素。本研究根据年龄评估了马来西亚素食和非素食男性血浆中异黄酮的含量。通过高效液相色谱-串联质谱法(LCMSMS)测定血浆中大豆异黄酮、染料木素、雌马酚(一种大豆异黄酮的代谢产物)、芒柄花素、鹰嘴豆芽素A、雌酮、雌二醇和睾酮的浓度。按照年龄(18-34岁、35-44岁和45-67岁)测定了225名研究对象的血浆异黄酮和性激素的浓度。在所有年龄组,尤其是45-67岁组,素食者循环异黄酮浓度高于非素食者,在45-67岁组,除雌马酚外的所有异黄酮,素食者均显著高于杂食者。相反,在18-34岁组,素食者的大豆异黄酮、睾酮和雌酮的浓度显著高于非素食者。在这个年龄组中,雌酮、雌二醇和睾酮与一些异黄酮之间有弱的相关性。本研究提供了马来西亚素食和非素食男性植物雌激素状态的第一手资料。
关键词:大豆异黄酮、素食者、性激素、LCMSMS、马来西亚人


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Differential dietary habits among 570 young underweight Japanese women with and without a desire for thinness: a comparison with normal weight counterparts
NAGISA MORI, KEIKO ASAKURA AND SATOSHI SASAKI
The strong social pressure for thinness in Japanese society has produced a dramatic increase in underweight (body mass index: <18.5 kg/m2) among young women. Being underweight is associated with several negative health outcomes, including nutritional deficiency, osteoporosis, and unfavourable pregnancy outcomes. However, evidence which would help deal with this problem from a public health perspective is scarce. Here, we aimed to identify the dietary characteristics of underweight female university students, particularly those with a desire for thinness. Data on dietary habits and other lifestyle variables, including the desire for thinness, were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire survey conducted at 54 academic institutions in Japan, from which we selected 3634 female students for analysis. The subjects were divided into three groups of normal weight (84.3%), and underweight with (6.4%) or without (9.3%) a desire for thinness. After adjusting for potential confounders, the underweight subjects with a desire for thinness consumed less cereal and rice, whereas those without a desire for thinness consumed more cereal and rice than the normal weight subjects. In addition, those without a desire for thinness consumed less confectionaries, including candies and ice cream, and less fats and oils than the normal weight subjects. These results suggest that dietary habits differ between underweight women with and without a desire for thinness. Although both groups require nutritional education to maintain appropriate body weight, underweight women with a desire for thinness require particular attention to improve recognition of their constitution and dietary habits.
Key Words: underweight, desire for thinness, dietary habits, young women, Japan
 

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570 名日本對“瘦” 渴望與否之體重過輕女性之差異化飲食習慣: 與正常體重者相比
日本社會對於“瘦”的強烈社交壓力,造成年輕女性體重過輕者(身體質量指數<18.5 kg/m2)一個戲劇化的增加。體重過輕與好幾個負面健康結果相關,包含營養缺乏、骨質疏鬆以及不良的姙娠結果。然而,以公共衛生角度去解決這個問題的證據卻相當稀少。在此,我們旨在找出體重過輕的女大學生其飲食特性,特別是那些對瘦渴望者。以自填式問卷收集日本54所學術機構學生的飲食習慣及其它生活變項,包含對瘦的渴望,最後選出3634名女學生進行分析。研究對象分成正常體位(84.3%)、渴望瘦的體重過輕者(6.4%)及不渴望瘦的體重過輕者(9.3%)。在校正潛在的干擾因子後,比起正常體位者,渴望瘦的體重過輕者攝取較少的穀物及飯,反之,不渴望瘦的體重過輕者攝取較多穀物及飯。此外,不渴望變瘦者比起體位正常者攝取較少甜食,包含糖果及冰淇淋、與較少油脂。這些結果意味對瘦是否渴望的體重過輕者,其飲食習慣不同。儘管兩組都需要營養教育以維持適當的體重,但是渴望瘦的體重過輕者需要特別的關注,以改善他們對體位及飲食習慣的認知。
關鍵字:體重過輕、渴望瘦、飲食習慣、年輕女性、日本

 

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Measurements and profiles of body weight misperceptions among Taiwanese teenagers: a national survey
YA-WEN HSU, TSAN-HON LIOU, YIING MEI LIOU, HSIN-JEN CHEN AND LI-YIN CHIEN
Children and adolescents tend to lose weight, which may be associated with misperceptions of weight. Previous studies have emphasized establishing correlations between eating disorders and an overestimated perception of body weight, but few studies have focused on an underestimated perception of body weight. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between misperceptions of body weight and weight-related risk factors, such as eating disorders, inactivity, and unhealthy behaviors, among overweight children who underestimated their body weight. We conducted a cross-sectional, descriptive study between December 1, 2006 and February 15, 2007. A total of 29,313 children and adolescents studying in grades 4-12 were enrolled in this nationwide, crosssectional survey, and they were asked to complete questionnaires. A multivariate logistic regression using maximum likelihood estimates was used. The prevalence of body weight misperception was 43.2% (26.4% overestimation and 16.8% underestimation). Factors associated with the underestimated perception of weight among overweight children were parental obesity, dietary control for weight loss, breakfast consumption, self-induced vomiting as a weight control strategy, fried food consumption, engaging in vigorous physical activities, and sleeping for >8 hours per day (odds ratios=0.86, 0.42, 0.88, 1.37, 1.13, 1.11, and 1.17, respectively). In conclusion, the early establishment of an accurate perception of body weight may mitigate unhealthy behaviors.
Key Words: children and adolescents, body image, diet, obesity, misperception
 

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體型的測量方法與台灣青少年錯估體型的評述:國家型調查
兒童青少年會因為錯估體型而去減肥,過去的研究常常強調飲食障礙跟高估自己體型的相關性,但卻很少有研究強調低估體型的危險。本研究的目的是探究錯估體型跟體重相關危險因素的關係,例如低估自己體型的超重兒童的飲食障礙、活動不足等不健康的行為。我們在2006年12月1日到2007年2月15日進行了一個橫斷性、描述性的調查,共有29,313位4到12年級兒童及青少年被邀請參與這個國家型的橫斷面調查,並完成了問卷。用多元邏輯式迴歸最大可能估計分析資料,43.2%的兒童青少年錯估體型(26.4%高估;16.8%低估),超重兒童青少年低估體型的相關因素有父母肥胖、因減肥而節食、吃早餐、因減肥而催吐、吃油炸食物、進行费力的身體活動和睡眠多於八小時(危險比分別是0.86、 0.42、 0.88、 1.37、 1.13、 1.11和1.17)。總之,及早建立正確體型評估可以避免不健康的行為。
關鍵字:兒童青少年、體型意識、飲食、肥胖、錯估


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Survey of contemporary feeding practices in critically ill children in the Asia-Pacific and the Middle East
JUDITH JM WONG, CHENGSI ONG, WEE MENG HAN, NILESH M MEHTA AND JAN HAU LEE
Background and Objectives: Nutrition is a fundamental component of care of critically ill children. Determining variation in nutritional practices within paediatric intensive care units (PICUs) allows for review and improvement of nutrition practices. Methods and Study Design: The aim was to survey the nutrition practices and perspectives of paediatric intensivists and dieticians in Asia-Pacific and the Middle East. A questionnaire was developed to collect data on (1) the respondent’s and institution’s characteristics, (2) nutritional assessments and nutrient delivery practices, and (3) the perceived importance and barriers to optimal enteral feeding in the PICU. Results: We analysed 47 responses from 35 centres in 18 different countries. Dedicated dietetic services were only present in 13 (37%) centres and regular nutrition assessments were conducted in only 12 (34%) centres. In centres with dedicated dieticians, we found greater use of carbohydrate, fat additives and special formulas. Two thirds [31 (66%)] of respondents used total fluids to estimate energy requirements. Only 11 (31%) centres utilized feeding protocols. These centres had higher use of small bowel feeding, acid suppressants, laxatives and gastric residual volume thresholds. When dealing with feed intolerance, they were also more likely to start a motility agent. There was also a lack of consensus on when feeding should start and the use of adjuncts. Conclusions: Nutrition practices and barriers are unique in Asia-Pacific and the Middle East and strongly reflect a lack of dietetic services. Future effort should focus on developing a uniform approach on nutrition practices to drive paediatric critical care nutrition research in these regions.
Key Words: children, feeding, nutrition, paediatrics, survey
 

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亚太和中东地区危重患儿的现代喂养实践调
背景与目的:营养是危重患儿护理的一个基本组成部分。确定儿科重症监护病房内的营养实践变化(PICUS),从而评估和改善营养实践。方法与研究设计:目的是调查亚太和中东地区的营养实践和儿科重症监护室及营养师的观点。设计调查问卷,收集以下数据:(1)受访者及机构的特点;(2)营养评估和营养输送的方法;(3)PICU最佳喂养的重要性和障碍。结果:分析了来自18个国家, 35个中心的47名受访者的资料。只有13(37%)个中心有专门的饮食服务,12(34%)个中心有正规的营养评估。在有专门营养师的中心,我们发现更多使用碳水化合物、脂肪添加剂和特殊配方。2/3(31,66%)的被调查者使用全流体来估算能量需求。只有11(31%)个中心使用喂养计划。这些中心常使用小肠喂养、酸抑制剂、泻药和胃残留量阈值。在处理食物不耐受时,他们更可能一开始就使用蠕动剂。关于什么时候开始喂养以及添加什么辅食方面缺乏共识。结论:亚太和中东地区独特的营养行为和障碍,强烈反映了饮食服务的缺乏。未来的努力应该集中在发展统一的营养实践方法,推动这些地区儿科重症监护的营养学研究。
关键词:儿童、喂养、营养、儿科、调查

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Insulin resistance, body composition, and fat distribution in obese children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
HYE RAN YANG AND EUN JAE CHANG
Background and Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of body composition, especially distribution of body fat, and insulin resistance on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese children. Methods and Study Design: One hundred obese children (66 boys, 34 girls) with (n=60) and without NAFLD (n=40) were assessed. Anthropometry, laboratory tests, abdominal ultrasonography, and dual energy x-ray absorption metry (DXA) were evaluated in all subjects. Results: Subject age and measurements of liver enzymes, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γGT), uric acid, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and insulin resistance were significantly different between the non-NAFLD group and NAFLD group. Body fat and trunk fat percentage were significantly different between the two groups (p<0.001 and p=0.003), whereas extremity fat percentage was not (p=0.683). Insulin resistance correlated significantly with body fat and trunk fat percentages, age, liver enzymes,γGT, and uric acid in obese children. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that insulin resistance and trunk fat percentage significantly affected the development of NAFLD in obese children. Conclusions: Body fat, especially abdominal fat, influences the development of insulin resistance and subsequent NAFLD in obese children. Therefore, body composition measurement using DXA, in conjunction with biochemical tests, may be beneficial in evaluating obese children with NAFLD.
Key Words: obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, insulin resistance, body composition, child
 

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非酒精性脂肪肝肥胖儿童的胰岛素抗性、身体成分和脂肪分布
背景与目的:该研究目的是评价身体成分,尤其是脂肪分布和胰岛素抗性对非酒精性脂肪性肝病(NAFLD)肥胖儿童的影响。方法与研究设计:对100例肥胖儿童(男66,女34)进行评估,其中有NAFLD的60例,无NAFLD的40例。所有研究对象均接受人体测量学、实验室检查、腹部超声和双能X线吸收法(DXA)的评估。结果:NAFLD组和非NAFLD组研究对象年龄、肝酶、γ-谷氨酰转肽酶(γGT)、尿酸、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇和胰岛素抗性之间差异有统计学意义。两组间身体脂肪和躯干脂肪百分比差异有统计学意义(p<0.001和p=0.003),而肢体脂肪百分比差异无统计学意义(p=0.683)。肥胖儿童胰岛素抗性与身体和躯干脂肪百分比、年龄、肝酶、γGT及血尿酸之间有显著相关关系。多因素logistic回归分析显示胰岛素抗性和躯干脂肪百分比对肥胖儿童非酒精性脂肪肝的发展有显著影响。结论:身体脂肪,尤其是腹部脂肪,影响肥胖儿童胰岛素抗性及其随后非酒精性脂肪肝的发展。因此,使用DXA测量身体成分,结合生化检测,有利于评价非酒精性脂肪肝肥胖儿童。
关键词:肥胖、非酒精性脂肪性肝
 

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Influence of proximities to food establishments on body mass index among children in China
JI ZHANG, HONG XUE, XI CHENG, ZHIHONG WANG, FENGYING ZHAI, YOUFA WANG AND HUIJUN WANG
Background and Objectives: Over the past two decades, food environment has changed, and the obesity and overweight rates have increased dramatically in China. Previous studies have suggested an association between food environment and obesity, while most studies were based on the data from developed countries, and few were conducted in developing countries. Methods and Study Design: The current study evaluated the influence of food establishments (distance to and types of grocery store, free market, restaurant, and food stall) on body mass index (BMI) in 348 children aged 6-17 years, surveyed in the 2009 and 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey in nine provinces. Food establishments were assessed using geographic information system (GIS) data. Weight and height of children were directly measured. Results: Our longitudinal analysis suggested boys in the 2nd quartile of the proximity to the nearest grocery store had higher BMI (by 1.6 kg/m2, 95% CI, 0.07 to 3.24) as compared to those in the 1st quartile, while girls in higher quartiles had lower BMI (-1.78 kg/m2, 95% CI: -3.38 to -0.18, 2nd quartile; -1.62 kg/m2, 95%: -3.22 to -0.01, 3rd quartile) as compared to those in the 1st quartile. Boys and girls in the 2nd quartile of the proximity to the nearest Chinese restaurant had lower BMI (-1.69 kg/m2, 95% CI: -3.27 to -0.12; -1.76 kg/m2, 95% CI: -3.26, -0.27, respectively) as compared to those in the 1st quartile. Conclusions: Food environment may affect children’s BMI in China, while the association is inconsistent with previous studies. Further research is needed.
Key Words: child, body mass index, food store, obesity, China
 

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到食肆的距离对中国儿童体质指数的影响
背景与目的:近二十年来,中国居民的食物环境发生了巨大变化,超重和肥胖率也显著上升。既往研究提示肥胖率上升与食物环境变化之间可能存在一定的关联,但此类研究多数在发达国家开展,很少在发展中国家开展。方法与研究设计:本文从队列研究“中国健康与营养调查”中选取了348名6-17岁的儿童青少年作为研究对象,利用2009年和2011年两轮调查的身体测量指标及其他相关社会经济学指标,结合地理信息系统(geographic information system, GIS)采集的儿童青少年所居住家庭至最近的食物购买地点或餐馆的直线距离数据(包括便利店、自由市场、中式餐馆、及流动食品摊),分析评价了食物环境变化对中国儿童青少年体质指数的影响。结果:两轮数据的纵向分析结果显示,与第一分位相比,居住在与最近的便利店距离为第二分位的男生BMI显著升高(平均升高1.6 kg/m2,95% CI:0.07, 3.24),而居住在更高分位的女孩BMI则显著降低(第二分位降低1.78 kg/m2,95% CI:-3.38, -0.18;第三分位降低1.62 kg/m2,95%:-3.22, -0.01)。与第一分位相比,居住在与最近中式餐馆距离为第二分位的男生女生BMI均显著降低(男生降低1.69 kg/m2,95% CI:-3.27, -0.12; 女生降低1.76 kg/m2,95% CI:-3.26, -0.27)。结论:食物环境可能影响中国儿童青少年的体质指数,但该作用的具体方向仍需进一步探究。
关键词:孩子、体质指数、食品商店、肥胖、中国
 

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Salt intake and iodine status of women in Samoa
MARY-ANNE LAND, JACQUI L WEBSTER, GARY MA, MU LI, SARAH ASI FALETOESE SU'A, MERINA IEREMIA, SATU VIALI, GAVIN FAEAMANI, A COLIN BELL, CHRISTINE QUESTED, BRUCE C NEAL AND CRESWELL J EASTMAN
The objective of this study was to determine iodine nutrition status and whether iodine status differs across salt intake levels among a sample of women aged 18-45 years living in Samoa. A cross-sectional survey was completed and 24-hr urine samples were collected and assessed for iodine (n=152) and salt excretion (n=119). The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) among the women was 88 μg/L (Interquartile range (IQR)=54-121μg/L). 62% of the women had a UIC <100 μg/L. The crude estimated mean 24-hr urinary salt excretion was 6.6 (standard deviation 3.2) g/day. More than two-thirds (66%) of the women exceeded the World Health Organization recommended maximum level of 5 g/day. No association was found between median UIC and salt excretion (81 μg/L iodine where urinary salt excretion ≥5 g/day versus 76 μg/L where urinary salt excretion <5 g/day; p=0.4). Iodine nutrition appears to be insufficient in this population and may be indicative of iodine deficiency disorders in Samoan women. A collaborative approach in monitoring iodine status and salt intake will strengthen both programs and greatly inform the level of iodine fortification required to ensure optimal iodine intake as population salt reduction programs take effect.
Key Words: iodine, sodium, salt, urinary excretion, Samoa
 

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萨摩亚妇女盐摄入量与碘状况
该研究旨在确定萨摩亚18-45岁女性居民碘营养状况及碘状况是否随着盐摄入水平的不同而不同。采用横断面调查,收集24小时尿液样本,分析碘(n=152)和盐排泄(n=119)。女性尿碘浓度(UIC)的中位数为88 µg/L(四分位间距(IQR)=54-121 µg/L)。62%的女性UIC<100 µg/L。粗略估计24小时尿盐排泄量的均数为6.6(标准差3.2)克/天。超过2/3(66%)的妇女尿盐排泄量超过世界卫生组织推荐的最高水平5克/天。UIC的中位数和盐排泄之间无关系(尿盐排泄量≥5克/天的人群碘水平为81 µg/L,尿盐排泄量<5克/天的人群碘水平为76 µg/L;p=0.4)。萨摩亚妇女碘营养不足表明可能该人群有碘缺乏病。部门间的协作将加强在监测碘营养状况和盐摄入量两个项目和极大地告知碘强化所要求的水平,以确保人群减盐计划有效实施时有最佳的碘摄入量。
关键词:碘、钠、盐、尿排泄、萨摩亚
 

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Distribution of iron status among urban Chinese women
LIJUAN WANG, JIAN HUANG, HONG LI, JING SUN, JIANHUA PIAO, XIAOGUANG YANG, GUANSHENG MA AND JUNSHENG HUO
Background and Objectives: To assess the distribution of serum ferritin, serum soluble transferrin receptor and body iron among girls and women by age and anaemia. Methods and Study Design: Serum ferritin, serum soluble transferrin receptor and high sensitive C-reactive protein of 1625 and 1372 women in general and anaemic were measured in the National Health and Nutrition Survey commenced in 2010. Results: The distributions of serum ferritin, serum soluble transferrin receptor and body iron for 6-11-y, 12-17-y, 18-44-y, 45-59-y and ≥60-y subgroups were significantly different. Both in population-representative women and those anaemic, the iron status of 18-44-y women was the lowest and that of 12-17-y girls the second lowest. The iron status of anaemic women was lower than that in representative women at ages 12-17 y, 18-44 y, 45-59 y and ≥60 y. Conclusion: Iron status in women of different ages and anaemic had different distributions, but consistently lower than that of population-representative women. The observed iron status of Chinese urban women supports program planning for iron nutrition promotion in women. Iron status information is also needed for men and to understand the pathogenesis which may be related to intake or loss.
Key Words: iron deficiency, anaemia, serum ferritin, serum soluble transferrin receptor, body iron
 

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中国大城市女性铁营养状况分布
背景与目的:评估不同年龄和贫血状况女孩和成年女性的血清铁蛋白、血清转铁蛋白受体和铁储量的分布情况。方法与研究设计:2010年中国居民营养与健康状况监测中,对1625名普通女性和1372名贫血女性分别测定其血清铁蛋白、血清转铁蛋白受体和高敏C反应蛋白浓度。结果:6-11、12-17、18-44、45-59和≥60岁不同年龄组女性之间血清铁蛋白、血清转铁蛋白受体和铁储量的分布显著不同。在普通女性组和贫血女性组中,18-44岁年龄组的女性铁营养状况均为最差,其次为12-17岁年龄组。在12-17、18-44、45-59 和≥60岁年龄组中,贫血女性的铁营养状况显著低于普通女性组。结论:不同年龄组及贫血状况女性的铁营养状况分布不同,贫血组女性的铁营养状况较普通女性组差。本研究观察到的中国大城市女性铁营养状况的数据,支持开展针对女性的铁营养改善的项目规划,也需要调查男性铁营养状况,并探究可能与铁摄入或损失的发病机制。
关键词:铁缺乏、贫血、血清铁蛋白、血清转铁蛋白受体、铁储量

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Self-reported health problems related to traditional dietary practices in postpartum women from urban, suburban and rural areas of Hubei province, China: the ‘zuò yuèzi’
LIMEI MAO, LIPING MA, NIAN LIU, BANGHUA CHEN, QINGGUI LU, CHENJIANG YING AND XIUFA SUN
Background and Objectives: We aimed to investigate the prevalence of maternal health problems in the postpartum period and their association with traditional Chinese postpartum diets and behaviours in three selected regions in Hubei province, China. Methods and Study Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in urban, suburban and rural areas. A total of 2100 women who had given birth to full-term single infants in the past two years were enrolled. Their postpartum diet, personal behaviours, and health problems were surveyed by trained interviewers. Results: During the puerperium women consumed plentiful eggs, fish, poultry and meats; however, fruit, vegetable and milk consumption were limited. A high prevalence of health problems potentially related to pregnancy and the puerperium were found. At least one such problem was reported by 59.3% of women. The putative postpartum problems were backaches (29.6%), arthralgia or leg clonus (12.7%), breast problems (19.6%), constipation (18.7%), haemorrhoids (11.7%), dizziness or headaches (14.8%), anaemia (10.0%). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that leafy vegetable intake and frequent recipe change in the puerperium were positively associated with less anal diseases. Bathing or hair washing did not increase the risk of maternal infection as belief would have suggested. However, bathing was a risk factor for backache or arthralgia, and tooth brushing was a risk factor for bleeding gums. Excessive housework was a risk factor for anal diseases and disordered uterine involution. Conclusion: Postpartum maternal health problems were prevalent in Hubei province. These were in part associated with postpartum traditional Chinese diets and behaviours.
Key Words: Zuò yuèzi 坐月子, Chinese women, beliefs, health problems, postpartum diets, puerperium
 

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中国湖北省城市、城郊、农村地区产褥期妇女与传统饮食习惯相关的自述健康问题:坐月子
背景与目的:本研究的目的是了解来自中国湖北省三个地区产褥期妇女健康问题的患病率,及其与中国传统产后饮食习惯及行为的关系。方法与研究设计:在中国湖北省选取有代表性的城市、城郊、农村地区开展横断面研究,2100名近两年内分娩出足月单胎的妇女被纳入研究,由统一培训的调查者通过问卷调查她们的产褥期饮食、行为和健康问题。结果:产褥期妇女摄入鸡蛋、鱼类、禽肉、畜肉较多,而水果、蔬菜、奶类较少。她们在妊娠和产后相关的潜在健康问题存在非常高的患病率。59.3%的研究对象自述至少存在一种以上的健康问题。这些健康问题包括:背痛(29.6%)、关节痛/腿抽筋(12.7%)、哺乳困难(19.6%)、便秘(18.7%)、痔疮 (11.7%)、 头晕/头痛(14.8%)、贫血(10.0%)。多元回归分析显示:产褥期绿叶蔬菜的摄入量及食谱更换的频率与肠道疾病的发病率呈负相关。沐浴和洗头并不会增加产褥期妇女感染的风险。然而,沐浴是背痛和关节痛的危险因素,刷牙是牙龈出血的危险因素。过度的家务劳动是肠道疾病和产后子宫复旧不良的危险因素。结论:中国湖北省产褥期妇女的健康问题发生率较高,某些传统饮食习惯及行为与健康问题的发生率相关。
关键词:坐月子、中国女性、信仰、健康问题、产后饮食、产褥期

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Factors associated with irregular breakfast consumption among high school students in a Japanese community
SHINO OBA, KAZUHIRO OOGUSHI, HIROMITSU OGATA AND HIROMITSU NAKAI
Background and Objectives: This study evaluated the associations between the characteristics of high school students and irregular breakfast consumption and explored the association with knowledge regarding diet and dietary education in a community in Japan. Methods and Study Design: A cross-sectional survey using a selfadministered questionnaire was conducted in 2007 among all the high school students in the second grade in Imari, Saga. Data for 318 male and 292 female students were analyzed. Irregular breakfast consumption was defined as consuming breakfast three times or less in a week. The associations between the characteristics of students and irregular breakfast consumption were assessed using logistic regression with adjustments for sex and school. Results: Among male students, a strong association between the consumption of juice or pop and irregular breakfast consumption was observed (OR comparing “≥2 servings” vs “rarely”=8.97, 95% CI=2.99–26.9). The associations with wake times and bed times were strong among male students, and the association with regular bowel movements was strong among female students. Students who had knowledge of regional agricultural and livestock
products were more likely to consume breakfast regularly, and this association was significant among female students (OR=2.89, 95% CI=1.23–6.82). Significant associations were also observed with the consumption of snacks, and traditional greeting before meals. Conclusions: Several characteristics, including specific knowledge, were associated with the irregular consumption of breakfast. The results are of interest to policy makers, nutrition specialists, and educators working to enhance regular breakfast consumption among students.
Key Words: students, breakfast, knowledge, carbonated beverages, Japanese
 

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日本社区高中学生不规律早餐消费相关因素分析
背景与目的:该研究分析了高中生的特点与不规则早餐消费间的关系,探讨了日本社区饮食相关知识与饮食教育的关系。方法与研究设计:采用自填式问卷,于2007年在日本佐贺伊万里所有高二学生中进行横断面调查。对318名男生和292名女生的数据进行了分析。每周吃3次及以下早餐称为不规律早餐消费。使用logistic回归模型分析调整了性别和学校因素后学生的特点和不规则早餐消费之间的关系。结果:男生中,果汁和汽水与不规则的早餐消费之间有强关联(“≥2次”和“很少”相比,OR=8.97,95% CI为2.99-26.9)。男生清醒次数和睡觉次数与不规则的早餐消费有关,女生规律排便与不规则的早餐消费有关。有区域农业和畜产品知识的学生更有可能有规律地吃早餐,而这种关系在女学生中亦存在(OR=2.89,95% CI=1.23-6.82)。该研究还发现零食摄入量和餐前传统的问候与不规则的早餐消费有关。结论:一些特征,包括特定的知识,与不规律早餐消费之间有关系。研究结果有利于政策制定者、营养专家和教育工作者提高学生的早餐消费量。
关键词:学生、早餐、知识、碳酸饮料、日本

 

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Excessive screen viewing time by adolescents and body fatness in a developing country: Vietnam
PHUONG VAN NGOC NGUYEN, TANG KIM HONG, DUNG THE NGUYEN AND ANNIE R ROBERT
Background and Objectives: Screen time among youth has been increasingly recognized as a public health problem because of its link with obesity. This has been demonstrated in many studies conducted in developed countries but few studies have addressed the problem in developing countries, despite an increase literature about the emergence of obesity and a greater access to screen devices in a country like Vietnam. Our study aimed at assessing screen time and its relationship with BMI in adolescents of Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. Methods and Study Design: In a cross-sectional study of 2024 junior high school students aged 11-14 of HCMC, students were measured for BMI and questioned on time spent watching television/Video/DVD or using computer for fun. High users were defined as time ≥2 h/d. International Obesity Task Force BMI cutoffs were used to define overweight and obesity. Results: Adolescents spent 2.2 h/d in screen time, with higher values for boys than girls (p<0.001). 53.8% of the respondents were high users. Time spent using computers for fun increased with age, and with the household wealthy index. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 21.1%. Using multiple logistic regression, overweight and obesity was higher in boys (adjusted OR=2.66, 95% CI: [2.06; 3.44], p<0.001) and in children aged 11-12 who had a screen time ≥2 h/d (adjusted OR=1.48, 95% CI: [1.09; 1.99], p<0.02). Conclusions: In HCMC, a majority of adolescents spent ≥2 h/d on screen time. High screen time is associated with an increased prevalence of overweight and obesity in young adolescents. Public health intervention programs are needed to reduce screen time among youth.
Key Words: adolescents, screen time, Ho Chi Minh City, obesity, Vietnam
 

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發展中國家越南青少年過多的看螢幕時間與身體肥胖
背景與目的:青少年在螢幕前花費的時間因與肥胖有著密切的關係而引起社會的關注。多項研究只證明這個社會健康問題發生在發達國家。儘管肥胖的出現和大量觀看螢幕設備相關的文獻不少,但有關這個問題的研究在越南等發展中國家並不多。這項研究針對在越南胡志明市生活的青少年在螢幕前花費的時間和他們體質指數之間的關係。方法與研究設計:對2024名11-14歲的初中生進行橫斷面研究,測量學生的體質指數和詢問該名學生在螢幕前所花費的時間,包括看電視與打電子遊戲。每日花費兩小時或以上的學生被定義為頻繁使用者,並用國際肥胖工作組的臨界值定義超重和肥胖。結果:青少年每日在螢幕前花費2.2小時,其中53.8%是頻繁使用者,而男生花費的時間比女生多(p<0.001)。學生的年齡越大和家庭財富越多,花費在電子遊戲的時間也隨著增加。超重和肥胖總的流行率為21.1%。多元回歸結果發現,超重和肥胖的學生中男生較多(調整後的OR=2.66, 95% CI:[2.06;3.44],p<0.001),而11-12歲的兒童每日則在螢幕前花費兩小時或以上(調整後的OR=1.48, 95% CI:[1.09;1.99],p<0.02)。結論:在胡志明市,大部分青少年每日花費在螢幕前的時間為兩小時或以上。青少年在螢幕前花費時間長與超重和肥胖流行率增加有關。需要公共健康介入方案,以減少青少年在螢幕前花費的時間。
關鍵字:青少年、螢幕時間、胡志明市、肥胖、越南

 

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Alcoholic beverage preferences and associated drinking patterns by socioeconomic status among high-school drinkers in three metropolises of China
SHIJUN LU, SONGMING DU, QIAN ZHANG, XIAOQI HU, SIYU CHEN, ZHENGYUAN WANG, LIXIN LU AND GUANSHENG MA
To examine the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and adolescent alcoholic beverage preferences and the associated drinking patterns in China. The study used cross-sectional data collected from 136 junior or senior high schools, using a self-administered questionnaire. A total number of 7,075 subjects of drinking students were selected from three metropolises (Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou) via a two-stage stratified sampling method. Among the adolescent drinkers, 87.8% (95% CI: 86.5-89.0) reported that they drunk alcohol during the past years preceding the study, while 42.4% (95% CI: 40.4-44.4) of the subjects stated that they had drunk alcohol during the past 30 days. There were gradual increases in the usual quantity (>1 Standard Drink, SD) of alcoholic beverages with increasing SES, with highest rates reported by the high-level SES. Beer and grape wine were the most widely consumed alcoholic beverage, regardless of SES. Our findings suggest that high-level SES students have an increasing prevalence of drinking behaviour. Their confirmation by future studies which extend the sampling regions is required to further the prevention of adolescent alcohol abuse in China.
Key Words: alcohol consumption, high school students, socioeconomic status, drinking patterns, alcoholic beverage preference
 

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中国三城市中学生饮酒种类选择与家庭经济状况关系研究
本研究旨在分析中国城市青少年饮酒种类选择与家庭经济状况的关系。研究采用两阶段分层整群抽样方法,以自填问卷形式进行横断面调查,共调查北京、上海、广州三城市初、高中136所,筛选出饮酒者7075名。饮酒者中,87.8%(95% CI:86.5-89.0)的人在过去一年中喝过酒,42.4%(95% CI: 40.4-44.4)的人在过去30天喝过酒。随着家庭经济状况的提高,饮酒者的饮酒量(大于1SD)也呈上升趋势,而且家庭经济水平高的学生中饮酒率最高。在全部饮酒学生中,啤酒和葡萄酒都是最受欢迎的酒类饮品。研究表明,家庭经济水平高的学生的饮酒率有上升趋势。此结论需要在更大区域的调查中进行验证,这对于今后中国青少年酒精滥用防控措施的研究意义重大。
关键词:酒精消费量、高中生、经济状况、饮酒习惯、酒品种类

 

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Validity of a food frequency questionnaire in a population with high alcohol consumption in Japan
NORIKO TSUNEMATSU NAKAHATA, AKIHIKO NAKAMURA TAKADA, NAHOMI IMAEDA, CHIHO GOTO, KAZUYO HIRASADA KUWABARA, HIDESHI NIIMURA, YUSUKE ARAI, KATSUSHI YOSHITA AND TOSHIRO TAKEZAKI
Background and Objectives: Alcohol consumption has a relatively large impact on energy intake in drinkers, and several studies reported different dietary habits from non-drinkers. However, few studies have investigated the influence of alcohol consumption on the validity of the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). To investigate its influence, we conducted a validity test in a population with high alcohol consumption. Methods and Study Design: The study subjects were 66 residents living on an island in the south-western part of Japan. We conducted the FFQ and 12-day-weighed dietary records (12d-WDRs) in each 3 day of each 4 season. We calculated Pearson correlation coefficients (CCs) and agreement rates according to quartile classification after adjusting for energy. Results: The intake energy (kcal) estimated from 12d-WDRs and FFQ was 1,641 and 1,534 in women, and 2,093 and 1,979 in men, respectively. The cumulative percentage contribution of the alcohol energy was 6.7% in men. De-attenuated, log-transformed Pearson’s median CCs between the nutrients quantified with the 12d-WDRs and FFQ were 0.51 in women and 0.38 in men. The CCs for carbohydrate and saturated fatty acids intake of men were lower than those in the previous Tokai study using the same FFQ. The findings in agreement rates were consistent with the Tokai study. Conclusion: This study suggested that the FFQ can be used for epidemiological studies using categorical comparisons in this population, although the underestimation of carbohydrates and other nutrients in the FFQ should be taken into consideration.
Key Words: validity, Food Frequency Questionnaire, alcohol consumption, weighed dietary record, energy intake
 

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日本高酒精消费人群食物频率问卷的有效性
背景与目的:酒精消费对饮酒者的能量吸收有相对较大的影响,一些研究报告了非饮酒人群不同的饮食习惯。然而,很少有研究调查酒精消费对食物频率问卷(FFQ)有效性的影响。为了研究它的影响,我们对高酒精消费人群进行了有效性测试。方法与研究设计:研究对象为居住在日本西南部的一个岛屿上的66名居民。我们进行了FFQ和12天称重饮食记录(12d-WDRS),4个季节,每个季节3天。我们根据四分位数分类校正能量后计算了Pearson相关系数(CCS)和一致率。结果:根据12d-WDRS和FFQ估计摄入的能量(千卡)女性为1641和1534,男性为2093和1979人。男性酒精能量的累积贡献率为6.7%。12d-WDRS和FFQ之间营养素量化后对数变换Pearson中位CCS在女性为0.51,男性为0.38。男性碳水化合物和饱和脂肪酸摄入量之间的CCS低于之前在东海使用相同FFQ进行的研究,但一致率的结果与东海的研究一致。结论:尽管我们应该考虑到FFQ会低估碳水化合物和其他营养素,但FFQ可用于日本高酒精消费这一群体分类比较的流行病学研究。
关键词:有效性、食物频率问卷、酒精消费、称重饮食记录、能量摄入

 

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Novel dietary intake assessment in populations with poor literacy
ASVINI K SUBASINGHE, AMANDA G THRIFT, ROGER G EVANS, SIMIN ARABSHAHI, ODURU SURESH, KAMAKSHI KARTIK, KARTIK KALYANRAM AND KAREN Z WALKER
Background and Objectives: Cultural and/or environmental barriers make the assessment of dietary intake in rural populations challenging. We aimed to assess the accuracy of a meal recall questionnaire, adapted for use with impoverished South Indian populations living in rural areas. Methods and Study Design: Dietary data collected by recall versus weighed meals were compared. Data were obtained from 45 adults aged 19-85 years, living in rural Andhra Pradesh, who were recruited by convenience sampling. Weighed meal records (WMRs) were conducted in the household by a researcher aided by a trained field worker. The following day, field workers conducted a recall interview with the same participant. Eight life size photographs of portions of South Indian foods were created to aid each participant’s recall and a database of nutrients was developed to calculate nutrient intake. Pearson correlations were used to assess the strength of associations between intake of energy and nutrients calculated from meal recalls versus WMRs. Least products regression was conducted to examine fixed and proportional bias. Bland-Altman plots were constructed to measure systematic or differential bias. Results: Significant correlations were observed between estimates for energy and nutrients obtained by the two methods (r2=0.19-0.67, p<0.001). No systematic bias was detected by Bland-Altman plots. Recall method underestimated the intake of protein and fat in a manner proportional to the level of intake. Conclusions: Our culturally adapted meal recall questionnaire provides an accurate measure for assessment of the intake of energy, macronutrients and some micronutrients in rural Indian populations.
Key Words: food recall, weighed meal record, rural, disadvantage, South India
 

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評估讀寫能力較差族群飲食攝取的新穎方法
背景與目的:文化與/或環境障礙是評估農村人口飲食攝取的挑戰。我們的目地為評估一份適用於居住在貧困的南印度農村人口的餐食回憶問卷的正確性。方法與研究設計:飲食資料以回憶法及膳食秤重法收集並比較。資料來自於19-85歲居住在Andhra Pradesh農村的45名便利取樣的成人。由一名研究者加上受過訓的田野工作者的協助,在家戶中進行膳食秤重紀錄(WMRs)。翌日,田野工作者會進行同一位參與者的回憶訪視。有八個實際尺寸的南印度食物份量圖片被用以輔助參與者回憶,一個營養素資料庫用以計算營養素攝取量被發展。以皮爾森相關評估膳食回憶法及WMRs所計算的熱量及營養素攝取相關強度。以最小積差迴歸評估固定的及比例的偏差。Bland-Altman圖被用以以測量系統或差別偏差。結果:兩種方法所計算的熱量及營養素有顯著相關性(r2=0.19-0.67,p<0.001)。Bland-Altman圖沒有發現系統性偏差。回憶法在蛋白質及脂肪攝取量有等比例低估的情形。結論:在印度農村族群,因應文化的餐食回憶問卷可提供評估熱量、巨量營養素及部分微量營養素的正確測量。
關鍵字:飲食回憶、餐食秤重紀錄、農村、缺點、南印度

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Melanocortin-4 receptor rs17782313 polymorphisms are associated with serum triglycerides in older Chinese women
JIANJUN YANG, QINGHAN GAO, XIANGHUI GAO, XIUJUAN TAO, HUIZHEN CAI, YANNA FAN, NA ZHANG, YUHONG ZHANG, LIN LI AND HONGYU LI
Background and Objectives: MC4R (melanocortin-4 receptor) gene polymorphisms have been associated with serum triglycerides (TG) in Caucasians and Japanese, but no reports are available Chinese. The purpose of this study was to find whether there was an association of rs17782313 polymorphisms at the MC4R gene with serum TG in elderly Chinese. Methods and Study Design: 2,012 over 40 years participated in a cross-sectional study in which their body mass index (BMI), TG, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and MC4R rs17782313 polymorphisms were determined. Results: For women, carriers of the T/T genotype had significantly lower serum TG than those with C/C genotype (p=0.006). Carriers of the C/C genotype of this polymorphisms exhibited significantly lower fasting HDL-C levels compared with T/T and T/C genotypes (p=0.025), and increased glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (p=0.043), but no change in blood pressure. Higher serum TG in carriers of the C/C genotype of MC4R gene remained stable after adjustment for age, smoking, drinking, BMI, waist circumference (WC) and three or more components of the metabolic syndrome (MS) by multivariable linear regression (p=0.01) in women. The carriers of the C/C genotype of MC4R gene showed significantly greater odds ratio for TG than T/C and T/T genotypes, even when adjusted for age, smoking, drinking, BMI and WC in women. Conclusions: The rs17782313 C/C genotype is associated with higher TG levels in older Chinese women.
Key Words: melanocortin-4 receptor, serum triglyceride, polymorphisms, Chinese women, cross-sectional study
 

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黑色素皮质激素-4 受体基因rs17782313 多态性与中国老年女性血清甘油三酯的相关性研究
背景与目的:研究显示高加索人和日本人的黑色素皮质激素-4受体(MC4R)基因多态性与血清甘油三酯(TG)相关,但没有关于中国人的报道。本研究的目的是研究黑色素皮质激素-4受体基因rs17782313多态性是否与中国老年人血清甘油三酯有关。方法与研究设计:本研究采用横断面的研究方法调查了2012位年龄在40岁以上的成年人,测定其体质指数、甘油三酯、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇以及黑色素皮质激素-4受体基因rs17782313多态性等指标。结果:携带T/T基因型的女性血清甘油三酯明显低于携带C/C基因型的女性(p=0.006)。携带C/C基因型的女性的高密度脂蛋白胆固醇则明显低于携带T/T和T/C基因型的女性(p=0.025),但其糖化血红蛋白显著高于携带T/T和T/C基因型的女性(p=0.043),血压无统计学意义。在校正了年龄、吸烟、饮酒、体质指数、腰围和代谢综合征等因素后,多元线性回归分析发现携带C/C基因型的女性有较高的血清甘油三酯(p=0.01)。在女性中,即使校正了年龄、吸烟、饮酒、体质指数和腰围,携带C/C基因型的女性甘油三酯的比值比(OR值)仍然显著高于携带T/C和T/T基因型的女性。结论:中国老年女性的黑色素皮质激素-4受体基因rs17782313的C/C基因型与较高的血清甘油三酯有关。
关键词:黑色素皮质激素-4 受体、血清甘油三酯、多态性、中国女性、横断面研究

 

 

 

 

 

 

Last Updated: March 2016