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1 Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
       Volume 23, 2

         (June 2014)


Abstracts

Contents

Abstract PDF

Reviews

The association between the built environment and dietary intake - a systematic review
ELHAM RAHMANIAN, DANIJELA GASEVIC, INA VUKMIROVICH AND SCOTT A LEAR
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(2):183-196.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.2.08

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Original Research Communications

Nutritional Measurement & Methodology

Comparison of measured and predicted energy expenditure in patients with liver cirrhosis

ARISA TERAMOTO, HISAMI YAMANAKA-OKUMURA, ERI URANO, TAKI NAKAMURA-KUTSUZAWA, KOHEI SUGIHARA, TAKAFUMI KATAYAMA, HIDENORI MIYAKE, SATORU IMURA, TOHRU UTSUNOMIYA, MITSUO SHIMADA AND EIJI TAKEDA
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(2):197-204.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.2.12

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Urinary isoflavonoid excretion as a biomarker of dietary soy intake during two randomized soy trials
YUKIKO MORIMOTO, FANCHON BECKFORD, ADRIAN A FRANKE AND GERTRAUD MASKARINEC
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(2):205-209
.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.2.19

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Clinical Nutrition or Feeding Studies

The impact of soluble dietary fibre on gastric emptying, postprandial blood glucose and insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes
KANG YU, MEI-YUN KE, WEN-HUI LI, SHU-QIN ZHANG AND XIU-CAI FANG
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(2):210-218.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.2.01

 

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Nutritional Status, Dietary Intake, and Body Composition

Higher cadmium burden in coastal areas than in inland areas in Korea: implications for seafood intake
CHAN-SEOK MOON, CHAE KWAN LEE, YOUNG SEOUB HONG AND MASAYUKI IKEDA
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(2):219-224.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.2.10

 

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Parental body mass index is associated with adolescent overweight and obesity in Mashhad, Iran
KHOSRO SHAFAGHI, ZALILAH MOHD SHARIFF, MOHD NASIR MOHD TAIB, HEJAR ABDUL RAHMAN, MAJID GHAYOUR MOBARHAN AND HADI JABBARI
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(2):225-231.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.2.11

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Acute interval exercise intensity does not affect appetite and nutrient preferences in overweight and obese males
SHAEA A ALKAHTANI, NUALA M BYRNE, ANDREW P HILLS AND NEIL A KING
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(2):232-238.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.2.07

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Serum copper, zinc and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in community-living Japanese elderly women
AYAKA TSUBOI, MAYU TERAZAWA (WATANABE), TSUTOMU KAZUMI AND KEISUKE FUKUO

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(2):239-245.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.2.04

 

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Serum osteocalcin is associated with dietary vitamin D, body weight and serum magnesium in postmenopausal women with and without significant coronary artery disease
EMAN M ALISSA, WAFA A ALNAHDI, NABEEL ALAMA AND GORDON A FERNS
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(2):246-255
.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.2.06

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Vitamin K nutritional status and undercarboxylated osteocalcin in postmenopausal osteoporotic women treated with bisphosphonates
JUN IWAMOTO, TETSUYA TAKADA AND YOSHIHIRO SATO
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(2):256-262.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.2.15

 

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Women’s nutrient intakes and food-related knowledge in rural Kandal province, Cambodia
LAUREN J WALLACE, ALASTAIR JS SUMMERLEE, CATE E DEWEY, CHANTHARITH HAK, ANN HALL AND CHRISTOPHER V CHARLES
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(2):263-271.
doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.2.02

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Maternal and Clild Nutrition

Effect of feeding practices on dental caries among preschool children: a hospital based analytical cross sectional study
PRIYANTHA JULIAN PERERA, MERANTHI PREETHIKA FERNANDO, TANIA DAYANTHI WARNAKULASOORIYA AND NAYOMI RANATHUNGA
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(2):272-277.
doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.2.13

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Assessment of iodine deficiency in school age children in Nainital District, Uttarakhand State
UMESH KAPIL, RAVINDRA MOHAN PANDEY, SHYAM PRAKASH, MADHULIKA KABRA, NEHA SAREEN AND AJEET SINGH BHADORIA
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(2):278-281.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.2.03

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Nutritional status of breast-fed and non-exclusively breast-fed infants from birth to age 5 months in 8 Chinese cities
DEFU MA, YIBING NING, HONGCHONG GAO, WENJUN LI, JUNKUAN WANG, YINGDONG ZHENG, YUMEI ZHANG
AND PEIYU WANG

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(2):282-292.

doi:10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.2.16

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The diamond level health promoting schools (DLHPS) program for reduced child obesity in Thailand: lessons learned from interviews and focus groups

JARUWAN PHAITRAKOON, ARPAPORN POWWATTANA, SUNEE LAGAMPAN AND JEERANUN KLAEWKLA
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(2):293-300.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.2.17

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Nutritional Epidemiology and Public Health

Type 2 diabetes among farmers and rural and urban referents: cumulative incidence over 20 years and risk factors in a prospective cohort study
ANDERS THELIN AND SARA HOLMBERG
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(2):301-308.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.2.08

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Lifestyle of Chinese centenarians and their key beneficial factors in Chongqing, China
YU LI, YANG BAI, QING-LIU TAO, HUAN ZENG, LING-LI HAN, MING-YU LUO, NA ZHANG, XIAO-NI ZHONG, YAO-JIE XIE AND YONG ZHAO
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(2):309-314.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.2.05

 

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Effectiveness of a food education program in improving appetite and nutritional status of elderly adults living at home
LOUISA MING YAN CHUNG AND JOANNE WAI YEE CHUNG

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(2):315-320.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.2.18

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Nutrigenomics

Stockpiles and food availability in feeding facilities after the Great East Japan Earthquake
MIHO NOZUE, KAZUKO ISHIKAWA-TAKATA, NOBUKO SARUKURA, KAZUKO SAKO AND NOBUYO TSUBOYAMA-KASAOKA
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(2):321-330.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.2.14

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MicroRNA-125a-3p expression in abdominal adipose tissues is associated with insulin signalling gene expressions in morbid obesity: observations in Taiwanese
CHIU-LI YEH, I-CHI CHENG, YU-CHEN HOU, WEU WANG AND SUNG-LING YEH
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(2):331-337.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.2.20

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Future Events

 

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(2):338.

 

 

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The association between the built environment and dietary intake - a systematic review
ELHAM RAHMANIAN, DANIJELA GASEVIC, INA VUKMIROVICH AND SCOTT A LEAR
We reviewed the literature that examines the association between the built environment and diet. The MEDLINE electronic database was searched. Eligible articles must have been published between 2000 and 2013, in the English language, and must have been conducted among a population-based sample of adults older than 18 years of age. Twenty-four articles met the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies (over 70%) focused on fruit and vegetable consumption. Most studies (88%) found a statistically significant relationship between diet and some aspect of the built environment. However, the results across studies were not consistent. These inconsistencies may be attributable to methodological challenges, including differing definitions of neighbourhood, and inconsistent approaches to measuring built environment features and diet. In order to explore the complex relationship between built environment and people’s dietary behaviour, research design needs to be improved, and the items people actually buy need to be examined. In addition, more research is needed to investigate the causal pathways linking environmental factors and dietary intake.
Key Words: built environment, neighbourhood, diet, nutrition, review
 

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居住环境与膳食摄入之间的联系:一篇系统性综述
我们对居住环境和饮食的相关文献进行了整理和研究。文献主要从
MEDLINE 电子数据库获得。我们收录文献的条件是2000-2013 年发表的英
文文章,调查人群年龄为18 岁以上。结果有24 篇文章符合要求。多数文献
(70%)是研究蔬菜和水果的消费情况,大部分文献(88%)的研究都认为饮食和
居住环境的某一方面有关联。然而各个研究的结果却并不一致。或许是由于
采用了不同的研究方法,包括对邻里的定义不同,以及对居住环境饮食特征
的测定不同。为了更加深入了解居住环境和人们饮食习惯的复杂关系,研究
设计应当有所改进,并将人们实际购买的物品归入研究范围。此外,也应该
对环境因素和食物摄入的因果关系加以研究。
关键词:居住环境ヽ邻里 ヽ饮食 ヽ营养 ヽ综述

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Comparison of measured and predicted energy expenditure in patients with liver cirrhosis
ARISA TERAMOTO, HISAMI YAMANAKA-OKUMURA, ERI URANO, TAKI NAKAMURA-KUTSUZAWA, KOHEI SUGIHARA, TAKAFUMI KATAYAMA, HIDENORI MIYAKE, SATORU IMURA, TOHRU UTSUNOMIYA, MITSUO SHIMADA AND EIJI TAKEDA
Obesity is a risk factor for the onset of liver cancer in patients with cirrhosis. To prevent overfeeding and obesity, estimation of energy requirement is important, but energy expenditure in patients with liver cirrhosis has not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to investigate resting energy expenditure (REE) and energy intake in patients with cirrhosis and determine adequate energy intake criteria. In this cross-sectional study, indirect calorimetry measurement was conducted in 488 Japanese inpatients with cirrhosis. We compared REE measured by indirect
calorimetry (M-REE) with basal energy expenditure (BEE) predicted by the Harris-Benedict equation (H-BEE) and Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for Japanese (D-BEE). Mean M-REE (1256 kcal) was significantly lower than H-BEE (1279 kcal); however, it was not significantly different from D-BEE (1254 kcal). Mean M-REE expressed
in relation to body weight (BW; REE/kg BW) was 21.7 kcal/kg BW. H-BEE was significantly higher than M-REE in patients in the first and second quartiles of BMI, and D-BEE was significantly different from MREE in patients in the highest and lowest quartiles of BMI. Average energy intake was 30.5 kcal/kg BW, which was 1.4 times greater than REE/kg BW. Although DRI is a useful tool for the estimation of REE in patients in the second and third quartiles of BMI, M-REE is recommended to ensure the provision of adequate nutritional care to patients with cirrhosis, including those in the highest and lowest quartiles of BMI.
Key Words: indirect calorimetry, resting energy expenditure, Harris-Benedict, non-protein respiratory quotient, non-esterified fatty acids

 

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肝硬化患者能量消耗的实际测定值与估计值的比较
肥胖是肝硬化患者引发肝癌的一个风险因子。为了预防过量饮食和肥胖,估计
能量需求是不必可少的。但是对肝硬化患者能量消耗情况尚未充分了解。本研
究旨在调查肝硬化患者的静息能量消耗(REE)以及能量摄取情况,从而制定能量
摄取的标准。本横断面研究主要对日本488 名肝硬化病人进行了间接热量测
定,并将间接热量测定法(M-REE)测得的REE 结果与Harris-Benedict 方程计算
的基础能量消耗(BEE)结果(H-BEE)以及日本膳食指南(DRI)推荐的标准(D-BEE)
进行比较。M-REE 的平均值(1256 kcal)显著低于H-BEE(1276 kcal);但与DBEE(
1254 kcal)相比差别不大。M-REE 的均值与体重(BW; REE/kg BW)的关系为
21.7 kcal/kg BW. BMI 在第一和第二四分位数的病人的H-BEE 显著高于MREE,
而且BMI 在最高和最低四分位数病人的D-BEE 都与M-REE 有明显差
别。平均能量摄取量为30.5 kcal/kg BW,高于REE/kg BW 1.4 倍。虽然DRI 可
以用来帮助估计BMI 在第二和第三四分位数病人的REE,但M-REE 则能够保
证肝硬化病人得到足够的营养供应,即使BMI 在最高四分位数和最低四分位数
的病人也不例外。
关键词:间接能量测定ヽ静息能量消耗ヽHarris-Benedictヽ非蛋白呼吸商ヽ非
酯化脂肪酸

 

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Urinary isoflavonoid excretion as a biomarker of dietary soy intake during two randomized soy trials
YUKIKO MORIMOTO, FANCHON BECKFORD, ADRIAN A FRANKE AND GERTRAUD MASKARINEC
We evaluated urinary isoflavonoid excretion as a biomarker of dietary isoflavone intake during two randomized soy trials (13-24 months) among 256 premenopausal women with a total of 1,385 repeated urine samples. Participants consumed a high-soy diet (2 servings/day) and a low-soy diet (<3 servings/week), completed 7 unannounced 24-hour dietary recalls, and donated repeated urine samples, which were analyzed for isoflavonoid excretion by liquid chromatography methods. We computed Spearman correlation coefficients and applied logistic regression to estimate the area under the curve. Median overall daily dietary isoflavone intakes at baseline, during low- and high-soy diet were 2.3, 0.2, and 60.4 mg aglycone equivalents, respectively. The corresponding urinary isoflavonoid excretion values were 0.4, 1.0, and 32.4 nmol/mg creatinine. Across diets, urinary isoflavonoid excretion was significantly associated with dietary isoflavone intake (rs=0.51, AUC=0.85; p<0.0001) but not within diet periods (rs=0.05-0.06, AUC=0.565-0.573). Urinary isoflavonoid excretion is an excellent biomarker to discriminate between low- and high-soy diets across populations, but the association with dietary isoflavone intake is weak when the range of soy intake is small.
Key Words: soy foods, isoflavone, biomarker, dietary intervention, epidemiology

 

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尿中异黄酮的分泌作为膳食大豆摄入的生物标志物: 两项随机大豆试验
为了评估尿液异黄酮的分泌作为膳食异黄酮摄入的生物标志物,我们在256 位
绝经前妇女中进行了两项随机大豆试验(13-24 个月),共收集了1,385 份重复尿
样。参与者分别在不同时期摄入高大豆膳食(2 份/天)和低大豆膳食(3 份/周),完
成7 份随机的24 小时膳食回顾,并提供重复的尿样用于异黄酮排泄量的分析
(液相色谱法)。我们计算了Spearman 相关系数并用logistic 回归估计曲线下面
积。基线、低和高大豆膳食期平均每日总膳食异黄酮的摄入量分别为2.3、0.2
和60.4 mg 糖苷配基当量,相应的尿中异黄酮的分泌分别为0.4、1.0 和32.4
nmol/mg 肌酐。在组间,尿异黄酮分泌和膳食异黄酮摄入量显著相关(rs=0.51,
AUC=0.85, p<0.0001),但在组内无显著性(rs=0.05-0.06, AUC=0.565-0.573)。尿
异黄酮分泌是区分人群大豆膳食高低的一个很好的生物标志物。但随着大豆摄
入量范围的缩小,尿异黄酮分泌与膳食异黄酮摄入的关联减弱。
关键词:大豆食品ヽ大豆异黄酮ヽ生物标志物ヽ膳食干预ヽ流行病学


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The impact of soluble dietary fibre on gastric emptying, postprandial blood glucose and insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes
KANG YU, MEI-YUN KE, WEN-HUI LI, SHU-QIN ZHANG AND XIU-CAI FANG
Dietary fibre plays an important role in controlling postprandial glycemic and insulin response in diabetic patients. The intake of dietary fibre has been shown to delay the gastric emptying in healthy subjects. The relationship between gastric emptying and postprandial blood glucose in diabetic patients with fibre-load liquids needs to be investigated. To investigate the impact of soluble dietary fibre (SDF) on gastric emptying, postprandial glycemic and insulin response in patients with type 2 diabetes. 30 patients with type 2 diabetes (DM) and 10 healthy subjects (HS) matched for gender and age were randomized to receive SDF-free liquid (500 mL, 500 Kcal) and isoenergetic SDF liquid (oat β-glucan 7.5 g, 500 mL, 500 Kcal) on two separate days based on a cross-over with 6-day wash-out period. Gastric emptying was monitored by ultrasonography at intervals of 30 min for 2 hours. Fasting and postprandial blood was collected at intervals of 30-60 min for 180 min to determine plasma glucose
and insulin. Proximal gastric emptying was delayed by SDF-treatment both in DM (p=0.001) and HS (p=0.037). SDF resulted in less output volume in the distal stomach in DM (p<0.05). SDF decreased postprandial glucose (p=0.001) and insulin (p=0.001) in DM subjects. Postprandial glucose (r=-0.547, p=0.047) and insulin (r=-0.566, p=0.004) were negatively correlated with distal emptying of SDF in DM subjects. Distal gastric emptying was delayed significantly in DM subjects with HbA1c levels ≥6.5% (p=0.021) or with complications (p=0.011) by SDF, respectively. SDF improved postprandial glycaemia which was related to slowing of gastric emptying.
Key Words: diabetes, soluble dietary fibre, gastric emptying, blood glucose, plasma insulin
 

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可溶性膳食纤维对2 型糖尿病患者胃排空、餐后血糖和胰岛素的影响
膳食纤维在控制糖尿病患者餐后血糖和胰岛素反应中扮演重要角色。膳食纤维
延缓健康者胃排空。糖尿病患者摄入含纤维液体后胃排空与餐后血糖的关系需
要进一步研究。本文旨在研究可溶性膳食纤维(SDF)对2 型糖尿病胃排空、餐
后血糖和胰岛素的影响。30 例2 型糖尿病(DM)及10 例性别和年龄相匹配的健
康者(HS)被随机交叉在两个独立日分别接受无SDF(500 毫升,500 千卡)及等
能量含SDF(燕麦β-葡聚糖7.5 克,500 毫升,500 千卡)液体试餐。两次试餐间
有6 天洗脱期。餐后2 小时用B 超每隔30 分钟测定胃排空,并测定空腹及餐
后180 分钟内每隔30-60 分钟的血糖及胰岛素。SDF 使DM(p=0.001)及
HS(p=0.037)近端胃排空延迟,使DM 远端胃排出量减少(p<0.05)。SDF 显著降
低DM 餐后血糖(p=0.001)及胰岛素(p=0.001)。DM 餐后血糖(r=-0.547, p=0.047)
及胰岛素(r=-0.566, p=0.004)与远端胃排空呈负相关。HbA1c≥6.5%(p=0.021)或
有并发症(p=0.011)的DM 患者,SDF 显著延迟远程胃排空。SDF 改善餐后血
糖与延迟胃排空相关。
关键词:糖尿病ヽ可溶性膳食纤维ヽ胃排空ヽ血糖ヽ血浆胰岛素
 

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Higher cadmium burden in coastal areas than in inland areas in Korea: implications for seafood intake
CHAN-SEOK MOON, CHAE KWAN LEE, YOUNG SEOUB HONG AND MASAYUKI IKEDA

This survey was initiated to examine possible coastal-inland differences in cadmium (Cd) burden in general Korean populations. In total, 268 healthy non-smoking middle-aged women (30 to 49 years; 88 residents in 8 coastal areas and 180 residents in 15 inland areas) participated in the study. They offered peripheral blood and spot urine samples so that cadmium in blood (Cd-B) and urine (Cd-U) were taken as exposure markers. Determination of Cd-B and Cd-U was carried out by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. With regard to Cd burden, geometric means for the coastal and inland residents were 1.70 and 1.72 μg/L for Cd-B, 1.54 and 1.00 μg/L for Cd-U as observed (Cd-U), 2.59 and 1.81 μg/g creatinine for Cd-U as corrected for creatinine (Cd-Ucr), respectively. Cd-U and Cd-Ucr were higher in the coastal areas than in inland areas. Reasons for higher Cd-U in the coastal areas than in the inland areas were are discussed in relation to major sources of Cd in daily life of the residents. Attention was paid to consumption of fish and shellfish in the coastal areas as major sources of dietary Cd intake. This study shows that Cd burdens were higher in coastal areas than in inland areas in Korea.
Key Words: blood, urine, cadmium, coastal areas, exposure marker
 

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韩国沿海地区镉负担高于内陆:海产品摄入的启示
此调查旨在研究韩国沿海人群和内陆人群体内镉(Cd)含量的差别。此项调查共
有268 位不吸烟的健康中年女性参加(年龄30-49 岁,其中有88 位来自8 个沿海
区域,180 位来自15 个内陆区域)。对她们采集外周血样和随机尿样,从而了解
血液镉(Cd-B)和尿液镉(Cd-U)的含量。采用石墨炉原子吸收分光光度法测定Cd-
B 和Cd-U。结果显示,内陆和沿海居民Cd 含量的几何平均值Cd-B 分别为1.7
μg/L 和1.72 μg/L;Cd-U(Cd-Uob)分别为1.54 μg/L 和1.00 μg/L;肌酐矫正值
(Cd-Ucr)为2.59 μg/g 肌酐和1.81 μg/g 肌酐。沿海居民Cd-Uob 和Cd-Ucr 均高于
内陆居民,其原因可能是沿海居民生活接触大量镉有关。值得注意的是,沿海
地区鱼类和贝类的摄入可能是其体内Cd 的主要来源。本研究表明,韩国沿海地
区居民镉负担要高于内陆居民。
关键词:血液ヽ尿液ヽ镉ヽ沿海地区ヽ暴露标志物

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Parental body mass index is associated with adolescent overweight and obesity in Mashhad, Iran
KHOSRO SHAFAGHI, ZALILAH MOHD SHARIFF, MOHD NASIR MOHD TAIB, HEJAR ABDUL RAHMAN, MAJID GHAYOUR MOBARHAN AND HADI JABBARI
Objective: This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among secondary school children aged 12 to 14 years in the city of Mashhad, Iran and its association with parental body mass index. Methods: A total of 1189 secondary school children (579 males and 610 females) aged 12-14 years old were selected through a stratified multistage random sampling. All adolescents were measured for weight and height. Household socio-demographic information and parental weight and height were self-reported by parents. Adolescents were classified as overweight or obese based on BMI-for age Z-score. Multivariable logistic Regression (MLR) determined the relationship between parental BMI and adolescent overweight and obesity. Results: The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity among secondary school children in Mashhad was 17.2% and 11.9%, respectively. A higher proportion of male (30.7%) than female (27.4%) children were overweight or obese. BMI of the children was significantly related to parental BMI (p<0.001), gender (p= 0.02), birth order (p<0.01), parents’ education level (p<0.001), father’s employment status (p<0.001), and family income (p<0.001). MLR showed that the father’s BMI was significantly associated with male BMI (OR: 2.02) and female BMI (OR: 1.59), whereas the mother’s BMI was significantly associated with female BMI only (OR: 0.514). Conclusion: The high prevalence of overweight/obesity among the research population compared with previous studies in Iran could be related to the changing lifestyle of the population. The strong relationship with parental BMI was probably related to a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors. Strategies to address childhood obesity
should consider the interaction of these factors.
Key Words: obesity, overweight, adolescents, body mass index, parental BMI

 

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伊朗马什哈德市父母身高体重指数与青少年超重和肥胖相关
目的:本横横断面研究调查了伊朗马什哈德市年龄在12-14 岁的中学生超重和肥
胖情况,并分析与其父母身高体重指数的相关性。方法:采用分层多级随机抽
样1189 名年龄在12-14 岁的中学生(599 名男性,610 名女性)作为调查对象。所
有青少年均测量身高体重。父母提供家庭社会相关信息及自己的身高体重。青
少年们的超重和肥胖是根据年龄相关BMI 的Z-Score 区分的,采用多变量
logistic 回归法(MLR)分析父母BMI 与孩子超重或肥胖的关系。结果:在马什哈
德市中学生中,总的超重或肥胖率分别为17.2%和11.9%。其中男孩的超重或肥
胖率(30.7%) 高于女孩(27.4%) 。孩子的BMI 与父母BMI (p<0.001) 、性别
(p=0.02)、出生时体重(p<0.01)、父母受教育程度(p<0.01)、父亲的职业地位
(p<0.001)、以及家庭收入(p<0.001)都呈显著相关。MLR 分析还提示父亲的BMI
与男孩BMI (OR:2.02)及女孩BMI (OR:1.59)具有显著相关性,而母亲的BMI
则只与女孩BMI (OR:0.514)相关。结论:与之前的对伊朗人群的研究相比,本
研究结果显示超重/肥胖率有所升高,提示人们生活方式的改变。与父母BMI 的
显著相关性可能是由于遗传和生活方式的共同作用结果。在制定控制儿童肥胖
计划时,应当将这些因素的相互作用考虑进去。
关键词:肥胖ヽ超重ヽ青少年ヽ身高体重指数ヽ父母的身高体重指数


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Acute interval exercise intensity does not affect appetite and nutrient preferences in overweight and obese males
SHAEA A ALKAHTANI, NUALA M BYRNE, ANDREW P HILLS AND NEIL A KING
This study investigated the influence of two different intensities of acute interval exercise on food preferences and appetite sensations in overweight and obese men. Twelve overweight/obese males (age=29.0±4.1 years; BMI =29.1±2.4 kg/m2) completed three exercise sessions: an initial graded exercise test, and two interval cycling sessions: moderate-(MIIT) and high-intensity (HIIT) interval exercise sessions on separate days in a counterbalanced order. The MIIT session involved cycling for 5-minute repetitions of alternate workloads 20% below and 20% above maximal fat oxidation. The HIIT session consisted of cycling for alternate bouts of 15 seconds at 85% VO2max and 15 seconds unloaded recovery. Appetite sensations and food preferences were measured immediately before and after the exercise sessions using the Visual Analogue Scale and the Liking & Wanting experimental procedure. Results indicated that liking significantly increased and wanting significantly decreased in all food categories after both MIIT and HIIT. There were no differences between MIIT and HIIT on the effect on appetite sensations and Liking & Wanting. In conclusion, manipulating the intensity of acute interval exercise did not affect appetite and nutrient preferences.
Key Words: interval exercise, exercise intensity, appetite sensations, nutrient preferences, Liking & Wanting
 

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间歇性剧烈运动不影响超重和肥胖男性的食欲和营养喜好
本研究探讨了两种不同强度的间歇剧烈运动对超重和肥胖男性食物的喜好和食
欲的影响。12 位超重/肥胖男性(年龄为29.0±4.1 岁,体重指数为29.1±2.4
kg/m2)完成了3 个运动:一个初始分级运动试验,以及两个间歇踩脚踏车运
动:在不同日期进行中等强度和高强度间歇运动。中等强度运动期包括交替重
复5 分钟最大脂肪氧化20%以上和20%以下的踩脚踏车运动。高强度运动期
包括交替15 秒85%最大耗氧量和15 秒卸载恢复的踩脚踏车运动。采用视觉模
拟量表和喜欢&需求实验程序,在运动之前和之后立即测量研究对象的食欲和
食物偏好。结果表明:中等和高强度运动之后对所有食物类别的喜欢显著增
加,而需求显著降低。中等和高强度运动对食欲和喜欢&需求的影响没有差
别。总之,调整剧烈间歇运动的强度对食欲和营养喜好没有影响。
关键词:间歇锻炼ヽ运动强度ヽ食欲ヽ营养喜好ヽ喜欢&需求


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Serum copper, zinc and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in community-living Japanese elderly women
AYAKA TSUBOI, MAYU TERAZAWA (WATANABE), TSUTOMU KAZUMI AND KEISUKE FUKUO
Background: Associations of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) serum levels with risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) have not been extensively studied in elderly Asian people. Methods: Relationships to CVD risk factors were examined in 202 freely-living elderly Japanese women. Results: By univariate analysis, log high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and non-HDL cholesterol were associated with serum Cu concentrations. An independent predictor of Cu was log hsCRP. Serum Zn concentrations decreased with age. After adjustment for age, serum albumin, HDL cholesterol and red blood cell (RBC) were positively and serum insulin and log hsCRP were inversely associated with serum Zn. In stepwise multiple regression analysis (model 1), serum albumin and HDL cholesterol were associated with serum Zn. In analysis excluding albumin from model 1 (model 2), independent determinants were log hsCRP (inverse) and the total number of RBC. In analysis including serum creatinine in model 2, creatinine has emerged as a determinant in addition to log hsCRP and RBC number. In analysis including estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) instead of creatinine and excluding age in model 2, eGFR has emerged as a determinant of serum Zn in addition to log hsCRP and RBC number. Conclusions: Systemic low-grade inflammation may contribute to elevated serum Cu and decreased serum Zn concentrations in the elderly, and may represent an important confounder of the relationship between the serum trace elements and mortality in this population.
Key Words: Cu, Zn, inflammation, women, elderly
 

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社区居住的日本老年女性血清铜和锌与心血管疾病危险因素的关系
背景:铜和锌的血清水平与心血管疾病危险因素之间的关系尚未在亚洲老年人
中进行广泛研究。方法:在202 名自由居住的日本老年女性中检测了血清铜和
锌与心血管疾病危险因素的关系。结果:单因素分析显示:高敏C 反应蛋白
(hsCRP)的对数和非高密度脂蛋白胆固醇均与血清铜浓度有关。铜的独立预测
因子是hsCRP 的对数。随着年龄的增长,血清锌的浓度下降。校正年龄之
后,血清白蛋白,高密度脂蛋白胆固醇和红细胞与血清锌成正相关,而血清胰
岛素和hsCRP 的对数与血清锌成负相关。在多元逐步回归分析(模型1)中,血
清白蛋白和高密度脂蛋白胆固醇均与血清锌有关。在将清蛋白从模型1 中剔除
的分析中(模型2),血清锌的独立决定因素是hsCRP 的对数(负相关)和总红细
胞数。在包括血清肌氨酸酐的分析中(模型2),血清肌氨酸酐是除hsCRP 的对
数和总红细胞数之外的又一个决定因素。在用估计的肾小球滤过率代替肌氨酸
酐并排除年龄的分析中(模型2),估计的肾小球滤过率是除hsCRP 的对数和总
红细胞数之外的又一个决定因素。结论:老年人全身性低度炎症可能有助于升
高血清铜的浓度,降低血清锌的浓度,并可能代表这个人群中血清微量元素和
死亡率之间关系的一个重要的混杂因素。
关键词:铜ヽ锌ヽ炎症ヽ女性ヽ老年人

 

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Serum osteocalcin is associated with dietary vitamin D, body weight and serum magnesium in postmenopausal women with and without significant coronary artery disease
EMAN M ALISSA, WAFA A ALNAHDI, NABEEL ALAMA AND GORDON A FERNS

Osteoporosis and atherosclerosis often present atypically in postmenopausal women, making clinical recognition difficult. Prospective studies suggest independent associations between bone mass and vascular calcification through vitamin D deficiency as an established predictor of both conditions. We aimed to examine the relationship between serum osteocalcin and vitamin D status in postmenopausal women with and without angiographic evidence of coronary artery disease (CAD). One hundred and eighty postmenopausal women undergoing coronary angiography were selected sequentially from the Catheterization unit of King Abdulaziz University Hospital. Socio-demographic, anthropometric parameters and dietary habits were measured. Biochemical variables were estimated in blood samples. Half of the postmenopausal women did not have significant CAD, 24% had significant CAD in a single and/or double coronary vessels, 26% had significant CAD in three coronary vessels. Mean serum vitamin D concentrations showed that vitamin D deficiency was a common finding in the whole population. Vitamin D and calcium intakes were uniformly low in the study cohort. Serum osteocalcin was significantly correlated with dietary vitamin D in all subgroups (r=-0.172, p<0.05) and positively correlated among the patients (r=0.269, p=0.01). Serum magnesium, alkaline phosphatase, dietary vitamin D, and body weight were independent variables of serum osteocalcin level. In conclusion, elevated levels of serum C reactive protein and vitamin D were associated with low serum osteocalcin levels. Therefore, osteocalcin may be a potential cardiovascular risk marker. However, further studies are needed to clarify the pathophysiological processes underlying the relationship between serum osteocalcin level and atherosclerosis parameters.
Key Words: vitamin D, osteocalcin, weight, postmenopausal women, coronary artery disease

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有或无明显冠状动脉疾病的绝经后妇女的血清骨钙素与膳食维生素D,体重和血清镁有关
骨质疏松和动脉粥样硬化在绝经后妇女中的表现往往不典型,使临床识别困
难。前瞻性研究表明:维生素D 缺乏是骨量和血管钙化之间相关性的预测指
标。我们的研究目的是验证绝经后妇女的血清骨钙素和维生素D 状态之间的
关系,通过造影确诊这些妇女有无冠状动脉疾病(CAD)。从阿卜杜勒阿齐兹国
王大学医院征集了180 名接受冠状动脉造影的绝经后妇女。收集其社会人口学
指标、人体测量指标和饮食习惯,测定血中的生化指标。有一半的绝经后妇女
没有明显的CAD,24%的妇女单侧和/或双侧冠状血管有明显的CAD,26%的
妇女三条冠状血管均有明显的CAD。平均血清维生素D 浓度表明维生素D 缺
乏在所有人群中很常见。在研究人群中,维生素D 和钙的摄入量均低。在所
有亚组中,血清骨钙素与膳食维生素D 显著负相关(r=-0.172, p<0.05),而在患
者中成正相关(r=0.269, p=0.01)。血清镁、碱性磷酸酶、膳食维生素D 和体重
是血清骨钙素水平的独立变量。总之,血清C 反应蛋白和维生素D 水平的升
高与血清骨钙素水平降低有关。因此,骨钙素可能是潜在的心血管风险的标志
物。然而,澄清血清骨钙素水平和动脉粥样硬化参数之间关系可能的病例生理
过程还需要进一步的研究。
关键词:维生素Dヽ骨钙素ヽ体重ヽ绝经后妇女ヽ冠状动脉疾病


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Vitamin K nutritional status and undercarboxylated osteocalcin in postmenopausal osteoporotic women treated with bisphosphonates
JUN IWAMOTO, TETSUYA TAKADA AND YOSHIHIRO SATO
Serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) is an index of vitamin K nutritional status in treatment-naive postmenopausal osteoporotic women. The purpose of the present study was to reveal the association between vitamin K nutritional status and serum ucOC concentrations in postmenopausal osteoporotic women taking bisphosphonates. Eighty-six postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (age range: 47-90 years) initiated bisphosphonate treatment. Vitamin K nutritional status was evaluated using a simple vitamin K-intake questionnaire and serum ucOC concentrations were measured after 6 months of treatment. The patients were divided into two groups according to the simple vitamin K-intake questionnaire score: a low vitamin K-intake (score <40) group (n=67) and a normal vitamin K-intake (score ≥40) group (n=19). There were no significant differences between the groups in baseline parameters including age, height, body weight, body mass index, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), urinary cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (NTX), and changes in serum ALP and urinary NTX concentrations during the 6-month treatment period. However, the mean serum ucOC concentration after 6 months of treatment was significantly higher in the low vitamin K-intake group (2.79 ng/mL) than in the normal vitamin K-intake group (2.20 ng/mL). These results suggest that 78% of postmenopausal osteoporotic women treated with bisphosphonates may have vitamin K deficiency as indicated by low vitamin K-intake and high serum ucOC concentrations, despite having a similar reduction in bone turnover to women who have normal vitamin K-intake.
Key Words: vitamin K, postmenopausal women, osteoporosis, undercarboxylated osteocalcin, nutrition
 

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用双磷酸盐治疗的绝经后骨质疏松妇女的维生素K 的营养状况和未羧化的骨钙素浓度
血清未羧化的骨钙素(ucOC)是治疗初始的绝经后骨质疏松妇女的维生素K 营
养状况的指标。本研究的目的是揭示服用双磷酸盐的绝经后骨质疏松妇女维生
素K 的营养状况和血清ucOC 的浓度之间的关联。86 位绝经后骨质疏松妇女
开始双磷酸盐治疗(年龄范围47-90 岁)。采用简单的维生素K 摄入量调查问卷
评估维生素K 的营养状况,治疗6 个月后测定血清中ucOC 的浓度。根据简单
的维生素K 摄入量调查问卷评分将患者分为两组:低维生素K 摄入组(得分
<40, n=60)和正常维生素K 摄入组(得分≥40, n=19)。两组患者的基线参数包括
年龄、身高、体重、体质指数、血清碱性磷酸酶(ALP)和尿N-末端肽交联的I
型胶原蛋白(NTX),以及6 个月治疗期间血清ALP 和尿NTX 浓度的变化之间
没有显著差异。然而治疗6 个月之后,低维生素K 摄入组的平均血清ucOC 浓
度(2.79 ng/mL)显著高于正常维生素K 摄入组(2.20 ng/mL)。这些结果表明,尽
管78%用双磷酸盐治疗的绝经后骨质疏松妇女与正常维生素K 摄入量的妇女
有相似的骨转化降低,但从低维生素K 摄入量和高血清ucOC 浓度看出他们可
能缺乏维生素K。
关键词:维生素Kヽ 绝经后妇女ヽ骨质疏松症ヽ未羧化的骨钙素ヽ营养

 

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Women’s nutrient intakes and food-related knowledge in rural Kandal province, Cambodia
LAUREN J WALLACE, ALASTAIR JS SUMMERLEE, CATE E DEWEY, CHANTHARITH HAK, ANN HALL AND CHRISTOPHER V CHARLES
In Cambodia, both anaemia and vitamin A deficiency are serious health problems. Despite this, few comprehensive nutritional surveys have been completed to date. This study evaluates the adequacy of iron and vitamin A intakes, as well as women’s nutritional knowledge in rural Kandal province. Twenty-four hour recalls, pile sort activities, socioeconomic surveys, focus groups, and market surveys were carried out with 67 women from 5 villages in rural Kandal Province. Ninety seven percent of women did not meet their daily-recommended intake of iron, while 70% did not meet their daily-recommended intake of vitamin A. Although many women consume vitamin A-rich and iron rich-foods daily, they do not consume large enough quantities of these foods. Results suggest that both the cost of foods as well as the extent of health knowledge is linked to nutritional practice. Most animal-source iron and vitamin A-rich foods are considered expensive; however, small fish, and several plant-source vitamin A-rich foods are inexpensive and easy to access. Despite health education, food restrictions lead some healthy foods to be considered to be harmful to women. Ultimately, this study demonstrates the importance of developing comprehensive nutritional interventions in Cambodia. Health programming must provide women with not only suggestions to include low-cost nutrient-rich foods, but also advise them about the quantities that are likely to have an impact on nutritional status. Programs should take a community-based, inter-sectoral approach that simultaneously combines culturally informed health education with initiatives that combat poverty and increase access to nutrient rich foods.
Key Words: nutritional deficiency, developing countries, Cambodia, anaemia, vitamin A deficiency
 

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柬埔寨Kandal 省农村妇女的营养素摄入和食物相关知识
在柬埔寨,贫血和维生素A 缺乏都是严重的健康问题。尽管如此,到目前已
经完成的全面的营养调查还很少。本研究评估了Kandal 省农村妇女铁和维生
素A 摄入量是否充足,以及她们的营养知识。24 小时膳食回顾,累积活动
量,社会经济调查,焦点小组和市场调查在来自Kandal 省5 个村庄的67 名女
性中进行。97%的女性铁的摄入量未达到每日推荐量,而70%的女性维生素A
的摄入量未达到每日推荐量。尽管许多女性每天摄入富含维生素A 和铁的食
物,但是他们摄入这些食物的量并不够。结果表明食物的价格和健康知识的程
度与营养实践相关。大多数动物来源铁和维生素A 含量丰富的食物被认为价
格昂贵,然而,小鱼和维生素A 含量丰富的几种植物性食物价格低廉并且容
易获得。尽管健康教育,食物限制导致一些健康食物被认为对妇女有害。最
终,本研究证实了在柬埔寨开展综合性营养干预的重要性。卫生规划不仅应为
妇女提供营养丰富且价格便宜的食物建议,而且应给出能够影响营养状况的摄
入量。规划应以社区为基础、跨部门的方法,同时结合文化健康教育举措以消
除贫困和增加可获得营养丰富的食物。
关键词:营养缺乏ヽ发展中国家ヽ柬埔寨ヽ贫血ヽ维生素A 缺乏

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Effect of feeding practices on dental caries among preschool children: a hospital based analytical cross sectional study
PRIYANTHA JULIAN PERERA, MERANTHI PREETHIKA FERNANDO, TANIA DAYANTHI WARNAKULASOORIYA AND NAYOMI RANATHUNGA
Feeding practices during early childhood play an important aetiological role in early childhood caries (ECC). The role of feeding practices in causation of ECC is debated. The objective of this study was to assess the aetiological role of feeding practices on ECC. A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted at a paediatric unit in Sri Lanka. Two hundred and eighty-five children between 36 to 60 months, admitted to the unit were randomly selected for the study. An interviewer administered questionnaire asked about socio-demographic characteristics and feeding practices. The mouths of children were examined for dental caries. Out of 285 children, 61% had exclusive breast feeding up to six months, 69% continued breast feeding beyond two years and 82% had overnight feeding after two years of age. One hundred and thirty-six children (47.7%) had dental caries with a mean deft score of 1.81. Overnight feeding with any type of milk beyond two years significantly increased dental caries incidence and severity. Children exclusively breast fed for six months or had breast feeding beyond two years had a higher prevalence of caries than children not exclusively breast fed or who were not breast feed beyond two years, but the difference was not significant. Overnight feeding with any type of milk beyond two years should be discouraged.
Key Words: early childhood caries, overnight feeding, breast feeding, sugar, formula milk

 

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喂养方式对学龄前儿童龋齿的影响:一项以医院为基础的分析横断面研究
幼儿期的喂养方式对幼儿龋齿发挥着重要的病因学作用。喂养方式与幼儿龋齿
的因果关系存在争议。本研究的目的是评估喂养方式对幼儿龋齿的病因学作
用。这是在斯里兰卡儿科病房完成的一项描述性的横断面研究。住院的285 名
月龄在36-60 个月之间的儿童被随机选入该研究。面试人员采用问卷调查的方
法询问儿童的社会人口学特征和喂养方式,检查了儿童的龋齿情况。在285 个
儿童中,有61%的幼儿完全母乳喂养到六个月,69%继续母乳喂养超过两年,
82%两岁之后仍存在夜间喂养。136 个有龋齿的儿童(47.7%)平均龋齿活动度得
分为1.81。夜间喂养任何类型的奶超过两年都显著增加龋齿的发生率和严重程
度。完全母乳喂养六个月或母乳喂养超过两年的儿童,龋齿的发生率高于不完
全母乳喂养或母乳喂养不超过两年的儿童,但这种差别不显著。任何类型奶的
夜间喂养都不应该超过两年。
关键词:幼儿龋齿ヽ夜间喂养ヽ母乳喂养ヽ糖ヽ奶粉


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Assessment of iodine deficiency in school age children in Nainital District, Uttarakhand State
UMESH KAPIL, RAVINDRA MOHAN PANDEY, SHYAM PRAKASH, MADHULIKA KABRA, NEHA SAREEN AND AJEET SINGH BHADORIA
Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) is a major public health problem in Uttarakhand. The present study was
conducted in district Nainital, Uttarakhand state with an objective to assess the prevalence of IDD in school age children. A total of 2269 children in the age group of 6-12 years were included. Clinical examination of thyroid of all children was undertaken. “On the spot” urine samples were collected from 611 children. Salt samples were collected from the family kitchen for 642 children. The Total Goitre Rate (TGR) was 15.9%. The proportion of children with urinary iodine excretion levels <20, 20-49, 50-99, 100-199 and 200 μg/L and above, was nil, 11.8, 24.9, 38.3 and 25.0 percent, respectively. The median Urinary Iodine Excretion level was 125μg/L. About 57.7% of the children were consuming salt with iodine content of 15 ppm and more. Findings of the present study indicates that the population is possibly in transition phase from iodine deficient as revealed by Total Goitre Rate of 15.9% to iodine sufficient as revealed by median urinary iodine excretion level of 125 μg/L. There is a need to further strengthen the existing monitoring system for the quality of iodized salt in the district in order to achieve the elimination of IDD.
Key Words: goitre, iodine, iodised salt, thyroid, urinary iodine excretion
 

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Uttarakhand 州,Nainital 地区学龄儿童的碘缺乏评估
碘缺乏病(IDD) 是Uttarakhand 州一个重大的公共健康问题。本研究是在
Uttarakhand 州Nainital 地区进行,目的是评估碘缺乏病在学龄儿童中的流行。共
有2269 名年龄在6-12 岁的儿童被纳入本研究。对所有儿童的甲状腺进行临床检
查,收集了611 名儿童的现场尿样,从642 名儿童的家庭厨房中收集食盐样本。
总甲状腺肿大比例为15.9%。不同尿碘排泄水平<20, 20-49, 50-99, 100-199 和 200
μg/L,儿童所占比例分别为11.8, 24.9, 38.3 和 25.0%。平均尿碘排泄水平为125
μg/L。约57.7%的儿童摄入的食盐含碘量不低于15 ppm。本研究结果表明:人
口从15.9%碘缺乏所致甲状腺肿率过渡到尿碘排泄作为足够量中位数125 微克/
升水平是可能的。为了实现在本地区消除碘缺乏病,进一步加强现有的碘盐质
量的监测系统是必要的。
关键词:甲状腺肿ヽ碘ヽ碘强化食盐ヽ甲状腺ヽ尿碘排泄
 

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Nutritional status of breast-fed and non-exclusively breast-fed infants from birth to age 5 months in 8 Chinese cities
DEFU MA, YIBING NING, HONGCHONG GAO, WENJUN LI, JUNKUAN WANG, YINGDONG ZHENG, YUMEI ZHANG AND PEIYU WANG
This study aimed to assess the nutritional status of infants aged 0 to 5 months by different feeding approaches. A cross-sectional study on infant nutrition was performed in eight cities in China. A total of 622 infants from birth to 2 months of age and 456 infants from 3 months to 5 months of age were included in this study. Mix-fed infants received breast milk and complementary foods from birth to 2 months of age. Approximately 38.2% of mix-fed infants received excessive vitamin A, and 15.6% of infants exceeded the tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) of zinc. For artificially fed infants who received only complementary foods, approximately 20% and 12.5% infants received inadequate dietary vitamin A and zinc intakes, respectively. The vitamin A and zinc intakes of half of the infants exceeded the ULs. Results showed that the usual intake distribution of the infants from 3 months to 5 months of age were similar to that of the infants from birth to 2 months of age. The common vitamin A and zinc intakes were also severely imbalanced. In addition, higher disease prevalence and lower Z scores of length-forage, weight-for-age, and weight-for-length were found in artificially fed infants and mix-fed infants compared with those in breast-fed infants. In conclusion, the usual nutrient intakes were adequate for the majority of Chinese infants, except for an important number of infants at risk for imbalance of vitamin A and zinc intakes.
Keywords: infant, nutritional status, dietary assessment, zinc, iron
 

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中国8城市0-5月母乳喂养婴儿和非纯母乳喂养婴儿营养评价研究
为了评价不同喂养方式0-5月婴儿的营养状况,我们在中国8城市实施了婴儿营养
横断面调查。总共调查了622名0-2月婴儿和456名3-5月婴儿。混合喂养婴儿指同
时摄入母乳和辅食的婴儿。研究结果发现0-2月婴儿中,38.2%的混合喂养婴儿摄
入过量的维生素A,15.6%的混合喂养儿摄入过量的锌。对于只摄入辅食的人工
喂养儿来说,大约分别有20%和12.5%的婴儿摄入维生素A和锌的量不足。而超
过一半的人工喂养儿摄入过量的维生素A和锌。3-5月的婴儿营养摄入状况与0-2
月婴儿的营养摄入状况大致相同,也存在严重的维生素A和锌摄入失衡状况。此
外,与母乳喂养儿相比,人工喂养儿和混合喂养儿有较高的疾病发病率和较低
的年龄别身高,年龄别体重和身高别体重评分。总之,对于中国城市0-5月婴儿
来说,除了维生素A和锌存在不同程度的营养失衡状况之外,其他大多数的营养
素均摄入充足。
关键词:婴儿ヽ营养状况ヽ膳食评价ヽ锌ヽ铁


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The diamond level health promoting schools (DLHPS) program for reduced child obesity in Thailand: lessons learned from interviews and focus groups
JARUWAN PHAITRAKOON, ARPAPORN POWWATTANA, SUNEE LAGAMPAN AND JEERANUN KLAEWKLA
Overweight and obesity prevalence among children is increasing globally. Health promoting school policy has been initiated in Thailand to tackle this problem. The schools that best conduct obesity management programs are rated as diamond level health promoting schools (DLHPS). However, the methods used by these schools and their efficacies have not been well-documented. This qualitative study aims to analyze the processes and activities used by four DLHPSs in obesity management programs. In-depth interviews were used to obtain information from school directors, teachers, and cooks, whereas focus group discussions were used for students. School-based obesity management programs have resulted from health promoting school policy and the increasing prevalence of overweight students. Teamwork has been a key strategy in program implementation. Policy diffusion and division of labor have been effected by school directors. A monitoring process is put in place to ensure program delivery. The most evident success factor in the present study has been intersectoral cooperation. Challenges have included confusion about the criteria in obtaining the DLHPS status, parental involvement, and students’ resistance to consume vegetables and other healthy foods. From the student focus groups discussions, three activities were most valued: class health and nutrition learning; provision of healthy foods and drinks, together with removal of soft drinks and seasoning from the cafeteria; and exercise for health. Intersectoral cooperation is the key success factor for the operationality of DLHPS, especially in making healthy foods available and physical activity the norm, at school and home.
Key Words: child obesity, management strategy, health promoting school, intersectoral cooperation, healthy foods and exercise


 

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泰国降低儿童肥胖的钻石级健康促进学校计划:从访谈和小组讨论中学到的经验
儿童超重和肥胖的发病率在全球不断增加。泰国已经启动健康促进学校政策来
解决这个问题。肥胖管理计划执行最好的学校被评为钻石级健康促进学校
(DLHPS)。然而,这些学校所使用的方法和这些方法的功效没有得到很好的记
录。本研究旨在定性分析肥胖管理计划中的4 所DLHPS 所采用的方法和活
动。采用深入采访的方法从学校领导、老师和厨师中获得信息,而采用小组讨
论的方法从学生中获得信息。以学校为基础的肥胖管理计划源于健康促进学校
政策和超重学生患病率的增加。团队合作一直是项目实施的关键策略。政策的
传播和分工由学校董事们安排。采用监督程序以保证计划的实施。本研究最明
显的成功因素是跨部门合作。面临的挑战包括:获得DLHPS 状况标准的混
淆,父母的参与,学生对消费蔬菜等健康食品的抵触。从学生的小组讨论中获
得的最宝贵的3 项活动是:课堂上健康和营养知识的学习;食堂提供健康的食
物和饮品,而去除软饮料和不健康的调味品;和体育锻炼。部门间的合作是
DLHPS 可操作性成功的关键因素,尤其是学校和家庭提供健康的食物,以及
常态的体育锻炼。
关键词:儿童肥胖ヽ管理策略ヽ健康促进学校ヽ跨部门合作ヽ健康食品和运动

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Type 2 diabetes among farmers and rural and urban referents: cumulative incidence over 20 years and risk factors in a prospective cohort study
ANDERS THELIN AND SARA HOLMBERG
Background: Few studies have examined the risk of type 2 diabetes in various occupational groups. Farmers in Sweden have a low risk of coronary heart disease, but less is known about diabetes. Objective: To analyze the cumulative incidence and relative risk of type 2 diabetes among farmers and referents taking lifestyle factors and components of the metabolic syndrome into account. Methods: In a longitudinal observational cohort study we followed 1,220 farmers, 1,130 rural non-farmer referents and 1,219 urban referents over 20 years. Outcomes were generated from national registers and from two surveys 12 years apart. Baseline data were assessed at the first survey conducted in 1990-91. Results: Farmers had a significantly lower risk of all diabetes compared with urban and rural referents (p<0.05). A total of 91 farmers (8.4%) and 102 non-farming rural referents (11.5%) were identified with type 2 diabetes over the 20 year study period (OR=0.70; 95% CI 0.52-0.95). Fractional analyses of lifestyle factors and components of the metabolic syndrome showed that the low risk of type 2 diabetes among farmers was explained in terms of physical activity and meal quality. Farmers had significantly higher physical capacity (p<0.001) and scored higher in a meal quality index than rural referents (p<0.001). Conclusions: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes was significantly lower among farmers. The low relative risk was explained by high physical activity and better meal quality, indicating that farmers’ lifestyles and their work environment are healthpromoting.
Key Words: type 2 diabetes, farmers, lifestyle, physical activity, meal quality
 

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农民及农村和城市参照人群中2 型糖尿病20 多年的累计发病率和危险因素研究: 前瞻性队列研究
背景:很少有研究探讨2 型糖尿病在不同职业人群中的患病风险。在瑞典,农
民的冠状动脉心脏病患病风险较低,但是关于糖尿病的患病风险知之甚少。目
的:分析农民和参照人群中2 型糖尿病的累积发病率和相对危险度,以及生活
方式因素和代谢综合征的组成部分。方法:在纵向观察队列研究中,我们跟踪
调查1,220 位农民、参照人群1,130 位农村非农业居民和 1,219 位城市居民20
余年。数据来自国家的登记注册和相隔12 年的两次调查数据,其中1990 到
1991 年期间进行的第一次调查结果作为基线数据。结果:农民糖尿病的患病
风险显著低与农村非农业居民和城市居民(p<0.05)。在跟踪调查的20 多年中,
总共有91 名农民(8.4%)和102 名农村非农业居民(11.5%)被诊断出患有2 型糖
尿病(OR=0.70,95% CI 0.52-0.95)。基于生活方式因素和代谢综合征的组成部
分分别统计分析数据显示,农民的2 型糖尿病低患病风险可以用其体力活动和
膳食质量来解释。农民的体力活动(p<0.001)和膳食质量指数(p<0.001)都显著高
于农村非农业人口。结论:在瑞典,农民2 型糖尿病有显著低的患病率。其较
低的相对危险度可解释为其更多的体力活动和更好的膳食质量。这表明农民的
生活方式和他们的工作环境是有利于健康的。
关键词:2 型糖尿病ヽ农民ヽ生活方式ヽ体力活动ヽ膳食质量
 

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Lifestyle of Chinese centenarians and their key beneficial factors in Chongqing, China
YU LI, YANG BAI, QING-LIU TAO, HUAN ZENG, LING-LI HAN, MING-YU LUO, NA ZHANG, XIAO-NI ZHONG, YAO-JIE XIE AND YONG ZHAO
Objective: This study aims to describe the lifestyle of Chinese centenarians and to identify the beneficial factors that are correlated to their longevity. Methods: A census-based survey was conducted among centenarians in Chongqing, Southwest China, to identify the lifestyle factors affecting their health. From screening identification cards, 878 centenarians (age range 100-117, mean 102) were identified and interviewed. Results: The survey indicated that 64% centenarians were able to take care of themselves. The majority of centenarians were nonsmokers (92%) and non-drinkers (83%). No significant difference was observed between urban and rural distributions (χ2=0.939, p=0.625). Moreover, 43% centenarians maintained a regular diet, and only 33% had a sedentary lifestyle. Conclusions: A nutritious diet, adequate physical exercise, and a harmonious family environment may be the key lifestyle factors for their longevity of centenarians in Chongqing. These observations might be helpful in designing health promotion and welfare strategies for the elderly.
Key Words: centenarians, lifestyle, census, longevity, Chongqing
 

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中国重庆百岁老人生活方式和关键有利因素调查
目的:本研究旨在描述中国百岁老人的生活方式和识别出长寿的有利因素。方
法:采用普查的方式调查可能影响重庆(中国西南地区)百岁老人健康的生活方
式。通过身份证筛选出878 位百岁老人(年龄范围为100-117 岁,平均为102
岁),并进行问卷调查。结果:调查结果表明,64%的调查者能够生活自理,
大多数不吸烟(92%) 、不喝酒(83%) , 且城乡间无显著性差异 (χ2=0.939,
p=0.939)。此外,43%的调查者保持规律饮食,只有33%的人有久坐的生活习
惯。结论:合理饮食、适当体育锻炼和家庭和睦等可能是百岁老人长寿的重要
因素。本研究结果可能有助于老年人健康促进和福利策略的制订。
关键词:百岁老人ヽ生活方式ヽ普查ヽ长寿ヽ重庆
 

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Effectiveness of a food education program in improving appetite and nutritional status of elderly adults living at home
LOUISA MING YAN CHUNG AND JOANNE WAI YEE CHUNG
Objective: To evaluate a 3-week program comprising cooking demonstrations with free food samples in motivating elderly adults to cook more and improve their nutritional status. Design: An experimental pre-post study. Setting: Three districts in Hong Kong. Participants: Sixty aged 59-95 home-living adults. Intervention: Group A (one 1-day food sample given free weekly) and Group B (three 1-day food samples given free weekly). Main Outcome Measure: Satisfaction questionnaires were conducted every week. Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) scores were assessed at baseline and 6 months after the program’s completion. Analysis: Nutritional status was assessed before and after intervention. Repeated analysis of variance measures of compliance, appetite, easiness of program at 3-week time-points were calculated to differentiate a more frequent (Group B) and a less frequent (Group A) provision of food sample reinforced their cooking skills to a greater extent. Results: The compliance rate of Group B was higher than that of Group A. More than 60% of the participants intended to continue cooking and a third of the participants expressed satisfaction with the program. The MNA scores had improved 6 months later (combined data from both groups). Conclusions: Nutrition education through cooking demonstrations and the community-based distribution of food ingredients can improve the nutrition status of the elderly population.
Key Words: appetite, evaluation research, satisfaction survey, food education program, Mini Nutrition Assessment
 

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一项食物教育计划提高居家老年人的食欲和健康状况的有效性
目的:评价一个3 周的计划,该计划包括给老年人提供免费食物样品和烹饪示
范来激励他们自己做饭和改善他们的营养状况。设计:一项实验前后比较研
究。地点:香港的3 个区。参与者:60 位年龄在59-95 岁的居家生活的成年
人。干预:A 组(每周提供一天1 份的免费食物样品)和B 组(每周提供3 天每天
1 份的免费食物样品)。主要观察指标:每周进行满意度问卷调查。在基线和
项目完成6 个月后评估迷你营养评估(MNA)得分。分析:干预前后分别评估营
养状况。重复性方差分析估量3 周时的依从性,食欲和计划的容易性,目的在
于区分为增强他们的烹饪技术到一个更高的水平而提供食物样本更频繁组(B
组)和不频繁组(A 组)。结果:B 组的依从率高于A 组。60% 以上的参与者打
算继续烹饪,1/3 的参与者表示对计划满意。6 个月后MNA 得分比基线有所提
高(两组数据合并)。结论:通过烹饪示范和以社区为基础分配食物原料的营养
教育可以提高老年人的营养状况。
关键词:食欲ヽ评价研究ヽ满意度调查ヽ食物教育计划ヽ迷你营养评估
 

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Stockpiles and food availability in feeding facilities after the Great East Japan Earthquake
MIHO NOZUE, KAZUKO ISHIKAWA-TAKATA, NOBUKO SARUKURA, KAZUKO SAKO AND NOBUYO TSUBOYAMA-KASAOKA
Food stockpiles and methods of ensuring food availability after the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011 have been studied. Questionnaires were sent to 1911 registered dietitians and general dietitians who were members of the Japan Dietetic Association in August 2012. Four hundred thirty-five dietitians (22.8%) completed the questionnaire about work involved in feeding facilities, types and administration of meals, and food stockpiles. Methods of ensuring food availability, preparation, and accommodating food for special dietary uses were recorded for the three-day period immediately following the earthquake, and the period from 4 days to one month after the earthquake. Three days after the earthquake, differences in administration of meals at feeding facilities providing three meals daily, food stockpiles, organization, contactable facilities, and how to contact them for food items were assessed. Sixty-nine percent of all feeding facilities in this study had stockpiles of food before the Great East Japan Earthquake. Administration of meals in feeding facilities and the possibility of contact with cooperative feeding facilities were found to correlate positively with ensuring the availability of food groups. Food scores were higher in facilities providing three meals daily by direct administration of meals and with accessible public administrators, cooperative facilities and suppliers, and facilities that were contactable by landline telephone, mobile phone, fax or email. The necessity for natural disaster-readiness through continuous stockpiling food at feeding facilities is confirmed. Each prospective feeding facility must be required to plan its stockpiles, their turnover and replaceability to maximise food security in the face of disaster.
Key Words: stockpile, food supply, dietitian, feeding facility, Japan
 

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日本东部大地震后用餐设施库存和食品供应
本课题研究了日本2011 年3 月11 日东部大地震之后的食品库存以及确保食品
供应的方法。2012 年8 月研究人员将问卷发给了日本营养师协会的1911 名注
册营养师和普通营养师。435 名营养师(22.8%)完成了关于食品用具、类型、饭
菜的处理和食品的储存情况的问卷。研究记录了震后三天内以及从震后第四天
到一个月之间确保食物供应的方法、食物的准备和一些特殊用途食物的储存。
地震三天后,对供餐点提供每日三餐、食物的储存、组织和管理、以及如何能
联系到供餐点进行了评估。本研究中,在日本东部大地震之前69%的供餐点
都有食物贮备。供餐点食物的供给和与供餐点有合作关系的食物集团现存食物
成正相关。能直接提供一日三餐、公众容易找到、提供有有线电话、手机、传
真和电子邮件的供餐点的评分较高。本研究证实了为自然灾害在供餐点贮备食
物的必要性。必须要求每个未来供餐点规划它的食物贮备、定期更换和可替代
性,以最大限度地提高在灾难面前的粮食安全。
关键词:物资储备ヽ食品供应 ヽ营养师 ヽ食品用具 ヽ日本

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MicroRNA-125a-3p expression in abdominal adipose tissues is associated with insulin signalling gene expressions in morbid obesity: observations in Taiwanese
CHIU-LI YEH, I-CHI CHENG, YU-CHEN HOU, WEU WANG AND SUNG-LING YEH
Background: Micro (mi) RNAs have been found to play an important role in the regulation of adipogenesis and insulin sensitivity. However, associations between miRNA and insulin signalling-related gene expressions in abdominal adipose tissues in obese subjects remain unclear. Methods: We used a microarray platform to screen miRNA expressions in abdominal adipose tissues between genders in severely obese subjects and found that the top-ranking miRNA in abdominal omental adipose tissues was miRNA-125a-3p. MicroR-125a-3p and insulin signalling-related gene expressions in abdominal omental adipose tissues of all subjects (11 men and 10 women) were subsequently quantified by a real-time PCR. Also, associations of miR-125a-3p with insulin signallingrelated gene expression and biochemical markers in obese subjects were analyzed by a linear regression analysis. Results: miR-125a-3p expressed by abdominal omental adipose tissues was much higher in obese men than women. No gender difference was observed in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissues. Concomitant with high miR-125a-3p, c-Jun N-terminal kinase gene expression was also higher, whereas insulin receptor was lower in men than women. There were negative associations of miR-125a-3p with the insulin receptor and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase expressions. Fasting plasma glucose and cholesterol levels were positively associated with miR-125a-3p expression. These associations were obvious in obese men but not women. Conclusion: Our results support the involvement of miR-125a-3p in regulating the insulin signalling pathway and imply that increased miR-125a-3p expression in omental adipose tissues may be a characteristic feature of insulin resistance in obese men.
Key Words: morbid obesity, abdominal adipose tissue, miR-125a-3p, insulin signalling pathway, insulin resistant
 

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重度肥胖者腹腔脂肪組織microRNA-125a-3p的表現量與胰島素訊息傳

遞相關基因表現相關: 台灣人的觀察研究
背景:微形核糖核酸(miRNA)在調節脂肪生合成及胰島素抗性扮演重要角色,
但是肥胖者腹腔脂肪組織miRNA 與胰島素訊息傳遞相關基因表現之間的相關
性仍不確知。方法: 本研究利用微陣列的平台來篩檢不同性別重度肥胖者腹腔
脂肪組織中miRNA 的表現,發現在腹腔網膜脂肪表現量最高的是miRNA-
125a-3p,所以我們再用即時聚合酶鏈鎖反應確認並定量所有肥胖者(11 位男性
及10 位女性)腹腔網膜脂肪中miRNA-125a-3p 及胰島素訊息傳遞相關基因的
表現,同時也以線性迴歸法分析miRNA-125a-3p 與胰島素訊息傳遞相關基因
表現及血中生化指標間的相關性。結果: 肥胖男性腹腔網膜脂肪miRNA-125a-
3p 的表現較女性為高,腹腔皮下脂肪則無性別間之差異,有高miRNA-125a-
3p 表現量的肥胖男性,其c-Jun N-terminal kinase 的基因表現量也會高,而胰
島素接受器的表現量則較肥胖女性為低。miRNA-125a-3p 與胰島素接受器及
phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase 的表現成負相關, 而空腹血糖和膽固醇值與
miRNA-125a-3p 的表現則成正相關。這些相關性在肥胖男性很顯著,但在肥胖
女性則不明顯。結論:本研究結果顯示miRNA-125a-3p 參與了胰島素訊息傳遞
路徑的調節,而腹腔網膜脂肪miRNA-125a-3p 表現量增加可能是肥胖男性胰
島素抗性的一個表徵。
關鍵字:重度肥胖ヽ腹部脂肪組織ヽmiRNA-125a-3pヽ胰島素訊息路徑ヽ胰
島素抗性

 

 

 

Last Updated: June 2014