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1 Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
       Volume 23, 4

         (December 2014)


Abstracts

Contents

Abstract PDF

Mini Review

Nutrition and earthquakes: experience and recommendations
ANDREW P HILLS, NAJAT MOKHTAR, SHARON BROWNIE AND NUALA M BYRNE
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(4):505-513.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.4.23

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Reviews

National nutrition surveys in Asian countries: surveillance and monitoring efforts to improve global health
SUJIN SONG AND WON O SONG
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(4):514-523.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.4.09

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The economic consequences of malnutrition in Cambodia, more than 400 million US dollar lost annually
JACK BAGRIANSKY, NGY CHAMPA, KIMCHOEUN PAK, SOPHIE WHITNEY AND ARNAUD LAILLOU
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(4):524-531.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.4.08

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Low all-cause mortality despite high cardiovascular risk in elderly Greek-born Australians: attenuating potential of diet?
ANTIGONE KOURIS-BLAZOS AND CATHERINE ITSIOPOULOS
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(4):532-544.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.4.16

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Australasian Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition guidelines for supplementation of trace elements during parenteral nutrition
EMMA J OSLAND, AZMAT ALI, ELIZABETH ISENRING, PATRICK BALL, MELVYN DAVIS AND LYN GILLANDERS
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(4):545-554.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.4.21

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Original Research Communications

Nutritional Measurement & Methodology

Energy expenditure measured using indirect calorimeter after minimally invasive esophagectomy in ventilated postoperative patients
TOMOAKI YATABE, HIROYUKI KITAGAWA, KOICHI YAMASHITA, KAZUHIRO HANAZAKI, MASATAKA YOKOYAMA
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(4):555-559.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.4.20

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Prognostic validity of 3-Minute Nutrition Screening (3-MinNS) in predicting length of hospital stay, readmission, cost of hospitalisation and mortality: a cohort study
SU LIN LIM, CORYN JINGMIN LEE AND YIONG HUAK CHAN
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(4):560-566.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.4.19

 

 

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Clinical Nutrition or Feeding Studies

Effect of daily milk supplementation on serum and umbilical cord blood folic acid concentrations in pregnant Han and Mongolian women and birth characteristics in China
YUN-FENG LI, NA-SHUN HU, XIAO-BIN TIAN, LI LI, SHANG-MING WANG, XIANG-BO XU, NING WANG, CUI-GE SHI, JIN-CAI ZHU, JING-SHENG SUN, JIN-HUA BAO, SI-HAI LANG, CHANG-JIANG LI, DE-GANG FAN, LING ZHANG, BIN ZHANG, YU GAO, BIN HE, JIE-DONG WANG AND SHU-CHENG ZHANG
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(4):567-574
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doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.4.18

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Efficacy of probiotic therapy in full-term infants with critical illness
YU WANG, LI GAO, YU-HUA ZHANG, CHANG-SONG SHI AND CHUN-MING REN
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(4):575-580.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.4.14

 

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Turmeric improves post-prandial working memory in pre-diabetes independent of insulin
MEEI-SHYUAN LEE, MARK L WAHLQVIST, YU-CHING CHOU, WEN-HUI FANG, JIUNN-TAY LEE, JEN-CHUN KUAN, HSIAO-YU LIU, TING-MEI LU, LILI XIU, CHIH-CHENG HSU, ZANE B ANDREWS AND WEN-HARN PAN
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(4):581-591.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.4.24

 

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Management trajectories in the type 2 diabetes Integrated Delivery System project in Taiwan: accounting for behavioral therapy, nutrition education and therapeutics
HSING-YI CHANG, MARK L WAHLQVIST, WEN-LING LIU, MEEI-SHYUAN LEE, SHYI-JANG SHIN, YU-SHENG LI, CHIH-JEN CHANG, CHWEN-TZUEI CHANG, MAO-TSU FUH, HUNG-JEN YANG, TONG-YUAN TAI AND CHIH-CHENG HSU
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(4):592-606.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.4.06

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Early enteral nutrition after total gastrectomy for gastric cancer
WEI CHEN, ZHENG ZHANG, MAOMING XIONG, XIANGLING MENG, FEN DAI, JUN FANG, HONG WAN AND MIAOFENG WANG
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(4):607-611.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.4.15

 

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Nutritional Status, Dietary Intake, and Body Composition

 

Pattern and predictors of dairy consumption during adolescence
BAMINI GOPINATH, VICTORIA M FLOOD, GEORGE BURLUTSKY, JIMMY CY LOUIE, LOUISE A BAUR AND PAUL MITCHELL

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(4):612-618.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.4.05

 

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Assessment of muscle mass and its association with protein intake in a multi-ethnic Asian population: relevance in chronic kidney disease
BOON WEE TEO, QI CHUN TOH, XUE WEI CHAN, HUI XU, JIA LIANG LI AND EVAN JC LEE
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(4):619-625
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doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.4.01

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Assessment of iodine status and associated factors in vulnerable populations in Henan Province, China, in 2012
JIN YANG, HEMING ZHENG, XIAOFENG LI, LIN ZHU, ZONGYU HAO, GAN CHEN, YANG LIU AND YANLI WANG
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(4):626-633.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.4.03

 

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Maternal and Clild Nutrition

Feeding patterns before 6 months of age: the relative validity of recall from interviews of mothers of Guatemalan infants and toddlers
MARIEKE VOSSENAAR, ILSE VAN BEUSEKOM, COLLEEN DOAK AND NOEL W SOLOMONS
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(4):634-640.
doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.4.07

 

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Retrospective tracking of young obese children back to birth in Japan: special attention to the relationship with parental obesity
RENA KATO, MASARU KUBOTA, YUKA YASUI, YUMI HAYASHI, YUKIE HIGASHIYAMA AND AYAKO NAGAI
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(4):641-650.
doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.4.17

 

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Body satisfaction, emotional intelligence, and the development of disturbed eating: a survey of Taiwanese students
YUECHING WONG, JING-SHAN LIN AND YU-JHEN CHANG
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(4):651-659.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.4.02

 

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Water and nutrient intake in pregnant New Zealand women: association with wheeze in their infants at 18 months
PATRICIA ELLYETT WATSON AND BARRY WILLIAM MCDONALD
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(4):660-670.

doi:10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.4.13

 

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Evaluating the micronutrient status of women of child-bearing age living in the rural disaster areas one year after Wenchuan Earthquake
CAIXIA DONG, PENGFEI GE, XIAOLAN REN, XIANFENG ZHAO, HAOQIANG FAN, SHI-AN YIN AND ELISABETE WEIDERPASS
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(4):671-677.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.4.22

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Nutritional Epidemiology and Public Health

Development and validity of a 3-day smartphone assisted 24-hour recall to assess beverage consumption in a Chinese population: a randomized cross-over study
LINDSEY P SMITH, JENNA HUA, EDMUND SETO, SHUFA DU, JIAJIE ZANG, SHURONG ZOU, BARRY M POPKIN AND MICHELLE A MENDEZ
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(4):678-690.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.4.10

 

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Clinical Nutrition Practice

 

Coffee consumption patterns in Korean adults: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001-2011)
YOUJIN JE, SEONGHYUN JEONG AND TAEYOUNG PARK
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(4):691-702.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.4.11

 

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Geographic factors as determinants of food security: a Western Australian food pricing and quality study
CHRISTINA MARY POLLARD, TIMOTHY JOHN LANDRIGAN, PERNILLA LAILA ELLIES, DEBORAH ANNE KERR, MATTHEW LANGDON UNDERWOOD LESTER, AND STANLEY EDWARD GOODCHILD
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(4):703-713.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.4.12

 

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Home food availability is associated with multiple socio-economic indicators in 50 year olds from Canterbury, New Zealand
RENÉE WILSON, RICHARD B GEARRY, EMILY GRANT, JOHN PEARSON AND PAULA ML SKIDMORE
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(4):714-722.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.4.04

 

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Future Events

 

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(4):723.

 

 

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Nutrition and earthquakes: experience and recommendations
NOBUYO TSUBOYAMA-KASAOKA AND MARTALENA BR PURBA

In order to sustain life during the occurrence of a natural disaster, it is vital to ensure that people’s intake of water and food is adequate (prioritizing first energy, then protein and water-soluble vitamins). Infants, pregnant women, patients, and the elderly are particularly vulnerable to insufficiencies in food intake, even if they are provided with the same quantity of food as others, and providing them with dietary and nutritional support becomes a high priority as their insufficient intake of energy and protein becomes long term. It is necessary to have a system in place for identifying those who are vulnerable and in need of support and providing them with the items (food) and nutritional care that they require. Eating is equivalent to living, and if the vulnerable themselves recognize the importance of food and nutrition, this will help improve the nutritional situation of the entire population. It is recommended that measures be taken in non-emergency periods such as stockpiling food for special dietary uses.
Key Words: insufficient intake, malnutrition, vulnerable people, preparedness, food for special dietary uses
 

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營養與地震:經驗及建議
確保民眾在天然災害發生期間,有足夠的水及食物攝取來維持生命,至為重要(優先順序,第一為熱量、再者為蛋白質及水溶性維生素)。嬰兒、孕婦、病人及老人是易受傷害族群,即便提供他們與他人等量的食物,仍可能受到食物攝取不足的影響。因此,若長期熱量及蛋白質攝取不足為必然時,給予這個族群飲食及營養的支持,成為優先的措施。需要有個系統就定位,能正確地鑑定出那些人是易感族群,需要特殊的支持,並提供他們所須的食物及營養照護。吃等同於生活,假如易感族群本身能認知食物及營養的重要性,將可幫助改善全體族群的營養狀況。建議在非緊急期間採取一些措施,如儲備特殊飲食使用的食物。
關鍵字:攝取不足、營養不良、易感族群、整備、特殊膳食用食物

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National nutrition surveys in Asian countries: surveillance and monitoring efforts to improve global health
SUJIN SONG AND WON O SONG
Asian regions have been suffering from growing double burden of nutritional health problems, such as undernutrition and chronic diseases. National nutrition survey plays an essential role in helping to improve both national and global health and reduce health disparities. The aim of this review was to compile and present the information on current national nutrition surveys conducted in Asian countries and suggest relevant issues in implementation of national nutrition surveys. Fifteen countries in Asia have conducted national nutrition surveys to collect data on nutrition and health status of the population. The information on national nutrition survey of each country was obtained from government documents, international organizations, survey website of governmental agencies, and publications, including journal articles, books, reports, and brochures. The national nutrition survey of each country has different variables and procedures. Variables of the surveys include sociodemographic and lifestyle variables; foods and beverages intake, dietary habits, and food security of individual or household; and health indicators, such as anthropometric and biochemical variables. The surveys have focused on collecting data about nutritional health status in children aged under five years and women of reproductive ages, nutrition intake adequacy and prevalence of obesity and chronic diseases for all individuals. To measure nutrition and health status of Asian populations accurately, improvement of current dietary assessment methods with various diet evaluation tools is necessary. The information organized in this review is important for researchers, policy makers, public health program developers, educators, and consumers in improving national and global health.
Key Words: national nutrition survey, surveillance, monitoring, Asia, global health

 

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亚洲国家的全国营养普查:利用监测和监控来提高全球健康水平
亚洲地区现在正出现双重营养健康问题,比如营养不良和慢性疾病。全国营养普查在帮助提高国家和全球健康水平和减少健康不平等至关重要的作用。本综述的目的是整理和呈现当前亚洲各个国家中全国营养普查信息,并对全国营养普查出现的一些问题提出建议。亚洲有15个国家开展了全国性的营养普查来收集人群营养健康状况资料。每个国家营养普查的资料来源于政府文件、国际组织、政府机构的调查网站、一些出版物,包括发表在期刊的文章、书籍、报道 以及一些小册子等。各个国家营养普查有其不同变量和程序。普查的变量包括,社会人口和生活方式、食物和饮料、饮食习惯和个人或家庭的食品保障;还有一些健康指标方面的变量,比如人体测量指标和生化指标。调查主要侧重于收集5 岁以下儿童和孕龄妇女的营养健康状况、个人的营养摄入是否充足、肥胖以及慢性疾病的发病情况。为了精确测量亚洲人群的营养和健康状况,改进目前的饮食评估方法与不同的饮食评估工具是必要的。本综述中收集整理的信息对研究人员、政策制定者、公共卫生计划发展人员、教育学者以及消费者在提高国家和全球健康状况方面都有重要意义。
关键词:国家营养普查、监测、监控、亚洲、全球健康

 

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The economic consequences of malnutrition in Cambodia, more than 400 million US dollar lost annually
JACK BAGRIANSKY, NGY CHAMPA, KIMCHOEUN PAK, SOPHIE WHITNEY AND ARNAUD LAILLOU
Background: Cambodia is among the 28 worst countries globally with the highest rates of childhood malnutrition. The aim of the assessment was to apply published evidence associating malnutrition and a variety of functional consequences to project economic implications of this high rate of childhood malnutrition. Such information is vital to advocate for appropriate programs and action plan to reduce malnutrition (from severe stunting to micronutrient deficiencies). Methods: This exercise used a “consequence model” to apply these “coefficients of loss” established in the global scientific literature to Cambodia health, demographic and economic data to develop a national estimation of the economic losses link to malnutrition. Results: The impact of the indicators of malnutrition analysed represent a burden to the national economy of Cambodia estimated at more than $400 million annually -2.5% of GDP. Micronutrient deficiencies suggest deficits in the quality of the diet - representing a national burden of more than $200 million annually while breastfeeding behaviours account for 6% of the burden. 57% of the losses emerge from indicators measured in children, while 43% of losses are from indicators independent of childhood measurements - indicators of maternal behaviour along with maternal and adult nutrition. Conclusions: Given the low cost of interventions and the high baseline losses, investment in nutrition programs in Cambodia is likely to offer high returns and attractive benefit cost ratios. Since nearly half the losses are determined prior to the birth of the child, this has implications for targeting and timing of programs.
Key Words: malnutrition, Cambodia, stunting, micronutrient, behaviour

 

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柬埔寨营养不良的经济后果:每年损失超过4 亿美元
背景:柬埔寨是全球28个儿童营养不良发生率最高的国家之一。本文的目的是运用已发表的营养不良相关的证据及对各种功能的影响,来评估儿童营养不良高发率的经济影响。这些信息对提出合适的方案和行动计划来降低营养不良(从严重的发育迟缓到微量营养素缺乏)是至关重要的。方法:本研究用全球科学文献中关于柬埔寨人的健康、人口和文化的数据,使用“结果模型”,应用“损失系数”以评估国家与营养不良相关的经济损失。结果:据估计因营养不良指标的影响,柬埔寨国家经济负担每年增加4亿美元以上,约占国家GDP的2.5%。微量营养素缺乏表明膳食质量差,每年给国家造成超过2亿的负担,其中母乳喂养行为占6%。57%的损失来自儿童测量指标,其他43%的损失来自独立于儿童测量的相关指标,如孕产妇的行为指标及孕产妇和成人的营养。结论:鉴于干预成本低、基线损失高,在柬埔寨投资营养计划有可能获得高回报和引人注目的收益成本比。由于将近一半的损失在孩子出生之前就决定了,这预示着项目投资的定位和时间应放在出生前。
关键词:营养不良、柬埔寨、发育迟缓、微量营养素、行为


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Low all-cause mortality despite high cardiovascular risk in elderly Greek-born Australians: attenuating potential of diet?
ANTIGONE KOURIS-BLAZOS AND CATHERINE ITSIOPOULOS
Elderly Greek-born Australians (GA) consistently show lower rates of all-cause and CVD mortality compared with Australian-born. Paradoxically, however, this is in spite of a higher prevalence of CVD risk factors. This paper reviews the findings from the Food Habits in Later Life (FHILL) study, other studies on Greek migrants to Australia and clinical studies investigating dietary mechanisms which may explain the “morbidity mortality paradox”. The FHILL study collected data between 1988 and 1991 on diet, health and psycho-social variables on 818 people aged 70 and over from Sweden, Greece, Australia (Greeks and Anglo-Celts), Japan and were followed up for 5-7 years to determine survival status. The FHILL study was the first to develop a score which captured the key features of a traditional plant-based Mediterranean diet pattern (MDPS). A higher score improved overall survival in both Greek and non-Greek elderly reducing the risk of death by 50% after 5-7 years. Of the 5 cohorts studied, elderly GA had the lowest risk of death, even though they had the highest rates of obesity and other CVD risk factors (developed in the early years of migration with the introduction of energy dense foods). GA appeared to be “getting away” with these CVD risk factors because of their continued adherence in old age to a Mediterranean diet, especially legumes. We propose that the Mediterranean diet may, in part, be operating to reduce the risk of death and attenuate established CVD risk factors in GA by beneficially altering the gut microbiome and its metabolites.
Key Words: morbidity mortality paradox, all-cause mortality, CVD risk factors, Mediterranean diet, microbiome
 

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希腊出生的澳大利亚老年人群尽管心血管疾病风险高,但全死因死亡率低:是由于他们的膳食引起的吗?
与澳大利亚出生的老年人相比,希腊出生的澳大利亚老人全死因死亡率和心血管疾病死亡率一直都较低,然而,这与其心血管疾病风险因子的高发率相矛盾。本文综述了希腊人移民到澳大利亚后生活饮食习惯对后期生命的研究,其研究结果可能能够用膳食机制解释临床研究的“发病率死亡率悖论”。本课题收集了1988-1991年之间关于生活饮食习惯对后期生命的研究,包括来自瑞典、希腊、澳大利亚(希腊人和盎格鲁-凯尔特人)、日本的818名70岁及其以上人饮食、健康和社会心理等参数资料,随访5-7 年以确定其生存状态。该研究首次形成以得分来获得以传统植物为基础的地中海膳食模式的主要特征。较高的得分能够提高希腊老人和非希腊老人总的生存率,并使其5-7年后的死亡风险降低50%。5个队列研究中,希腊出生的澳大利亚老人死亡风险最低,尽管他们的肥胖和其它心血管疾病风险因子的发生率最高(在移民早期因高能量密度食物的摄入而形成的)。希腊出生的澳大利亚人似乎“摆脱了”心血管疾病 风险因子,因为他们在年老时仍然坚持地中海膳食,尤其是豆类。我们认为地中海膳食可能能够通过改变希腊出生的澳大利亚人的肠道微生物及其代谢产物,部分降低其死亡风险并减弱已确定的心血管疾病风险因子。
关键词:发病率死亡率悖论、全死因死亡率、心血管疾病风险因子、地中海
膳食、微生物

 

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Australasian Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition guidelines for supplementation of trace elements during parenteral nutrition
EMMA J OSLAND, AZMAT ALI, ELIZABETH ISENRING, PATRICK BALL, MELVYN DAVIS AND LYN GILLANDERS
Background: This work represents the first part of a progressive review of AuSPEN’s 1999 Guidelines for Provision of Micronutrient Supplementation in Adult Patients receiving Parenteral Nutrition, in recognition of the developments in the literature on this topic since that time. Methods: A systematic literature review was undertaken and recommendations were made based on the available evidence and with consideration to specific elements of the Australian and New Zealand practice environment. The strength of evidence underpinning each recommendation was assessed. External reviewers provided feedback on the guidelines using the AGREE II tool. Results: Reduced doses of manganese, copper, chromium and molybdenum, and an increased dose of selenium are recommended when compared with the 1999 guidelines. Currently the composition of available multi-trace element formulations is recognised as an obstacle to aligning these guidelines with practice. A paucity of available literature and limitations with currently available methods of monitoring trace element status are acknowledged. The currently unknown clinical impact of changes to trace element contamination of parenteral solutions with contemporary practices highlights need for research and clinical vigilance in this area of nutrition support practice. Conclusions: Trace elements are essential and should be provided daily to patients receiving parenteral nutrition. Monitoring is generally only required in longer term parenteral nutrition, however should be determined on an individual basis. Industry is encouraged to modify existing multi-trace element solutions available in Australia and New Zealand to reflect changes in the literature outlined in these guidelines. Areas requiring research are highlighted.
Key Words: trace elements, guidelines, parenteral nutrition, manganese, selenium
 

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澳大利亚肠内肠外营养学会肠外营养补充微量元素指南

背景:这项工作代表了澳大利亚肠内肠外营养学会自1999年出台《对接受肠道外营养的成年患者微量元素补充指南》以来对该领域进展的认可按文献进行逐步综述的第一部分。方法:通过系统文献综述,基于现有证据并考虑对澳大利亚和新西兰执业环境的具体内容提出建议。对每项建议的证据力度进行评估。外部评审人员通过AGREE II 对指南提供反馈。结果:相比于1999年的指南,建议减少锰、铜、铬和钼的剂量,增加硒的剂量。目前市面上多元微量元素配方的成分是公认的指南实践中的障碍。现有文献的缺乏及监测微量元素状况的方法存在局限性,使用的肠外营养中微量元素污染对临床的影响不清楚,需要进一步研究及临床实践。结论:接受肠外营养的患者需要每天补充微量元素。在结合个体情况基础上,只需对接受长期肠外营养的患者进行监测,然而要个案处理。在澳大利亚和新西兰,鼓励企业根据新的研究成果修订的指调整多元微量元素溶液。该领域需要加大研究投入。

关键词:微量元素、指南、肠外营养、锰、硒

 

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Energy expenditure measured using indirect calorimeter after minimally invasive esophagectomy in ventilated postoperative patients
TOMOAKI YATABE, HIROYUKI KITAGAWA, KOICHI YAMASHITA, KAZUHIRO HANAZAKI, MASATAKA YOKOYAMA
Minimally invasive esophagectomy has recently become popular after the laparoscopic technique was developed. However, the postoperative energy expenditure in patients undergoing this procedure has not been evaluated. Therefore, we hypothesized that postoperative resting energy expenditure (REE) following minimally invasive esophagectomy is lower than that estimated using the Harris-Benedict equation. Fifteen patients who underwent esophagectomy by thoracoscopy in the prone position were analyzed. After esophagectomy, an indirect calorimeter measured the energy expenditure during ventilation in the ICU. These values and the estimated basal energy expenditure values were compared using the paired t test. The mean age was 66±10 years and mean duration of ventilator use in the ICU was 697±70 mins. The acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores at the time of ICU admission were 13±4 and 2±1, respectively. The average temperature, heart rate, and respiratory rate during ventilation were 36.2±0.6°C, 67±9 beats/min, and 12±2/min, respectively. The average REE during ventilation was 985±167 kcal/day (18.1±3.4 kcal/kg/day). The estimated REE was 1191±159 kcal/day. The average REE measured using the indirect calorimeter during ventilation was significantly lower than the estimated REE (83±10% of the estimated REE, p<0.001). In conclusion, the REE measured by an indirect calorimeter after minimally invasive esophagectomy at early postoperative stage under sedation was significantly lower than the REE estimated using the Harris-Benedict equation.
Key Words: minimally invasive esophagectomy, indirect calorimetery, Harris-Benedict equation, intensive care unit, resting energy expenditure

 

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用间接热量计测量微创食管切除术后通气患者的能量消耗
腹腔镜技术开发后,微创食管切除术近来成为流行。然而,接受该手术的患者术后的能量消耗尚未进行评估。因此,我们假设微创食管切除术后患者静息能量消耗(REE)低于用Harris-Benedict 公式估算的能量消耗。本研究分析了15例俯卧位接受胸腔镜食管切除术的患者。在重症监护室(ICU)用间接热量计测量食管切除术后通气患者的能量消耗。使用配对T 检验,比较测得的能量消耗和估计的基础能量消耗。患者的平均年龄为66±10 岁,在ICU 使用呼吸机的平均时间是697±70 分钟。在ICU 住院期间急性生理和慢性健康评估II(APACHE II)和序贯器官衰竭评估的得分分别为13±4 和2±1。食管切除通气期间患者的平均体温、心率和呼吸频率分别为36.2±0.6℃、67±9 次/分和12±2 次/分,平均REE 是985±167 千卡/天(18.1±3.4 千卡/千克/天)。根据Harris-Benedict 公式估算的REE 为1191±159 千卡/天。用间接热量计测量的食管切除通气期间的平均REE 显著低于估算的REE( 是估算的REE 的83±10%,p<0.001)。综上所述,用间接热量计测得的微创食管切除术后早期镇静阶段的能量消耗显著低于用Harris-Benedict 公式估算的能量消耗。
关键词:微创食管切除术、间接热量测定、Harris-Benedict 公式、重症监护
室、静息能量消耗


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Prognostic validity of 3-Minute Nutrition Screening (3-MinNS) in predicting length of hospital stay, readmission, cost of hospitalisation and mortality: a cohort study
SU LIN LIM, CORYN JINGMIN LEE AND YIONG HUAK CHAN
It is important to identify patients who are at risk of malnutrition upon hospital admission as malnutrition results in poor outcomes such as longer length of hospital stay, readmission, hospitalisation cost and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic validity of 3-Minute Nutrition Screening (3-MinNS) in predicting hospital outcomes in patients admitted to an acute tertiary hospital through a list of diagnosis-related groups (DRG). In this study, 818 adult patients were screened for risk of malnutrition using 3-MinNS within 24 hours of admission. Mortality data was collected from the National Registry with other hospitalisation outcomes retrieved from electronic hospital records. The results were adjusted for age, gender and ethnicity, and matched for DRG. Patients identified to be at risk of malnutrition (37%) using 3-MinNS had significant positive association with longer length of hospital stay (6.6±7.1 days vs 4.5±5.5 days, p<0.001), higher hospitalisation cost (S$4540±7190 vs S$3630±4961, p<0.001) and increased mortality rate at 1 year (27.8% vs 3.9%), 2 years (33.8% vs 7.2%) and 3 years (39.1% vs 10.5%); p<0.001 for all. The 3-MinNS is able to predict clinical outcomes and can be used to screen newly admitted patients for nutrition risk so that appropriate nutrition assessment and early nutritional intervention can be initiated.
Key Words: nutrition risk, 3-Minute Nutrition Screening (3-MinNS), prognostic validity, outcomes, mortality 

 

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三分钟营养筛查预测住院时间、再入院、住院费用和死亡率的有效性:一项队列研究
营养不良会导致住院时间延长、再入院、住院费用增加和死亡率增加等不良预后,因此确定住院患者是否存在营养不良风险很重要。本研究的目的是通过诊断相关组列表(DRG)确定三分钟营养筛查(3-MinNS)在预测三级医院急性住院患者临床结果的预后有效性。在这项研究中,有818 名成年患者在入院24 小时内用3-MinNS 筛查了其营养不良风险。从国家登记的包括其它住院治疗结果的医院电子档案中获得死亡率数据。结果校正了年龄、性别和种族,并以诊断相关组进行匹配。用3-MinNS 确定的有营养不良风险的患者占37%,与营养不良呈显著正相关的有:较长的住院时间(6.6±7.1 天 vs 4.5±5.5 天, p<0.001)、较高的住院费用(S$4540±7190 vs S$3630±4961, p<0.001)以及增加的死亡率(第1 年为27.8% vs 3.9%,第2 年为33.8% vs 7.2%,第3 年为 39.1% vs 10.5%, p<0.001)。3-MinNS 能够预测临床预后,可用于新入院患者的营养风险筛查,以便进行适当的营养评估和早期营养干预。
关键词:营养风险、三分钟营养筛查、预测效度、结果、死亡率


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Effect of daily milk supplementation on serum and umbilical cord blood folic acid concentrations in pregnant Han and Mongolian women and birth characteristics in China
YUN-FENG LI, NA-SHUN HU, XIAO-BIN TIAN, LI LI, SHANG-MING WANG, XIANG-BO XU, NING WANG,CUI-GE SHI, JIN-CAI ZHU, JING-SHENG SUN, JIN-HUA BAO, SI-HAI LANG, CHANG-JIANG LI, DE-GANG FAN, LING ZHANG, BIN ZHANG, YU GAO, BIN HE, JIE-DONG WANG AND SHU-CHENG ZHANG
Many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of folic acid (FA) supplementation in prevention of neural tube defects (NTDs), although the extent of NTDs varies among individuals of different races and ethnic origin. China is a multi-ethnic country with no standard practice for FA-fortified food. Milk is consumed by women, but little is known about the effects of milk on folate concentration in maternal blood and neonatal umbilical cord blood in Han and Mongolian women after stopping taking the supplement for a month and five month, respectively. The objective of this study was to determine whether only daily consumption of liquid milk can increase the blood folate concentration in pregnant women and whether there are differences in blood folate concentrations between Han and Mongolian women after cessation of FA supplementation. Of the 4052 women enrolled in the parallel group design study. Three thousand five hundred and twenty-six women had confirmed pregnancies and were randomized to receive liquid milk or not until delivery. Women who consumed the liquid milk had significantly increased serum folate concentrations at 16 and 32 weeks of gestation as well as cord blood at birth compared to control groups in both ethnic groups. Infants born to women drinking milk also had better the term birth weight and height, which may be related to the increased concentration of folate. In conclusion, daily consumption of milk can increase the serum folate concentration in pregnant Han and Mongolian women in China (differences in the efficacy of FA and milk supplementation) and may enhance birth outcomes.
Key Words: folic acid, milk, neonatal birth weight, birth defects, umbilical cord blood
 

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每日补充牛奶对中国汉族和蒙古族怀孕妇女血清和脐带血中叶酸浓度以及新生儿特征的影响
许多研究证明补充叶酸能够有效预防神经管畸形,然而不同种族间神经管畸形的发生程度不同。中国是一个没有实施叶酸强化标准食物的多民族国家,尚不清楚补充牛奶是否对中国汉族和蒙古族怀孕妇女停止服用叶酸1个月和5个月后的血清和脐带血中叶酸含量有影响。本研究的目的是确定怀孕妇女停止服用叶酸后,每天补充液体牛奶是否能够增加血液中叶酸的含量,以及汉族和蒙古族之间是否有差别?4052 名妇女参与了此项研究,其中3526名妇女被确认怀,随机分为补充牛奶组和不补充牛奶组。结果显示补充牛奶后,无论汉族还是蒙古族,在孕16 周和32 周及脐带血中的叶酸含量都显著升高。补充牛奶的 妇女所生婴儿的体重和身高都好于未补充牛奶妇女所生的婴儿,这可能和血清中叶酸浓度的升高有关。总而言之,每天补充牛奶能够提高中国汉族和蒙古族怀孕妇女血清中的叶酸浓度,并可能改善出生结局。
关键词:叶酸、牛奶、新生儿出生体重、出生缺陷、脐带血

 

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Efficacy of probiotic therapy in full-term infants with critical illness
YU WANG, LI GAO, YU-HUA ZHANG, CHANG-SONG SHI AND CHUN-MING REN

Background: Probiotics are microbial supplements that have shown efficacy in a wide range of applications. To assess the safety and effects of enteral probiotics in critically ill neonates. Methods: A double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted in 100 full-term infants with critical illness according to scores of neonatal acute physiology. Fifty neonatal intensive care patients were randomly assigned to receive probiotics three times daily after birth for 8 days, and fifty patients were not given probiotics, but who received a placebo. The incidence of sepsis, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), nosocomial pneumonia, and necrotizing enterocolitis were recorded. The prognosis of probiotic treatment was determined based on the rate of recovery and hospital days. Serum IgA, IgG, and IgM concentrations were measured on days 4 and 8. Results: Infants in the probiotics group showed a significantly reduced rate of nosocomial pneumonia (18% versus 36%) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (6% versus 16%) compared with the placebo group (p<0.05). Significant results were demonstrated in favour of the probiotics for days of hospital stay (13±3.5 d versus 15.8±5.3 d) (p<0.05). However, there were no significant differences in the occurrence of sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and recovery rate. Patients given probiotics had significantly greater levels of IgA than those in the placebo group (p<0.05). No serious adverse effects in the study population were noted. Conclusions: Supplements of probiotics to critically ill neonates could enhance immune activity, decrease occurrence of nosocomial pneumonia and MODS, and reduce days in hospital.
Key Words: intestinal microbiota, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, intensive care, nosocomial pneumonia, infant

 

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益生菌治疗危重足月儿的疗效
目的:益生菌作为微生态调节剂应用广泛而且效果显著,本研究的目的是为了探讨益生菌治疗危重新生儿的有效性及安全性。方法:根据急性新生儿生理学评分选取100 名危重足月新生儿进行双盲、随机对照试验。 随机给予50 名新生儿口服益生菌治疗,每天三次,连续8 天,另外50 名新生儿则给予安慰剂。记录败血症、多器官功能障碍综合征、院内获得性肺炎及坏死性小肠结肠
炎的发病率,疾病好转率及住院时间,并分别在治疗后第4 天及第8 天测定患儿血浆中IgA、IgG 和IgM 的浓度。结果:治疗组患儿医院获得性肺炎(18%比36% ) 和多器官功能障碍综合征( 6% 比16% ) 显著低于安慰剂组(p<0.05),住院时间(13±3.5 天比15.8±5.3 天)也较安慰剂组明显缩短(p<0.05);但两组患儿的败血症和坏死性小肠结肠炎的发病率及好转率没有显著差异;口服益生菌患儿血浆IgA 水平明显高于安慰剂组;未发现益生菌相关的不良反应。结论:危重新生儿补充益生菌可以增强机体免疫功能,降 低医院获得性肺炎和多器官功能障碍综合征的发病率,减少住院时间。
关键词:肠道菌群、多器官功能障碍综合征、重症监护、医院获得性肺炎、
婴儿

 

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Turmeric improves post-prandial working memory in pre-diabetes independent of insulin
MEEI-SHYUAN LEE, MARK L WAHLQVIST, YU-CHING CHOU, WEN-HUI FANG, JIUNN-TAY LEE, JEN-CHUN KUAN, HSIAO-YU LIU, TING-MEI LU, LILI XIU, CHIH-CHENG HSU, ZANE B ANDREWS AND WEN-HARN PAN
Background and Objectives: Cognitive impairment develops with pre-diabetes and dementia is a complication of diabetes. Natural products like turmeric and cinnamon may ameliorate the underlying pathogenesis. Methods: People ≥60 years (n=48) with newly-recognised untreated pre-diabetes were randomised to a double-blind metabolic study of placebo, turmeric (1g), cinnamon (2g) or both (1g & 2g respectively), ingested at a white bread (119g) breakfast. Observations were made over 6 hours for pre- and post-working memory (WM), glycaemic and insulin responses and biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease (AD)(0,2,4 and 6 hours): amyloid precursor protein (APP), γ-secretase subunits presenilin-1 (PS1), presenilin-2 (PS2), and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3β). Differences between natural product users and non-users were determined by Students t and chi square tests; and between pre-test and post-test WM by Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Interaction between turmeric and cinnamon was tested by 2-way ANOVA. Multivariable linear regression (MLR) took account of BMI, glycaemia, insulin and AD biomarkers in the WM responses to turmeric and cinnamon. Results: No interaction between turmeric and cinnamon was detected. WM increased from 2.6 to 2.9 out of 3.0(p=0.05) with turmeric, but was unchanged with cinnamon. WM improvement was inversely associated with insulin resistance (r=-0.418, p<0.01), but not with AD biomarkers. With MLR, the WM responses to turmeric were best predicted with an R2 of 34.5%; and with significant turmeric, BMI and insulin/glucose AUC beta-coefficients. Conclusions: Co-ingestion of turmeric with white bread increases working memory independent of body fatness, glycaemia, insulin, or AD biomarkers.
Key Words: cognition, Alzheimer’s disease, curcumin, cinnamon, insulin resistance
 

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薑黃改善糖尿病前期患者餐後工作記憶之代謝研究
背景:認知功能失調伴隨糖尿病前期與失智症是糖尿病的併發症之ㄧ。天然食品如薑黃及肉桂可改善此致病機轉。本研究為評估薑黃肉桂如何影響糖尿病前期患者認知功能之代謝研究。方法:對象為三軍總醫院參加老人健檢者,納入條件為其空腹血糖介於100-126 mg/dL,共計48位參與者。經由雙盲性別分層隨機分派至服用口服降血糖藥物或其組合、薑黃、肉桂或其組合及控制組共4組,每組12名,男女各半。參與者須於報到後抽取空腹血液、實施工作記憶前測及測量基本體位資料。再於8時服用早餐及受試藥物,各組分別為安慰劑、薑黃1克、肉桂2克、肉桂2克與薑黃1克等。隨後每隔2小時採集血液,共4次,於最後1次抽血完畢後,再測工作記憶分數。利用RT-PCR技術測得APP、PS1、PS2、GSK-3βmRNA表現量。利用t 檢定及卡方檢定比較天然食品使用者及非使用者平均值之差異;魏克森符號等級檢定工作記憶前測及後測的分數。利用雙因子變異數分析檢定薑黃與肉桂兩植物成分之交互作用。複迴歸模式分析校正身體質量指數、血糖、胰島素濃度、阿茲海默症相關之生物標記後,薑黃肉桂對工作記憶之影響。結果:薑黃與肉桂兩植物成分並無交互作用產生。有服用薑黃者工作記憶平均分數由2.6增加至2.9分,為邊緣性顯著(p=0.05),服用肉桂者工作記憶前後測平均分數沒有顯著差異。工作記憶 分數之改善與胰島素阻抗呈負相關 (r=-0.418, p<0.01),但與阿茲海默症之相關生物標記無顯著相關。複迴歸分析結果顯示服用薑黃、BMI 及胰島素阻抗為工作記憶分數最佳預測 因子。結論:本研究觀察到的薑黃改善認知效果,可能並非透過假設之降血糖途徑或降低生物標記基因表現量而來,推測薑黃有其他保護神經元機制。
關鍵字:認知功能、阿茲海默症、薑黃素、肉桂、胰島素阻抗

 

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Management trajectories in the type 2 diabetes Integrated Delivery System project in Taiwan: accounting for behavioral therapy, nutrition education and therapeutics
HSING-YI CHANG, MARK L WAHLQVIST, WEN-LING LIU, MEEI-SHYUAN LEE, SHYI-JANG SHIN, YU-SHENG LI, CHIH-JEN CHANG, CHWEN-TZUEI CHANG, MAO-TSU FUH, HUNG-JEN YANG, TONG-YUAN TAI AND CHIH-CHENG HSU
Background and aim: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) assessment is basic to diabetes management. Little is done to describe the whole spectrum of the trajectory, its related temporal patterns of metabolic indices, and comorbidities. Methods and Results: This was a longitudinal study. In the Diabetes Management through Integrated Delivery System project in Taiwan, enrollees had diabetes, but no major comorbidities. They were randomized into intensive or conventional education (health, diet and exercise) groups. HbA1c was classified by a groupbased trajectory model on the basis of repeated six-monthly measurements. We analyzed data from 1091 subjects who had at least two measurements on HbA1c. HbA1c exhibited three distinct ranges of low (42-53 mmol/mol), intermediate (64-75 mmol/mol) and high (97 mmol/mol), all of which persisted for 4.5 years regardless of receiving intensive education or not. Temporal changes and a time-group interaction were found for triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C. The high trajectory was associated with the major co-morbidities of retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, stroke, hypoglycemia, and ketoacidosis. Patients in the intensive education group (62.4%), which were equally distributed in the three trajectories, had significantly lower HbA1cs (-0.14%= -1.5 mmol/mol, p=0.026). The intermediate trajectory patients with intensive education had HbA1cs higher than the low trajectory patients with conventional education (b=0.189, p=0.033). Though not significant, a similar pattern was found for DM education in the high group (b=0.223, p=0.154). Conclusions: Novel strategies beyond current education and pharmacotherapeutic regimens are needed to lower HbA1c at least 11 mmol/mol for the high HbA1c group to minimize comorbidities.
Key Words: glycemic control, diabetes complications, metabolic memory, trajectory, DMIDS

 

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「台灣糖尿病社區聯合照護網絡暨長期追蹤計畫」中管理指標的發展軌跡:控制行為、營養教育與藥物治療後的結果
背景:監測糖化血色素(HbA1c)是糖尿病管理的重要指標。但過去未曾有人描述整個糖化血色素在第2型糖尿病進展過程中的改變趨勢,以及相關代謝指標及共病症的時間變化。方法與結果:這是一個長期追蹤研究。「台灣糖尿病社區聯合照護網絡暨長期追蹤計畫」收集沒有重大共病症的糖尿病患者,然後將他們隨機分派到實驗組或對照組。對照組的病人除了按照原有之方式予以照護之外,每年並分發若干衛教教材及施以兩次完整之糖尿病追蹤檢查,而實驗組的病人則由健康管理師依據健保署之給付規定提供額外的諮詢及綜理共同照護服務。研究首先將每六個月測得的HbA1c值依據其長期變化軌跡分做三組,有1091位受試者在研究期間至少有兩次HbA1c的測量值,其明顯可分出三組:低(42-53 mmol/mol)、中(64-75 mmol/mol)及高(97 mmol/mol),這種現象不論在實驗組或對照組持續4.5年,三酸甘油脂(TG)、總膽固醇(total cholesterol)、高密度膽固醇(HDL-C)以及低密度膽固醇(LDL-C)都隨時間改變,並且其時間與分組有交互作用。高軌跡組(血糖長期控制不佳者)有較高的機率罹患眼底病變、腎病變、神經病變、中風、低血糖、及酮酸 中毒。分在衛教組的病人(62%)平均分配在三個軌跡中,他們4.5 年的HbA1c顯著低於對照 組(-0.14%=-1.5 mmol/mol,p=0.026)。而中(b=0.189, p= 0.033)、高(b=0.223, p=0.154)軌跡組的HbA1c 都高於低軌跡組。結論: 要有不同於目前衛教及醫療方式,至少將HbA1c 降11 mmol/mol,臨床上有較多之機會降低第2 型糖尿病患者共病症的發生。
關鍵詞:血糖控制、糖尿病併發症、代謝記憶、發展軌跡、DMIDS

 

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Early enteral nutrition after total gastrectomy for gastric cancer
WEI CHEN, ZHENG ZHANG, MAOMING XIONG, XIANGLING MENG, FEN DAI, JUN FANG, HONG WAN AND MIAOFENG WANG
Objective: To assess the difference between early enteral nutrition (EEN group) and total parenteral nutrition (TPN group) after total gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Method: The nutrition index, liver function, patientgenerated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) score, the post-operation complications, the hospital stay and hospitalization expense of the postoperative patient after total gastrectomy, admitted to our Department of Surgery from May 2011 to May 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. Results: A total of 72 patients including 37 cases in the EEN group and 35 cases in the TPN group were recruited. Hypoalbuminemia gradually improved in the EEN group about 3-5 days, but it did not increase until average 21 days in the TPN group. The body weight decreased in the EEN group during the first 2 weeks and recovered gradually in 21 days; body weight in the TPN group was significantly lower than the EEN group at 21 days (p<0.05). There were significant differences in both the groups (p<0.05) in nutrition indicators. The incidence of complications in the EEN group and TPN group were 8.1% and 25.7% respectively, with no significant differences (p>0.05). The days of hospital stays in the EEN and in the TPN group were up to 12.2±2.5 d vs 14.9±2.9 d (p<0.05) and the hospitalization expenses were 36472±4833 CNY vs 40140±3927 CNY (p<0.05), respectively. Conclusion: Compared with TPN, EEN was safe and well tolerated and can shorten the hospital stay as well as reduce costs incurred with total gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

Key Words: gastric cancer, enteral nutrition, parenteral nutrition, total gastrectomy, complications

 

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胃癌全胃切除术后早期肠内营养
目的:评价胃癌患者全胃切除术后,早期肠内营养(EEN)与全肠外营养(TPN)的差异。方法:收集2011年5月至2013 年5月我科收治的胃癌全胃切除患者,术后随机选择EEN 或TPN,对EEN 组和TPN 组患者术前及术后的营养指标、肝功能、癌症患者营养评估标准(PG-SGA)、术后并发症、住院时间以及住院费用进行对照研究。结果:符合入选标准的胃癌全胃切除患者共72 例,其中EEN 组37 例,TPN 组35 例。EEN 组在术后3~5 天低白蛋白血症逐渐改善,而TPN 组术后21 天才逐渐恢复。EEN 组术后14 天体重较术前减轻,术后21 天逐渐恢复,而TPN 组在术后21 天内体重无明显恢复(p<0.05)。两组营养指标有明显统计学差异(p<0.05)。ENN 组和TPN 组并发症发生率分别为8.1%和25.7%,两组间无明显统计学差异(p>0.05)。ENN 组住院时间为12.2±2.5 天,TPN 组为14.9±2.9 天(p<0.05),ENN 组和TPN 组住院费用分别为36472±4833 元人民币和40140±3927 元人民币(p<0.05)。结论:与TPN 相比,胃癌全胃切除术后选择EEN 安全、患者耐受性好,并且可以缩短住院时间,减少住院总费用。
关键词:胃癌、肠内营养、肠外营养、全胃切除术、并发症


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Pattern and predictors of dairy consumption during adolescence
BAMINI GOPINATH, VICTORIA M FLOOD, GEORGE BURLUTSKY, JIMMY CY LOUIE, LOUISE A BAUR AND PAUL MITCHELL
We aimed to prospectively assess dairy intake among adolescents, and determine the predictors of adequate dairy consumption during adolescence. 634 Sydney schoolchildren (351 girls and 283 boys) who had dietary data at both age 12 and 17 were included for analyses. Dairy consumption was assessed from validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires. At age 12, mean total dairy intake was 1.62 serves/day which decreased to 1.40 by age 17 (p<0.0001). Mean serves/day of milk decreased from 1.11 to 0.92 during adolescence. Moreover, 90% of the decrease in serves/day of total dairy was due to reduced milk consumption. At age 12, 8.5% of children consumed≥3.5 serves/day of total dairy and this decreased to 6.2%, 5 years later at age 17 (p=0.001). A lower proportion of girls compared with boys consumed ≥3 serves/day of total dairy at both ages 12 (p=0.005) and 17 (p=0.01). Participants with tertiary qualified parents at baseline were 85% more likely to have intakes of the dairy food group above the median during the 5 years, OR 1.85 (95% CI 1.18-2.91). Frequent flavored milk consumption (≥2 serves/week) at baseline was associated with ~5-fold greater likelihood of maintaining intakes of dairy foods above the median during adolescence. Dairy food consumption decreased significantly during adolescence, driven primarily by a decrease in milk consumption. Most adolescents did not meet national recommended guidelines for the dairy food group intake. These findings highlight the need for further research into intervention strategies aimed at sustaining dairy consumption.
Key Words: dairy, adolescence, milk, cohort, Sydney Childhood Eye Study
 

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青少年日消耗量的模式和预测
我们前瞻性测量青少年每日摄入量,从而预测他们的日消耗量。有膳食数据的634 位年龄在12-17 岁悉尼在校学生(351 个女孩,283 个男孩)包括在最后分析里。乳品摄入量是用验证的半定量食物频率问卷评估的。12 岁青少年的乳品摄入量是1.62 份/天,而到17 岁,则降为1.40 份、天(p<0.05)。青少年的日均牛奶的摄入量从1.11 降至0.92。而且,90%的每日摄入乳品份数的下降量是有牛奶的摄入减少引起的。12 岁时,有8.5%的儿童乳品摄入大于3.5 份/天,5年之后,即17 岁时,降为6.2%(p=0.001)。无论是12 岁还是17 岁,女孩乳品摄入≥3 份/天的比例都少于于男孩(p=0.005 和p=0.01)。在5 年期间,有85%父母具有高等教育学历的志愿者基线时的乳品摄入高于中位数OR 1.85 (95% CI 1.18-2.91)。青少年基线调味乳品摄入频率(≥2 份/周)与约5 倍高维持乳品摄入在中位数以上相关。青少年乳品摄入的下降主要是牛奶摄入的大量下降所引起。大部分青少年没有达到国家指南推荐的乳品摄取量的标准。这些结果表明,需要对如何维持乳品摄入的干预措施进行深入研究。
关键词:每日、青少年、牛奶、队列、悉尼儿童眼研究中心
 

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Assessment of muscle mass and its association with protein intake in a multi-ethnic Asian population: relevance in chronic kidney disease
BOON WEE TEO, QI CHUN TOH, XUE WEI CHAN, HUI XU, JIA LIANG LI AND EVAN JC LEE

Background: Clinical practice guidelines recommend objective nutritional assessments in managing chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients but were developed while referencing to a North-American population. Specific recommendations for assessing muscle mass were suggested (mid-arm circumference, MAC; corrected mid-arm muscle area, cAMA; mid-arm muscle circumference, MAMC). This study aimed to assess correlation and association of these assessments with dietary protein intake in a multi-ethnic Asian population of healthy and CKD patients. Methods: We analyzed 24-hour urine collections of selected participants to estimate total protein intake (TPI; g/day). Ideal body weight (IDW; kg) was calculated and muscle assessments conducted. Analyses involved correlation and linear regression, taking significance at p<0.05. Results: There were 232 stable CKD patients and 103 healthy participants comprising of 51.0% male, 38.5% Chinese, 29.6% Malay, 23.6% Indian, and 8.4% others. The mean TPI was 58.9±18.4 g/day in healthy participants and 53.6±19.4 g/day in CKD patients. When normalized to ideal body weight, TPI-IDW (g/kg/day) was similar in healthy and CKD participants. Overall, TPI was associated with MAC (r=0.372, p<0.001), cAMA (r=0.337, p<0.001), and MAMC (r=0.351, p<0.001). TPI-IDW was also associated with MAC (r=0.304, p<0.001), cAMA (r=0.202, p<0.001), and MAMC (r=0.200, p<0.001) but not for TPI normalized to actual body weight. When examined separately, TPI was associated with MAC, cAMA, and MAMC in both CKD and healthy participants, but was associated with TPI-IDW only in CKD patients. Conclusion: Total protein intake was associated with muscle assessments in all participants. TPI normalized to IDW should only be used in CKD patients.
Key Words: Asian Continental Ancestry Group, protein, kidney failure, chronic diet, nutrition assessment
 

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多民族亚裔人群中肌肉质量评估及与蛋白质摄入量之间的关系:与慢性肾病的相关性
背景:在慢性肾脏病患者的管理中,临床实践指南推荐的客观营养评估是参考北美人群开发的。具体的肌肉质量评估建议如下:中臂围(MAC)、校正的中臂肌肉面积(cAMA)和中臂肌围(MAMC)。本研究的目的是在多民族亚裔人群中评估健康人和慢性肾脏病患者肌肉质量与膳食蛋白质摄入量之间的关系。方法:我们分析了所收集的参与者24小时尿来估算总蛋白质摄入量(TPI,克/天)。计算理想体重(IDW,千克)并评估肌肉。应用相关性和线性回归分析,显著性定义为p<0.05。结果:共有232 名稳定的慢性肾脏病患者和103 名健康志愿者参加,其平均年龄为53.5±15.1 岁, 51.0%为男性,其中华人占38.5%、马来人占29.6%、印度人占23.6%、其他民族的人占8.4%。健康志愿者和慢性肾脏病患者的TPI 分别为58.9±18.4 克/天和53.6±19.4 克/天。当标准化为理想体重,健康志愿者和慢性肾脏病患者的TPI-IDW(克/千克/日)相似。总体来看,TPI 与MAC、cAMA 和MAMC 相关,相关系数分别为:0.372、0.337 和0.351(p<0.001)。TPI-IDW 也与MAC、cAMA 和MAMC 相关,相关系数分别为:0.304、0.202 和0.200(p<0.001),但是TPI标准化为实际体重与这些肌肉质量评估参数没有相关性。当单独分析时,MAC、cAMA 和MAMC 与健康志愿者和慢性肾脏病患者的TPI 都有关,但只与慢性肾脏病患者的TPI-IDW 有关。结论:总蛋白质摄入量与所有参与者的肌肉评估有关,TPI 标准化为理想体重只适用于慢性肾脏病患者。
关键词:亚洲大陆世系人群、蛋白质、肾功能衰竭、慢性饮食、营养评估


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Assessment of iodine status and associated factors in vulnerable populations in Henan Province, China, in 2012
JIN YANG, HEMING ZHENG, XIAOFENG LI, LIN ZHU, ZONGYU HAO, GAN CHEN, YANG LIU AND YANLI WANG
Background: Iodine content in table salt was adjusted from 30-50 mg/kg to 21-39 mg/kg from March of 2012 in Henan Province, China. The vulnerable population may be at risk of iodine deficiency. Objectives: To determine whether the iodine intake was sufficient in vulnerable populations and to investigate what factors may be associated with iodine status in these vulnerable populations in Henan Province, China. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 17 cities in Henan Province, China, from April 2012 to December 2012 to assess the iodine status in vulnerable populations, including women of reproductive-age (n=2648), pregnant women (n=39684), lactating women (n=6859), infants <2 years of age (n=16481), and children aged 8-10 years (n=3198). Questionnaires (n=4865) related to demographic and dietary factors were collected from the investigated women to identify factors that were related to iodine intake and iodine status. Results: The median urinary iodine concentrations (mUICs) were 205 μg/L, 198 μg/L, 167 μg/L, 205 μg/L and 200 μg/L, respectively, in reproductiveage, pregnant and lactating women, infants <2 years of age and children aged 8-10 years. Higher income, and consuming more poultry and fish in the diet had positive impact on UIC levels. Low salt intake, consuming more rice and vegetables in the diet were negative factors for UIC. Conclusions: Iodine status of the vulnerable populations was generally adequate in Henan Province, China, according to WHO criteria. But the mUICs were slightly above the adequate level in reproductive-age women and children aged 8-10 years. It’s important to monitor the iodine status in vulnerable populations after the adjustment on iodine content in table salt.
Key Words: iodine, reproduction, pregnancy, lactation, child
 

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2012 年中国河南省重点人群的碘营养状况及影响因素
背景:从2012 年3 月起,中国河南省食盐中碘浓度从30-50 mg/kg 调整到21-39 mg/kg。由于食盐中碘浓度的下调,重点人群可能有碘缺乏的风险。目的:了解河南省重点人群的碘营养状况是否适宜,并探索与碘营养相关的影响因素。方法:从2012年4月至2012年12月,在中国河南省的17个城市对重点人群的碘营养状况开展横断面调查,包括育龄妇女2648名、孕妇39684名、哺乳期妇女6859名、0-2岁婴幼儿16481名和8-10岁儿童3198名。通过问卷形式收集调查对象的人口学因素和膳食情况,共收集问卷4865份。结果:2012年河南省育龄妇女、孕妇、哺乳期妇女、0-2岁婴幼儿和8-10岁儿童的尿碘中位数分别为205 μg/L、 198 μg/L、 167 μg/L、 205 μg/L 和200 μg/L。高收入、膳食中摄入更多的禽类和鱼类因素与尿碘浓度呈正相关,而低盐膳食、膳食中摄入更多的大米和蔬菜与尿碘浓度呈负相关。结论:按照WHO 的标准,河南省重点人群的碘营养状况总体适宜,但育龄妇女和8-10岁儿童的尿 碘浓度略高于适宜水平。食盐中碘浓度调整后,对重点人群的碘营养状况进行监测是十分必要的。
关键词:碘、生育、妊娠、哺乳、儿童

 

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Feeding patterns before 6 months of age: the relative validity of recall from interviews of mothers of Guatemalan infants and toddlers
MARIEKE VOSSENAAR, ILSE VAN BEUSEKOM, COLLEEN DOAK AND NOEL W SOLOMONS
The WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 mo of life; however, deviations from this recommendation are widespread. The objective of the current study was to evaluate exclusive and predominant breastfeeding rates, as defined by the WHO, in a cross-sectional sample of Guatemalan children using retrospective records on the temporal pattern of introducing foods and beverages before 6 mo. Mothers of 150 infants, aged 6 to 23 mo, attending a public health clinic were interviewed about early life feeding practices with a structured questionnaire. In addition, the plausibility of the reported offering of liquids and foods, other than breast milk, since birth was checked against reported current feeding practices. We observed that estimated exclusive breastfeeding was rare with 14% of infants receiving exclusive breastfeeding for 5 mo, and only 9% for the recommended 6 mo. The proportion of infants with predominant breastfeeding, which allows certain liquids such as water, juices and ritual fluids, was 33% through 5 mo and 23% through 6 mo. One-quarter of mothers (n=38) reported implausible answers concerning age-of-introduction of liquids and foods. Nevertheless, retrospective reports at up to 2 y give credible outcomes for estimations of feeding pattern at 6 mo of age. Our findings match the findings of other studies conducted in Guatemala. Overall adherence to the WHO guidelines for feeding in the first semester of infancy was much less than ideal and in need of strengthening.
Key Words: infant and young child feeding, infant and young child nutrition, dietary assessment, exclusive breastfeeding, Guatemala
 

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6 月龄之前的喂养模式:危地马拉婴幼儿母亲受访时回忆的相对有效性
世界卫生组织(WHO)建议在出生后的6月内进行纯母乳喂养,然而经常很多人无法做到这一点。本研究对危地马拉儿童采用横断面研究,使用回顾记录的时间模式,了解6月龄之前婴儿的食物及饮料情况,根据WHO 规定的喂养标准,来评估纯母乳喂养率以及以母乳为主的喂养率。150 名6-23 月龄的孩子的母亲在公共卫生诊所接受了婴儿早期生活的结构问卷调查。此外,报道了自出生以来以及目前除母乳外的为孩子提供的液体和食物的合理性。我们发现,纯母乳喂养的情况很少,估计只有14%的婴儿接受5个月的纯母乳喂养,只有9%的婴儿纯母乳喂养能到达推荐的6 个月。以母乳为主,同时给予液体比如 水、果汁、仪式液体等喂养5个月的占33%,喂养6个月的占23%。四分之一的母亲(n=38)所报道的根据年龄喂养食物和饮料情况不够真实。然而,至2岁的回顾性分析证实了6 月龄的喂养模式是可信的。我们的研究结果与危地马拉其他研究结果相符。总体上,与WHO 婴儿第一阶段喂养标准差距还很大,有待加强。
关键词:婴幼儿喂养、婴幼儿营养、饮食评估、纯母乳喂养、危地马拉
 

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Retrospective tracking of young obese children back to birth in Japan: special attention to the relationship with parental obesity
RENA KATO, MASARU KUBOTA, YUKA YASUI, YUMI HAYASHI, YUKIE HIGASHIYAMA AND AYAKO NAGAI
Objective: Childhood obesity is tracked to adulthood at a high rate. However, longitudinal studies of obesity in early childhood remain limited. This study aimed at tracking young obese children back to birth in comparison with normal-weight children, and investigating the relationship with parental obesity. Methods: A total of 2,678 (1,353 boys) young children attending kindergarten or nursery school in Nara Prefecture, Japan, were enrolled. The present heights and weights of children and parents were obtained by a questionnaire, and children’s heights and weights at birth, 1.5, and 3.5 years were obtained from mother-child health notebooks. Using body mass index (BMI), child and parental obesity were defined as ≥90th percentile based on the reference values for Japanese children and ≥25 (kg/m²), respectively. Results: The overall prevalence of obesity at birth was 10.2%, and decreased to 5.6% at 5 years. In the retrospective tracking, obese children at 5 years exhibited significantly higher weight Z-scores and BMI percentiles consistently from birth than in normal-weight children. The increased velocity of weight gain as judged by their Z-score during three periods; birth-1.5, 1.5-3.5, and 3.5-5 years were significantly associated with an increased risk for the obesity at 5 years of age. Only maternal obesity was found to be associated with daughters’ obesity in the analysis of association of parents-children obesity. Conclusions: It is important to manage body weight from early infancy for reducing the occurrence of obesity at 5 years. Where there is maternal obesity, greater attention may be required, especially for daughters.
Key Words: body mass index, obesity, parental obesity, tracking, young children
 

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回顾性追溯日本肥胖幼儿到出生:特别关注其与父母肥胖的关系
目的:肥胖从儿童期持续到成年期的比例很高,然而,关于幼儿肥胖的纵向研究仍然有限。本研究旨在与正常体重儿童相比,追踪肥胖幼儿到出生,并研究其与父母肥胖的关系。方法:本研究纳入了日本奈良地区的学前班或幼儿园的2,678 名(男孩1,353 名)幼儿。通过问卷获得了儿童和父母目前的身高和体重,通过母子的健康笔记本所记录的资料获得儿童出生、1.5 岁和3.5 岁时的身高和体重。分别用体质指数(BMI)大于或等于日本儿童参考数据的90th 和25(kg/m²)作为儿童和父母肥胖的判断标准。结果:儿童总的肥胖患病率从出生时的10.2%下降到5 岁时的5.6%。在回顾性追踪中,5 岁时肥胖的儿童体重的Z 值和BMI 的百分位值从出生一直显著高于体重正常的儿童。出生到1.5 岁、1.5-3.5 岁和3.5-5 岁这三个时期体重的增加速度用他们的Z 值进行校正后,与5 岁时肥胖的风险增加显著相关。在父母与子女肥胖相关性分析中,仅发现母亲肥胖与女儿肥胖相关。结论:从婴儿早期管理体重对减少5 岁 儿童肥胖的发生很重要。母亲肥胖者需要更多地关注其女儿。
关键词:体质指数、肥胖、父母肥胖、追踪、幼儿
 

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Body satisfaction, emotional intelligence, and the development of disturbed eating: a survey of Taiwanese students
YUECHING WONG, JING-SHAN LIN AND YU-JHEN CHANG
Purpose: This study explored the relationship between adolescents’ emotional intelligence and the tendency to develop an eating disorder. Methods: Senior high school students in Taiwan were recruited for the study. A 3-part anonymous questionnaire measured demographic information, body weight satisfaction, and expectation of body weight. Students also completed the Adolescent Emotional Intelligence Scale and the Eating Disorders Attitude-26 Test (EAT-26). Height and weight were also measured. Results: The mean of EAT-26 score was 8.66±7.36, and 8.6% students were at high risk to develop eating disorders. Gender, body weight, body dissatisfaction and the expected body shape were significantly related to disturbed eating attitudes and behaviours. Scores of EAT-26 were positively correlated with emotional perception, emotional expression, and emotional application. Conclusions: Disturbed eating behaviours exist among adolescents in Taiwan, and these behaviours may be related to emotional intelligence. However further studies with larger samples are needed.
Key Words: body satisfaction, emotional intelligence, disturbed eating, EAT-26, senior high school student
 

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體型滿意度、情商及病態飲食行為傾向:臺灣學生調查
目的:本研究旨在探討青少年的情商與病態飲食行為傾向的相關性。方法:以臺灣的高中生為研究對象,以匿名自填式問卷為研究工具,內容包括: 人口學資訊、體型滿意度、期待體重、青少年情商量表及病態飲食態度測試 (EAT-26) , 並測量身高體重。結果: 病態飲食態度測試(EAT-26) 的平均分為 8.66±7.36,8.6%的學生為病態飲食行為傾向高危人群(EAT-26≥20)。學生的性別、體重、體型滿意度及期望體型與病態飲食態度和行為有顯著相關性。EAT-26 的分數與情緒察覺、情緒表達及情緒應用顯著正相關。結論:臺灣青少年確實存在病態飲食行為,且這些行為可能和情商有關,然而此相關議題需要有更大樣本數的研究來證實。
關鍵詞:體型滿意度、情商、病態飲食行為、EAT-26、高中生
 

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Water and nutrient intake in pregnant New Zealand women: association with wheeze in their infants at 18 months
PATRICIA ELLYETT WATSON AND BARRY WILLIAM MCDONALD
The association between water and nutrient intake in pregnant women, and wheeze in their 18 month old infants, was investigated in a prospective study. Volunteers (n=369) recruited from northern New Zealand were visited in months 4 and 7 of pregnancy. At each visit anthropometric measurements were taken, diet assessed by 24-hour recall and 3-day food records and questionnaires determining personal details administered. Eighteen months after birth, infants were measured, and questions on infant feeding and wheeze asked. Overall, mothers reported 32% of their infants had wheezed in the last 12 months. After adjusting for significant covariates and energy intake, higher maternal intakes of dietary water (p=0.009) and manganese (p=0.024) were associated with decreased wheeze, and glucose (p=0.003) with increased wheeze. Prevalence of infant wheeze decreased 18.5% from the lower to the upper quartile of water intake, and 17.4% from the lower to the upper quartile of manganese intake. Wheeze was more common in Polynesian than European infants (41.8% vs 28.9%). Polynesian mothers consumed significantly less dietary water (median 451 g less) and manganese (median 1374 g less) than European mothers per day. Glucose was only significant because of strong association with infant wheeze at extremely high maternal intakes of >40 g/day in ~10% of the subjects. There was no association between maternal dietary supplement intake and wheeze. Mothers estimated at high risk of infant wheeze consumed less tap water, whole grains, tea, fruit; and more fruit juice, soft drink, processed meat and fish products, and refined grain products. This is the first study to report an intergenerational association between maternal water, and glucose intake with infant wheeze.
Key Words: pregnancy, water, nutrients, infant, wheezing
 

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新西兰妇女孕期水和营养素的摄入:与其18 个月大的婴儿哮鸣音之间的关系
本研究为一项前瞻性研究,调查妇女孕期水和营养素的摄入与他们18 个月大的婴儿哮鸣音之间的关系。从新西兰北部招募怀孕4 到7 个月的志愿者369名。每次随访检测其志愿者的人体测量参数,采用24 小时回顾法和3 天的膳食记录进行饮食评估,采用问卷调查确定入选者的个人资料。婴儿出生后18个月,检查并询问其喂养和哮鸣音情况。总体而言,据母亲报告,在过去的12 个月里,她们的婴儿中有32%的出现过气喘。校正重要的协变量和能量摄入后,母亲摄入较多的水(p=0.009)和锰(p=0.024)与哮鸣音的降低有关,摄入较多的葡萄糖与哮鸣音的增加有关(p=0.003)。与摄入最少的四分位数 相比,母亲水摄入最多的四分位数婴儿哮鸣音的发生率降低了18.5%,母亲锰摄入最多的四分位数婴儿哮鸣音的发生率降低了17.4%。波利尼西亚婴儿哮鸣音的发生比欧洲常见(41.8%比28.9%)。波利尼西亚母亲每天摄入的水(中位数为451 克以下)和锰(中位数为1374 微克以下)显著低于欧洲母亲。研究对象中约有10%的母亲葡萄糖摄入量特别高(40 克/天),其葡萄糖摄入量与婴儿哮鸣音显著相关。母亲膳食补充剂与婴儿哮鸣音之间没有相关性。据估计,摄入较少的自来水、全谷、茶、水果和较多的果汁、软饮料、加工过的肉和鱼类产品以及精制谷物的产妇,其婴幼儿发生哮鸣音的危险性高。本研究首次报道母亲水和葡萄糖的摄入与婴儿哮鸣音之间的代际关系。
关键词:怀孕、水、营养素、婴幼儿、哮鸣音

 

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Evaluating the micronutrient status of women of child-bearing age living in the rural disaster areas one year after Wenchuan Earthquake
CAIXIA DONG, PENGFEI GE, XIAOLAN REN, XIANFENG ZHAO, HAOQIANG FAN, SHI-AN YIN AND ELISABETE WEIDERPASS
Populations with special physiological state, such as pregnant, nursing and women of child-bearing age, have been identified as nutritionally vulnerable during natural disaster. The objective of this survey was to evaluate the prevalence of anaemia and micronutrient status of women of reproductive age in April 2009 one year after the Whenchuan Earthquake. The survey recruited 58 pregnant, 66 lactating and 242 women of child-bearing age from 19 to 45 years. The concentrations of haemoglobin in whole blood and ferritin and micronutrients in serum were assayed. Among the three groups (pregnant, nursing and child-bearing women), respectively, the prevalence of anaemia was 29.1%, 25.5% and 28.8%; that of iron deficiency was 45.4%, 49.0% and 52.9%; and that of zinc deficiency was 45.4%, 23.0% and 33.5%. The sum of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency was more than 90% in each group, and the total vitamin B12 deficiency and marginal deficiency prevalence percentages were 47.3%, 17.7% and 35.7%, respectively. The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency and marginal deficiency was 1.8% and 9.1% in pregnant women, 6.1% and 15.2% in nursing women and 8.6% and 21.3% in women of child-bearing age, respectively. Our findings indicated that the micronutrient status of women of reproductive age was poor in the disaster areas. Therefore, improving the micronutrient status of these women should be an urgent priority in these areas.
Key Words: women of child-bearing age, micronutrient, women, earthquake, emergency
 

 

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汶川地震一年后灾区育龄妇女的微量营养素营养状况评价
在突发自然灾害状况下,处于特殊生理状况的妇女,如妊娠、哺乳以及准备怀孕的妇女已经被确认为营养缺乏的易感人群。本次调查的目的是评价汶川地震一年后(2009年4月)灾区育龄妇女的贫血率和微量营养素的状况。该调查招募了年龄在19-45岁的孕妇58例、乳母66例和育龄妇女242例,测定了全血中血红蛋白、血清中铁蛋白和微量营养素的浓度。在孕妇、乳母和育龄妇女这三个人群中,贫血率分别为29.1%、25.5%和28.8%;铁缺乏率分别为45.4%、49.0%和52.9%;锌缺乏率分别为45.4%、23.0%和33.5%;各组维生素D缺乏和不足的总和均超过了90%;维生素B12缺乏和边缘缺乏的合计分别为47.3%、17.7%和35.7%。维生素A缺乏和边缘缺乏率,孕妇为1.8%和9.1%,乳母为6.1%和15.2%,育龄妇女为8.6%和21.3%。本研究结果提示,灾区育龄妇女的微量营养素营养状况较差,因此改善这些地区育龄妇女的微量营养素的状况应该是优先考虑的问题。
关键词:育龄妇女、微量营养素、妇女、地震、突发事件

 

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Development and validity of a 3-day smartphone assisted 24-hour recall to assess beverage consumption in a Chinese population: a randomized cross-over study
LINDSEY P SMITH, JENNA HUA, EDMUND SETO, SHUFA DU, JIAJIE ZANG, SHURONG ZOU, BARRY M POPKIN AND MICHELLE A MENDEZ
This paper addresses the need for diet assessment methods that capture the rapidly changing beverage consumption patterns in China. The objective of this study was to develop a 3-day smartphone-assisted 24-hour recall to improve the quantification of beverage intake amongst young Chinese adults (n=110) and validate, in a small subset (n=34), the extent to which the written record and smartphone-assisted recalls adequately estimated total fluid intake, using 24-hour urine samples. The smartphone-assisted method showed improved validity compared with the written record-assisted method, when comparing reported total fluid intake to total urine volume. However, participants reported consuming fewer beverages on the smartphone-assisted method compared with the written record-assisted method, primarily due to decreased consumption of traditional zero-energy beverages (i.e. water, tea) in the smartphone-assisted method. It is unclear why participants reported fewer beverages in the smartphone-assisted method than the written record -assisted method. One possibility is that participants found the smartphone method too cumbersome, and responded by decreasing beverage intake. These results suggest that smartphone-assisted 24-hour recalls perform comparably but do not appear to substantially improve beverage quantification compared with the current written record-based approach. In addition, we piloted a beverage screener to identify consumers of episodically consumed SSBs. As expected, a substantially higher proportion of consumers reported consuming SSBs on the beverage screener compared with either recall type, suggesting that a beverage screener may be useful in characterizing consumption of episodically consumed beverages in China’s dynamic food and beverage landscape.
Key Words: diet assessment, nutrition epidemiology, mobile technology, sugar sweetened beverages, China

 

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验证智能手机协助的3 天24 小时回顾调查方法评估中国居民饮料消费:随机交叉设计研究
本研究的目的是探讨一种能够反映中国快速变化的饮料消费模式的膳食调查方法。我们设计了一种智能手机协助的3天24小时回顾调查以改善饮料消费的调查,调查对象包括110名中国青年,并在其中的34名青年中收集24小时尿样,以比较问卷调查与智能手机协助调查的总液体摄入量。结果表明,当与总尿量比较时,智能手机协助的方法比问卷调查能更好地反映总液体的摄入量,但被调查者通过智能手机提供的饮料消费量较少,主要是传统的不含能量的饮料(如水和茶)报告较少。导致该现象的原因不明,可能是智能手机调查相对繁琐引起的。与现行的问卷调查相比,智能手机调查能获得相当的饮料消费量但并不能从根本上改善调查质量。此外,我们还尝试用问卷筛查加糖饮料的消费,报告的消费量比智能手机或传统问卷调查获得的消费量都高,说明在变化的中国膳食与饮料模式中调查饮料消费特征时加入饮料消费筛查可能会帮助提高调查质量,获得更准确的饮料消费量。
关键词:膳食评估、营养流行病、移动通信技术、含糖饮料、中国

 

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Coffee consumption patterns in Korean adults: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001-2011)
YOUJIN JE, SEONGHYUN JEONG AND TAEYOUNG PARK
We examined coffee consumption patterns over the past decade among Korean adults. This study was based on seven different cross-sectional data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2001 and 2011 (17,367 men and 23,591 women aged 19-103 y, mean 48.1 y). Information on frequency and type of coffee consumption was derived from frequency questionnaires or 24-hour recalls. For the study period, the prevalence of daily coffee consumption increased by 20.3% (from 54.6 to 65.7%; p<0.001). For those who consumed 2 or more cups of coffee daily, it dramatically increased by 48.8% (from 29.1 to 43.3%; p<0.001). The instant coffee mix was consumed the most frequently by Korean adults, and it was on the increasing trend among people who were middle aged or older (≥40 y), while it was on the slowdown in young men or on the declining trend in young women. Brewed coffee consumption had an increasing trend by all age groups in recent years. Especially, there was a rapid increase in brewed coffee consumption among young women (strongly) and young men. The instant coffee mix that contains non-dairy creamer and/or sugar still takes up a significant portion of coffee consumption in Korea, which may result in weight gain and insulin resistance, and potential benefits of coffee may be offset. Given high prevalence of coffee consumption in Korea, nutrition education should be conducted to help people (especially the elderly) to make healthy coffee drinking habits.
Key Words: brewed coffee, cross-sectional study, dietary intake, instant coffee mix, Korean population

 

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韩国成年人咖啡消费模式:韩国国家健康与营养调查研究(2001-2011)
我们在过去十年里对韩国成年人的咖啡消费模式进行了调查。此项研究基于2001 至2011 年韩国国家健康与营养调查研究的七个横断面调查数据(17367名男性,12591 名女性,年龄为19-103 岁,平均年龄48.1 岁)。咖啡的消费频率和类型由频率问卷调查或24 小时回顾询问法得到。十年间,每日喝咖啡的流行率增长了20.3%(从54.6%增加到了65.7%,p<0.001)。每日消费2 杯和2 杯以上咖啡的人激增了48.8%(从29.1%增加到43.3%,p<0.001)。速溶咖啡是被韩国成年人消费最频繁的,而且在中年以上人群(年龄≥40 岁)中仍有增长趋势,但是年轻男性对咖啡的消费量放缓,年轻女性则有下降趋势。近 年,现磨咖啡的消费在各年龄层都有所增长。特别的,现磨咖啡在年轻女性中消费明显增加,在年轻男性中也有增加。含有植脂末和/或糖的速溶咖啡仍占韩国咖啡消费很大比重,由此可导致体重增加和胰岛素抵抗,以及使咖啡有益部分被抵消。咖啡消费在韩国高度流行,那么应当开展营养方面教育(特别是 年长者),使人们养成健康的饮用咖啡习惯。
关键词:现磨咖啡、横断面研究、饮食摄入、速溶咖啡、韩国人群

 

 

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Geographic factors as determinants of food security: a Western Australian food pricing and quality study
CHRISTINA MARY POLLARD, TIMOTHY JOHN LANDRIGAN, PERNILLA LAILA ELLIES, DEBORAH ANNE KERR, MATTHEW LANGDON UNDERWOOD LESTER, AND STANLEY EDWARD GOODCHILD

Food affordability and quality can influence food choice. This research explores the impact of geographic factors on food pricing and quality in Western Australia (WA). A Healthy Food Access Basket (HFAB) was cost and a visual and descriptive quality assessment of 13 commonly consumed fresh produce items was conducted in-store on a representative sample of 144 food grocery stores. The WA retail environment in 2010 had 447 grocery stores servicing 2.9 million people: 38% of stores the two major chains (Coles® Supermarkets Australia and Woolworths® Limited) in population dense areas, 50% were smaller independently owned stores (Independent Grocers Association®) in regional areas as well, and 12% Indigenous community stores in very remote areas. The HFAB cost 24% (p<0.0001) more in very remote areas than the major city with fruit (32%, p<0.0001), vegetables (26.1%, p<0.0005) and dairy (40%, p<0.0001) higher. Higher price did not correlate with higher quality with only 80% of very remote stores meeting all criteria for fresh produce compared with 93% in Perth. About 30% of very remote stores did not meet quality criteria for bananas, green beans, lettuce, and tomatoes. With increasing geographic isolation, most foods cost more and the quality of fresh produce was lower. Food affordability and quality may deter healthier food choice in geographically isolated communities. Improving affordability and quality of nutritious foods in remote communities may positively impact food choices, improve food security and prevent diet-sensitive chronic disease. Policy makers should consider influencing agriculture, trade, commerce, transport, freight, and modifying local food economies.
Key Words: food, affordability, quality, geographic factors, food security

 

 

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地理因素作为食品安全的决定因素:西澳大利亚的食品价格和质量研究
食品可购性和质量影响食品的选择。本研究探讨了地理因素对西澳大利亚食品价格和质量的影响。用一个健康食品进入篮(HFAB)评估了144 家有代表性的食品杂货店的13 种经常食用的新鲜农产品的价格、外观和质量。2010 年西澳大利亚的零售环境为447 家食品杂货商店服务290 万人口,38%的商店是位于人口密集地区的两大连锁超市(Coles®澳大利亚超市和Woolworths®有限公司),50%为位于小区的小型独立经营的商店(独立杂货商协会®),另外12%的商店是位于非常偏远地区的土著社区。非常偏远地区的HFAB 价格比大城市高24%(p<0.0001),水果、蔬菜和奶制品分别高32%(p<0.0001)、26.1%(p<0.0005)和40%(p<0.0001)。价格与质量无关,在非常偏僻的店,只有80%的新鲜农产品满足所有的标准,而在Perth 高达93%。约有30%非常偏僻的店的香蕉、绿豆、生菜和西红柿不符合质量标准。越偏离城市,大部分食品价格越高,而新鲜农产品的质量越低。在地理上与世隔绝的社区,食 品的可购性和质量可能阻碍了健康食品的选择。改善偏远社区营养食品的可购性和质量可能会对食品选择产生积极影响,提高食品保障,预防对膳食敏感的慢性病。政策制定者应该考虑通过影响农业、贸易、商业、运输和货运来改善当地食品经济。
关键词:食品、可购性、质量、地理因素、食品安全

 

 

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Home food availability is associated with multiple socio-economic indicators in 50 year olds from Canterbury, New Zealand
RENÉE WILSON, RICHARD B GEARRY, EMILY GRANT, JOHN PEARSON AND PAULA ML SKIDMORE

Financial restraints and poverty lead to poor diets and poor health outcomes. Limited research shows that socioeconomic status is related to home availability of certain foods. However, studies in this area have used different socio-economic indicators, which may not equally influence eating-related behaviors. Using multiple indicators of socio-economic status may provide a more accurate picture of these relationships. The aim of this study was to investigate whether several socio-economic indicators are independently associated with home availability of selected foods known to influence chronic disease risk in 50 year olds from Canterbury, New Zealand, participating in the CHALICE study. Participants were selected randomly from health research extracts from Canterbury. Data from 216 participants (110 females, 106 males) were included. The presence (but not quantity) of foods/beverages in the home was measured by a validated home food inventory. Linear regression analyses were performed for the following home food inventory scores: fruit, vegetables, lower fat dairy, obesogenic foods and sweetened beverages with household income, standard of living and education using multivariate models. Higher household income and standard of living were individually associated with a 2% to 3% higher fruit and vegetables (3 to 5 types/forms) and total food scores (6 to 9 types/forms) (p<0.03). Higher education level was associated with a 2.5% increase in fruit and vegetables score (4 types/forms) and an 8% decrease in sweetened beverages score (0.4 beverages) (p<0.02). These results suggest that using only one measure of socio-economic status cannot accurately capture the effects of social inequalities in food availability. Those experiencing the most social disadvantage had a lesser availability of fruit and vegetables which may be detrimental to good health.

Key Words: socio-economic status, New Zealand, food choice, home environment

 

 

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新西兰坎特伯雷50 岁人群中家庭拥有食物与多项社会经济指标相关
财政制约和贫困导致不良的饮食与健康状况。为数不多的研究表明,社会经济地位与家庭是否能够拥有某些食物有关。然而,在这一领域的研究使用了不同的社会经济指标,这些不同的经济指标对摄食相关行为的影响不同。使用社会经济地位的多重指标可能更准确的描述这些关系。本研究的目的是调查新西兰坎特伯雷地区参与CHALICE 研究的50 岁人群,了解一些社会经济指标是否与家庭所有的已知具有引起慢性疾病的食物独立相关。参与者从坎特伯雷健康调查志愿者中随机抽取,共216 名参与者(110 名女性,106 名男性),家庭现有的食物/饮料(非数量)以验证的家庭库存食物测量。对以下家庭食物评分并进行线性回归分析:水果、蔬菜、低脂食品、致肥食物和甜饮料等,并使用多元变量模型分析其与家庭收入、生活水平和教育的关系。较高的家庭收入和生活水平与更高的2%-3%水果和蔬菜(3-5 种类/形式)和总食物得分(6-9 种类/形式)独立相关(p<0.03)。较高的教育水平与水果和蔬菜的评分(4 种类/形式) 增加2.5%、与甜饮料评分(0.4 种饮料)下降8%相关(p<0.02)。这些结果表明,只用一个社会经济地位测量方式不能准确地反应社会不平等带来的食物可用性的影响。那些经历蔬菜与水果可用性较少的群体可能不利于身体健康。
关键词:社会经济地位、新西兰、食物选择、家庭环境

Last Updated: December 2014