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1 Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
       Volume 22, 2

         (April 2013)


Abstracts

Contents

Abstract PDF

Mini Review

Antioxidant relevance to human health
MARK L WAHLQVIST
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2013;22(2):171-176.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2013.22.2.21

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Original Research Communications

Nutritional Measurement & Methodology

Development and validity assessment of a diet quality index for Australians
RASOUL ZARRIN, TORUKIRI I IBIEBELE AND GEOFFREY C MARKS
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2013;22(2):177-187.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2013.22.2.15

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Development of an amino acid composition database and estimation of amino acid intake in Japanese
adults

HITOMI SUGA, KENTARO MURAKAMI AND SATOSHI SASAKI
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2013;22(2):188-199.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2013.22.2.03

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Clinical Nutrition or Feeding Studies

Can’t we just let them eat? Defining and addressing under-use of the oral route in a post-surgical ward
SIMONE CONCHIN, ROS MUIRHEAD, SUZIE FERRIE AND SHARON CAREY
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2013;22(2):200-205.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2013.22.2.12

 

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NutritionDay 2010 audit in Jinling hospital of China
LI ZHANG, XINYING WANG, YINGCHUN HUANG, YONG GAO, NANHAI PENG, WEIMING ZHU, NING LI AND JIESHOU LI
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2013;22(2):206-213.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2013.22.2.18

 

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Effects of egg and vitamin A supplementation on hemoglobin, retinol status and physical growth levels of primary and middle school students in Chongqing, China

JIAOYANG CAO, XIAOPING WEI, XIANQIANG TANG, HONGPENG JIANG, ZHEN FAN, QIN YU, JIE CHEN, YOUXUE LIU AND TINGYU LI
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2013;22(2):214-221.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2013.22.2.10

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Effects of dietary traditional fermented soybean on reproductive hormones, lipids, and glucose among postmenopausal women in northern Thailand
RATANA SAPBAMRER, NUWAT VISAVARUNGROJ AND MAITREE SUTTAJIT
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2013;22(2):222-228.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2013.22.2.17

 

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The application of a feeding protocol in older patients fed through percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes by the intermittent or bolus methods: a single-center, retrospective chart review
SATOMI ICHIMARU, TERUYOSHI AMAGAI AND YOSHIHIKO SHIRO
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2013;22(2):229-234
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doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2013.22.2.20

 

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Effectiveness of strategies for recruiting overweight and obese Generation Y women to a clinical weight management trial
HAYLEY J GRIFFIN, HELEN T O’CONNOR, KIERON B ROONEY AND KATHARINE S STEINBECK
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2013;22(2):235-240.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2013.22.2.16

 

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Nutritional Status, Dietary Intake, and Body Composition

Plasma adiponectin concentrations are associated with dietary glycemic index in Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes
BENG-IN LOH, DANIEL ROBERT SATHYASURYA AND HAMID JAN JAN MOHAMED
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2013;22(2):241-248.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2013.22.2.04

 

 

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Attenuated associations between increasing BMI and unfavorable lipid profiles in Chinese Buddhist vegetarians
HUI-JIE ZHANG, PENG HAN, SU-YUN SUN, LI-YING WANG, BING YAN, JIN-HUA ZHANG, WEI ZHANG, SHU-YU YANG AND XUE-JUN LI
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2013;22(2):249-256.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2013.22.2.07

 

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Hair mineral analysis by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry: associations with body fat
KATSUJI UETAKE AND TOSHIO TANAKA
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2013;22(2):257-260.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2013.22.2.14

 

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Maternal and Child Nutrition

 

Japanese mothers’ breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes assessed by the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitudes Scale
MADOKA INOUE, COLIN W BINNS, YOKO KATSUKI AND MIKIO OUCHI
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2013;22(2):261-265.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2013.22.2.08

 

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Attitudes towards breastfeeding – the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale in Chinese mothers living in China and Australia
SHU CHEN, COLIN W BINNS, YI LIU, BRUCE MAYCOCK, YUN ZHAO AND LI TANG
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2013;22(2):266-269.

doi:10.6133/apjcn.2013.22.2.09

 

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Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in low birth weight infants at NICU discharge and the start of complementary feeding
KIMIYO MAMEMOTO, MASARU KUBOTA, AYAKO NAGAI, YUKIHIRO TAKAHASHI, TOMOYUKI KAMAMOTO, HIDEKI MINOWA AND HAJIME YASUHARA
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2013;22(2):270-275.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2013.22.2.11

 

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The fatty acid composition of colostrum in three geographic regions of China
YI-XIONG GAO, JIAN ZHANG, CHUNRONG WANG, LIXIANG LI, QINGQING MAN, PENGKUN SONG, LIPING MENG,ØVYIND LIE AND LIVAR FRØYLAND
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2013;22(2):276-282.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2013.22.2.02

 

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The influence of primary caregivers on body size and self-body image of preschool children in Taiwan
YUECHING WONG, YU-JHEN CHANG AND CHIA-JUNG LIN
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2013;22(2):283-291.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2013.22.2.05

 

 

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Nutritional Epidemiology and Public Health

 

Vitamin D deficiency awareness among African migrant women residing in high-rise public housing in Melbourne, Australia: a qualitative study
ALANA PIRRONE, TERESA CAPETOLA, ELISHA RIGGS ANDANDRE RENZAHO ANTHEA KAY CHRISTOFOROU, ELIZABETH KALPIAKA DUNFORD AND BRUCE CHARLES NEAL

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2013;22(2):292-299.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2013.22.2.01

 

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Dietary exposure to essential and potentially toxic elements for the population of Hanoi, Vietnam
HELLE MARCUSSEN, BODIL H JENSEN, ANNETTE PETERSEN AND PETER E HOLM
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2013;22(2):300-311.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2013.22.2.06

 

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Dental caries is correlated with knowledge of comprehensive food education in Japanese university students
DAISUKE EKUNI, TAKAAKI TOMOFUJI, SHINSUKE MIZUTANI, MICHIKO FURUTA, KOICHIRO IRIE, TETSUJI AZUMA, AZUSA KOJIMA, YOSHIAKI IWASAKI AND MANABU MORITA
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2013;22(2):312-318.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2013.22.2.13

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Estimation of usual intake and food sources of choline and betaine in New Zealand reproductive age women
VANESSA L MYGIND, SOPHIE E EVANS, MEREDITH C PEDDIE, JODY C MILLER AND LISA A HOUGHTON
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2013;22(2):319-324.

doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2013.22.2.19

 

 

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Future Events

 

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2013;22(2):325.

 

 

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Antioxidant relevance to human health
MARK L WAHLQVIST
Human ecology requires both oxygen and water with the generation from food of an immediate energy source, ATP, by oxidative phosphorylation. A continuing balance between oxidation and antioxidation is necessary for longer less-disabled lives, taking account of oxidative stresses and the critical roles of oxidants in defence against infection, tissue repair and signalling. Antioxidant capacity is derived both exogenously (from food, beverage and sunlight) and endogenously (from enzymatic and non-enzymatic pathways). A number of oxidant food factors service antioxidant metallo-enzymes. The capacity operates extra- or intracellularly. Uric acid is the major antioxidant in primate blood. Uric acid synthesis is increased by dietary fructose from fruit, sugary foods and drinks. This indirect antioxidant effect of fruit is separate from that attributable to its flavonoids. Alcohol also increases serum uric acid. Urate excess and retention is associated with disease. The high prevalence of hyperuricaemia in NE Asia presents a major public health dilemma in regard to putative benefits and risks. Foods with high antioxidant activity include berries, nuts and legumes, tomatoes and sweet potato leaves. Each of the antioxidants in these foods is pleiotropic being inter-alia anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic or anti-neoplastic. Moreover, food matrices and patterns contribute to the safety of antioxidant consumption. There is no evidence to date that isolated antioxidants as food supplements improve health outcomes or survival; and some that indicate nacceptable risk. Their use as biomarkers of food cannot justify their isolated use. Nevertheless, a spectrum of dietary pluripotential antioxidants for tissues, metabolic and immune systems is advantageous.
Key Words: oxidants, uric acid, toxicity, supplements, pleiotropic functions
 

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抗氧化物與人類健康
人類生態需要氧氣及水分,藉由氧化磷酸化作用,用於從食物產生立即能量-
ATP。考量氧化壓力及氧化物在對抗感染、組織修補及傳遞訊息的關鍵角色,
氧化及抗氧化作用間的不斷平衡,對生命體維持較長久的健全是必要的。抗氧
化物能力衍生自外生性(來自食物、飲料及陽光)及內生性(來自酵素及非酵素路
徑)。一些具氧化力的食物因子輔助含金屬的抗氧化酵素,在細胞外與細胞內
運作。尿酸是靈長類血液中主要的抗氧化物。尿酸合成因來自水果、含糖食物
及飲料的膳食果糖而增加。水果的這項間接抗氧化作用與來自於異黃酮的效應
是分開的。飲酒也會增加血清尿酸。且尿酸鹽過多及留滯與疾病有關。由於尿
酸具可能效益及危險性,使得東北亞地區高盛行率的高尿酸血症在公共衛生上
是兩難的。含高抗氧化力的食物,包括莓果、堅果與豆類、番茄及甘薯葉。這
些食物中的每種抗氧化物具多效性,諸如抗發炎作用、抗血管增生或是抗腫
瘤。再者,食物基質及飲食模式將關係到抗氧化物攝取的安全性。迄今沒有證
據顯示,分離抗氧化物當做食品補充劑,可改善健康或是存活狀況;更有一些
顯示有無法接受的風險。抗氧化物雖可被視為食物的生物標記,但無法以此推
證它們被純化使用的結果。儘管如此,膳食中的各樣多效能抗氧化物,對組
織、代謝及免疫系統是有助益的。
關鍵字:氧化物、尿酸、毒性、補充劑、多效功用

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Development and validity assessment of a diet quality index for Australians
RASOUL ZARRIN, TORUKIRI I IBIEBELE AND GEOFFREY C MARKS
Existing Australian diet quality indices have assumed links to health outcomes but their validity for this has not been reported. We extend the features of existing indices for Australian adults by constructing a new diet quality index (Aussie-DQI) using the national dietary guidelines linked to the Australia National Health Priority Areas. Construct validity was assessed using 24 hour dietary recalls from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey (n=10,851 adults aged 19 years and older). Construct and criterion validity were assessed using food frequency questionnaire data from the Nambour Skin Cancer study (n=1355), a community-based longitudinal study with 16 year follow-up and cause-specific mortality outcomes. Generalised linear regression was used to assess associations between Aussie-DQI scores and socio-economic, demographic, health-behaviour characteristics, and food and nutrient intakes, while Cox proportional-hazards modeling was used to assess associations with cancer and allcause mortality. A high Aussie-DQI score was associated with being female, being older, non-smoking status, and BMI in the normal range in both study populations; and Aussie-DQI scores were inversely associated with cancer mortality among men in multivariable-adjusted analyses (hazard ratio = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.83; p for trends = 0.06). In conclusion, Aussie-DQI successfully discriminated diet quality and showed that men, younger adults, current smokers and those overweight/obese were less likely to consume foods that meet ietary recommendations; and that a high diet quality is associated with decreased risk of cancer mortality among men. This study adds further evidence to clarify the role of diet quality in decreasing mortality from chronic diseases.
Key Words: diet quality index, construct validity, criterion validity, cancer mortality, dietary assessment

 

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澳洲飲食品質指標之發展及效度評估
現有的澳洲飲食品質指標,被假設與健康相關,然而他們的效度並未被實際評
估過。本研究延伸現有澳洲成人飲食指標之特質,利用澳洲國民健康促進重點
(NHPAs)相關的飲食指南,建構新的澳洲飲食品質指標(Aussie-DQI)。建構效
度,藉由1995 年澳洲國民營養調查的24 小時飲食回憶記錄加以評估(計10,851
位,年齡大於等於19 歲的澳洲成人)。並以Nambour 皮膚癌研究之食物頻率問
卷資料(樣本數=1355)評估建構與效標效度;Nambour 研究是一社區性縱貫研
究,追蹤16 年的死因別死亡率。以廣義線性迴歸評估Aussie-DQI 分數與社經、
人口學、健康行為特質、食物及營養素攝取量之相關;Aussie-DQI 分數與癌症
及全死因死亡率之相關,則以Cox 比例風險迴歸評估。澳洲國民營養調查與
Nambour 皮膚癌研究中,女性、年紀較長、無抽菸者及身體質量指數正常者,
飲食品質指標分數較高;經多變項校正後,飲食品質指標分數與男性癌症死亡
率呈負相關(風險比= 0.30,95% CI: 0.11, 0.83;趨勢p= 0.06)。總結而言,澳洲
飲食品質指標成功地辨別飲食品質,且顯示男性、年輕成人、抽菸者、以及過
重/肥胖者,較少攝取飲食建議的食物;此外,高飲食品質與男性較低癌症死亡
風險相關。本研究提增進一步的證據,闡明飲食品質於降低慢性疾病死亡率的
角色。
關鍵字:飲食品質指標
建構效度、效標效度、癌症死亡率、膳食評估

 

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Development of an amino acid composition database and estimation of amino acid intake in Japanese
adults

HITOMI SUGA, KENTARO MURAKAMI AND SATOSHI SASAKI
Investigations of the association between an individual’s habitual amino acid intake and several types of health outcome require a comprehensive amino acid composition database. The lack of a database of the amino acid content of foods routinely consumed makes estimating daily amino acid intake difficult. The aim of this study was to develop an amino acid database for use in epidemiological studies, and to estimate amino acid intake among a Japanese population. Data were obtained from published food composition data, and when published data were unavailable, calculated data were imputed using established criteria. Adequate data were available for 1100 food items. Using a purpose-developed amino acid composition table, we estimated amino acid intake among a Japanese population (121 women and 109 men aged 30 to 69 years) living in four areas in Japan using a 16-day diet record. All subjects met the estimated average requirements of the nine indispensable amino acids as reported by WHO/FAO/UNU. The major contributors to dietary amino acid intake were cereals, fish and shellfish, and meats, which accounted for approximately 60% of total intake. This database contains amino acid values of foods items frequently consumed in Japan, and represents a valuable tool for use in epidemiological studies.
Key Words: food composition table, amino acid, dietary intake, Japanese adults, diet records

 

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胺基酸成分資料庫的發展與日本成人胺基酸攝取量評估
研究個人日常胺基酸攝取與各種健康結果的相關性,一個詳盡的胺基酸成分資
料庫是必備的。日本人經常攝取的食物,其胺基酸含量數據不足,以至於評估
每日胺基酸攝取量有困難。此研究的目的為發展一個應用於流行病學研究的胺
基酸資料庫,並以此評估日本族群的胺基酸攝取量。胺基酸數值來自已經發表
的食物成分表;當缺乏現成的數據時,則使用已建立的標準,以插補的方式估
算數據。共計1100 個食物項目有適當的數據可使用。採用16 天的飲食記錄並
使用目的導向發展的胺基酸成分表,以評估居住在日本4 個區域的族群(121 名
女性及109 名男性,年齡介於30-69 歲),其胺基酸攝取量。所有對象的9 項必
需胺基酸攝取量符合WHO/FAO/UNU 報告的平均需求量。膳食胺基酸攝取主要
的來源為穀類、魚貝類及肉類,占了近60%的總攝取。這個資料庫涵蓋日本經
常攝取的食物項目之胺基酸數值,在流行病學研究的運用上為有價值的工具。
關鍵字:食物成分表、胺基酸、膳食攝取、日本成人、飲食記錄


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Can’t we just let them eat? Defining and addressing under-use of the oral route in a post-surgical ward
SIMONE CONCHIN, ROS MUIRHEAD, SUZIE FERRIE AND SHARON CAREY
Early postoperative nutrition improves outcomes. However, postoperative fasting is a tradition that persists in some areas of surgical practice. This retrospective audit was performed to benchmark current nutrition support practices on a mixed specialty surgical ward in a large tertiary-referral teaching hospital. Thirty-eight consecutive patients, who were undergoing gynaecological or urological surgical procedures between November 2010 and May 2011, had data collected including demographics, nutritional status, details of surgery performed, postoperative complications, modes of nutrition support and time taken to progress to solid oral diet. Energy and protein provision and adequacy was estimated for the first week postoperatively. Sixteen patients commenced parenteral nutrition postoperatively without any trial of oral or enteral nutrition. Reasons for using parenteral nutrition included observed or expected gut dysmotility and lack of enteral access for feeding. These patients did demonstrate longer length of stay and higher rates of postoperative complications. Given the proportion of patients initiated immediately on parenteral nutrition and maintained on it alone, it can be argued that these patients are not able to demonstrate tolerance and receive the benefits of early enteral feeding predicted by studies within these patient groups. None of the patients met their energy and protein requirements in the first week postoperatively. Despite support in the literature, it can be challenging to implement early postoperative nutrition support after pelvic surgery. It may be necessary to employ a variety of strategies to change this aspect of practice and promote earlier introduction of an oral diet or the use of enteral nutrition.
Key Words: gynecological surgery, ileus, nutritional support, parenteral nutrition, urological surgery

 

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何時可進食? 未充分施用術後口服營養之原因及解決之道
早期的術後營養有助於疾病預後。然而,在某些地區,仍採取術後禁食的保守
策略。在某大型第三層轉診教學醫院,對綜合外科病房之術後營養支持方法做
基準檢測,進行回溯性評估。本研究共蒐集38 位,於2010 年11 月至2011 年
5 月,接受婦科或泌尿科手術的患者資料,其中包括人口學、營養狀態、手術
執行細節、術後併發症、營養支持方式,及術後開始固態飲食的時間。評估術
後第一週的能量與蛋白質之供應量及其適足程度。其中16 位患者,沒有執行
口服或腸道營養的測試,術後直接給予靜脈營養。給予靜脈營養的原因,包括
觀察或預期該患者可能有腸胃道蠕動障礙,以及患者缺乏消化道造口。而這些
患者,確顯示有較長的住院天數,及更高的術後併發症比率。令人質疑的是,
這麼高比率的患者立即且持續的靜脈營養,病人無法表現其口服耐受度,且無
法得到從早期腸道餵食的預期效益。沒有任何一位患者,在術後第一週,獲得
足夠的熱量及蛋白質需求。儘管有文獻支持,骨盆腔手術後,可以實施早期的
術後營養,但要被全面採納,仍有挑戰性。可能需要採用多種策略去改變現有
的做法,並提升早期進食,或施用腸道營養。
關鍵字: 婦科手術、腸阻塞、營養支持、靜脈營養、泌尿科手術

 

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NutritionDay 2010 audit in Jinling hospital of China
LI ZHANG, XINYING WANG, YINGCHUN HUANG, YONG GAO, NANHAI PENG, WEIMING ZHU, NING LI AND JIESHOU LI

Background: NutritionDay is an annual worldwide cross-sectional multicentre audit. This report aimed to describe the results of nutritionDay 2010 in Jinling hospital, providing a map of the prevalence of malnutrition and actual nutrition therapy practice in different units. The risk factors to malnutrition and length of hospital stay were also investigated. Methods: The data was collected from 233 inpatients from Jinling hospital on Nov 4th, 2010, using standardized questionnaires. Malnutrition was objectively defined as BMI <20 or unintentional weight loss >5% in the past three months. Risk factors for malnutrition and the impact of multiple factors on length of hospital stay were analyzed. Results: 233 inpatients participated in this audit (143 M: 90 F; mean±SD age 50.6±18.5 years). Of the patients, 42.5%were malnourished. Multivariable analysis revealed three risk factors for malnutrition: gender, food intake and length of hospital stay before audit. Longer length of hospital stay prevailed in patients aged ≥65 years (p<0.001), and there was a positive and significant, but weak, correlation between length of hospital stay and age. Conclusions: The prevalence of malnutrition was high. Higher age may be the main contributor to longer length of hospital stay. This was the first study to obtain data from hospitalized patients’ nutritional status in China during the nutritionDay audit and the valuable results could supply evidence for clinical nutrition support.
Key Words: nutritionDay, malnutrition, food intake, length of hospital stay, nutrition support

 

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中国金陵医院2010 年世界营养日
背景:“世界营养日”是一项全球范围内多中心住院患者的营养现况调查的项
目,每年举行一次。本报告的目的在于总结中国金陵医院2010 年“世界营养
日”项目调查结果,描绘本医院住院患者营养不良的现况及实际的营养支持治
疗实施情况。同时,分析患者存在营养不良及住院时间延长的危险因素。方
法:本调查于2010 年11 月4 日在金陵医院进行,共有233 名患者参与此次
调查并完成了规范化问卷。体质指数低于20 或者在过去的三个月内无意识的
体重下降超过5%的患者,被定义为存在营养不良。本报告对营养不良的风险
因素及住院时间延长的多种影响因素进行了分析。结果:参与了此次调查项
目的233 名(143 名男性及90 名女性;平均年龄 50.6±18.5 岁)住院患者中,
42.5%的患者存在营养不良。多变量分析显示性别、食物摄取量及调查前的住
院时间为营养不良的风险因素。调查显示,尽管相关性稍弱,但年龄越大的
患者住院时间显著延长。与年龄不超过65 岁的患者相比,年龄大于65 岁的
患者总住院时间明显延长(p<0.001)。结论:住院患者营养不良比例高,而年
龄大的患者可能住院时间较长。这是中国的医院首次参加“世界营养日”项目
调查多中心住院患者的营养状况,可为临床营养支持治疗提供一定的理论依
据。
關鍵字:世界营养日、营养不良、食物摄取量、住院时间、营养支持

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Effects of egg and vitamin A supplementation on hemoglobin, retinol status and physical growth levels of primary and middle school students in Chongqing, China
JIAOYANG CAO, XIAOPING WEI, XIANQIANG TANG, HONGPENG JIANG, ZHEN FAN, QIN YU, JIE CHEN, YOUXUE LIU AND TINGYU LI
Lack of protein and vitamin A influences the growth of student in impoverished mountain areas. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of egg and vitamin A supplementation on hemoglobin, serum retinol and anthropometric indices of 10-18 years old students of a low socioeconomic status. A total number of 288 students from four boarding schools were randomly selected by using cluster sampling method in Chongqing, and they were assigned into supplement group and control group non-randomly. Students in supplement group received a single 200,000 international units vitamin A and 1 egg/day (including weekends) for 6 months. The control group did not receive any supplementation. We measured hemoglobin, serum retinol and height and weight at baseline and after supplementation. The supplementation increased the mean hemoglobin concentration by 7.13 g/L compared with 1.38 g/L in control group (p<0.001), the mean serum retinol concentration by 0.31 μmol/L compared with 0.09 μmol/L in the control group (p=0.005), the mean height-for-age z score by 0.05 compared with 0.03 in the control group (p=0.319), the mean weight-for-age z score by 0.05 compared with -0.12 in the control group (p<0.001). Our results revealed that egg and vitamin A supplementation is an effective, convenient, and practical method to improve the levels of hemoglobin, serum retinol and prevent the deterioration of growth in terms of weight for primary and middle school students from outlying poverty-stricken areas. Our intervention did not have a beneficial effect on linear growth.
Key Words: egg, vitamin A, supplementation, effects, students

 

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补充鸡蛋和维生素A 改善中国重庆中小学生血红蛋
白、血清视黄醇浓度和体格生长水平的效果

蛋白质和维生素A 缺乏严重影响贫困山区学生的生长发育。本次研究主要探
讨补充鸡蛋和维生素A,改善贫困地区10-18 岁学生之血红蛋白、血清视黄醇
浓度及体格生长的效果。采用随机整群抽样方式,选取重庆4 所寄宿制学校,
总共288 名学生纳入研究,将其非随机地分为补充组和对照组。补充组学生一
次性口服200,000 单位维生素A 胶丸,并每天补充一个鸡蛋(包括周末)持续6
个月;对照组不接受任何营养补充。在补充前和补充后,分别测定受试学生的
血红蛋白、血清视黄醇浓度、身高和体重。结果显示,补充组血红蛋白浓度增
加7.13 g/L,明显优于对照组的1.38 g/L (p<0.001)。补充组血清视黄醇增加
0.31 μmol/L,也明显高于对照组的0.09 μmol/L (p=0.005)。另外补充组身高z
评分增加0.05,对照组增加0.03,两者无统计学差异(p=0.319);但补充组体重
z 评分增加0.05,明显优于对照组的-0.12 (p<0.001)。縂结而言,补充鸡蛋和维
生素A 是一种用于改善偏遠贫困地区中小学生血红蛋白、血清视黄醇及阻止
体重减轻的高效、方便、实际易操作的营养干预方式;但本次营养补充并没有
对身高产生有益影响。
关键字:鸡蛋、维生素A、补充、效果、学生


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Effects of dietary traditional fermented soybean on reproductive hormones, lipids, and glucose among postmenopausal women in northern Thailand
RATANA SAPBAMRER, NUWAT VISAVARUNGROJ AND MAITREE SUTTAJIT
Isoflavone in soybean and its products have numerous beneficial health effects. A number of clinical studies have demonstrated that dietary soy isoflavone can relieve menopausal symptoms, lower risks of breast cancer, and lower cholesterol and glucose. Among the various effects of isoflavone, the role of cholesterol and glucose reduction seems to be well documented; however, other effects such as reproductive hormones were inconclusive and inconsistent. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of six-month dietary traditional fermented soybean intake on BMI, reproductive hormones, lipids, and glucose among postmenopausal women. Subjects were women with their last menstrual period occurring at least 12 months prior to selection by interview and health screening from Baan Tham Village, Phayao Province, Thailand. A total of 60 women were divided into 2 groups: experimental group (n=31) and reference group (n=29). The experimental group was permitted to continue their usual diet, and supplemented with fermented soybean for 6 months. The fermented soybean provided approximately 60 mg of isoflavone per day. The remarkable findings were that dietary fermented soybean had favorable effects on progesterone and cholesterol, but had no effects on estradiol, glucose, and triglycerides. Although estradiol and glucose in the experimental group did not change, a decrease of estradiol and an increase of glucose were found in the reference group. Our results, therefore, suggest that fermented soybean may have beneficial effects on reproductive hormones and cholesterol, and they would be warrant further detail investigations.
Key Words: isoflavone, estradiol, lipids, glucose, postmenopausal women

 

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傳統發酵黃豆食物對泰國北部停經婦女生殖性荷爾蒙、血脂和血糖之影響
黃豆及其製品中的異黃酮有許多健康效益。一些臨床研究顯示,飲食中的黃豆
異黃酮可以緩解停經症狀、降低乳癌發生風險、降低血膽固醇及血糖。在異黃
酮產生的多種效益中,降低膽固醇和血糖似乎已被充分證實,然而,其他例如
對生殖性荷爾蒙的影響則不確定且不一致。本篇研究主要目的是探討,停經婦
女攝取6 個月的傳統發酵黃豆後,對於其BMI、生殖性荷爾蒙、血脂質、和血
糖之影響。受試者來自泰國Phayao 省Baan Tham 村,透過訪問及健康篩檢挑
選出停經至少一年之婦女。將60 位婦女分成實驗組(31 人)與對照組(29 人)。實
驗組持續平常飲食,並額外補充發酵黃豆食品6 個月,這些食品每天約供給60
毫克的異黃酮。值得注意的結果是,飲食中發酵黃豆對於黃體素和血膽固醇是
有健康效益的,但對雌二醇、血糖和三酸甘油酯則沒有影響。雖然實驗組的雌
二醇與血糖值並未改變,然而對照組的雌二醇降低、血糖則增加。因此,本篇
研究結果顯示,發酵黃豆食物對於生殖性荷爾蒙、血膽固醇可能有效益,值得
進一步探討。
關鍵字: 異黃酮、雌二醇、脂質、葡萄糖、停經婦女


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The application of a feeding protocol in older patients fed through percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes by the intermittent or bolus methods: a single-center, retrospective chart review
SATOMI ICHIMARU, TERUYOSHI AMAGAI AND YOSHIHIKO SHIRO
Background: While previous studies have reported that feeding protocols improved clinical outcomes in critical care settings, the evidence supporting the application of feeding protocols in older patients has not yet been assessed. Here, we evaluated the effects of a feeding protocol in older patients fed through percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tubes. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 109 patients aged ≥65 who underwent PEG placement between April 2010 and March 2012 at a single acute care hospital. The protocol group was administered enteral nutrition (EN) according to a feeding protocol, while the non-protocol group was administered EN at the attending physician’s discretion. Results: Length of hospital stay (LOS) overall and after EN initiation were significantly shorter in the protocol group than in the non-protocol group. (LOS: p=0.001; LOS after EN initiation: p=0.026). During the second week after EN initiation, significantly fewer patients had percutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2) <93% and required oxygen therapy in the protocol group (p=0.032 for both comparisons). Nutrition intakes via PEG in the protocol group were significantly greater from Days 6 to 13 for energy and from Days 6 to 11 for protein compared with the non-protocol group. Conclusion: The application of a feeding protocol after PEG placement in older patients was associated with shorter LOS, more efficient EN delivery, and lower incidence of low SpO2 than non-protocol group. Larger prospective studies are required to determine whether a feeding protocol is useful in improving health outcomes in this population.
Key Words: enteral nutrition, feeding protocol, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, older patients, swallowing difficulty

 

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灌食標準程序應用於間歇或批式灌食法對經皮內視鏡胃
造口廔管之年長患者:單一中心之病歷回顧研究

背景:雖然過去研究已指出,重症照護利用灌食標準程序可以改善臨床症狀,
然而,對於年長患者之灌食標準程序並沒有足夠評估證據。因此,本篇研究目
的為,評估灌食標準程序對經皮內視鏡胃造口(PEG)廔管之年長患者的成效。
方法:回顧一家急症照護醫院之109 位患者的病歷,並擇出65 歲以上,曾在
2010 年4 月至2012 年3 月間接受PEG 的患者。標準程序組是根據灌食標準程
序給予腸道營養,另一非標準程序組則由主治醫師決定腸道營養的給予程序。
結果:標準程序組之整體住院天數或給予腸道營養後住院天數皆顯著低於非標
準程序組(整體住院天數: p=0.001;給予腸道營養後住院天數: p=0.026)。在
腸道營養給予後第二週,標準程序組有顯著較少的患者其血氧濃度(SpO2)
<93%及需要氧氣治療。經由PEG 之營養攝取,相較非標準程序組,標準程序
組在第6 天到第13 天有較高熱量攝取,在第6 天到第11 天有較高蛋白質攝
取。結論:對年長、有經皮內視鏡胃造口廔管的患者,應用灌食標準程序與較
短住院天數、較高腸道營養給予效率、及較低的低血氧濃度發生率有關。未來
需有大型前瞻性研究探討灌食標準程序是否可改善此族群之健康狀況。
關鍵字:腸道營養、灌食標準程序、經皮內視鏡胃造口術、年長患者、吞嚥困

 

 

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Effectiveness of strategies for recruiting overweight and obese Generation Y women to a clinical weight management trial
HAYLEY J GRIFFIN, HELEN T O’CONNOR, KIERON B ROONEY AND KATHARINE S STEINBECK

Aim: Limited research in young overweight and obese women indicates that they are difficult to recruit to weight management trials, with attrition higher and weight loss success lower than middle to older age participants. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of different recruitment strategies for a clinical weight loss trial in overweight and obese Generation Y women. Methods: Overweight and obese (BMI ≥27.5 kg/m-2) women aged 18-25 years (n=70) were required for a 12 month clinical weight management trial including diet, exercise and behaviour modification. Contact with researchers and eventual recruitment are reported for the various strategies employed to engage participants. Data reported as % or mean±SE. Results: Recruitment was challenging with only 50 of the total 70 participants recruited within the scheduled time frame (24 months). Just over one quarter (27%) of volunteers assessed were recruited. Flyers posted around local tertiary education campuses were the most successful method, yielding 36% of included participants. This was followed by advertisements on the local area health service intranet (26%) and in local and metropolitan newspapers (16%). Conclusions: Recruitment of overweight and obese Generation Y women for a clinical weight loss trial was difficult. Multiple strategies targeted at this age and gender group were required. Less rigorous selection criteria and reduced face-to-face intervention time may improve recruitment and retention rates into clinical trials for this age group.
Key Words: weight, Generation Y, women, recruitment, intervention

 

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招募Y 世代過重及肥胖女性參與臨床體重管理試驗策略之成效
目的:有關過重及肥胖年輕女性之研究很有限,且指出招募她們參與體重管
理試驗有困難;相較於中老年參與者,年輕女性之個案流失率較高且減重成
功機會較低。本篇研究目的是,針對Y 世代過重及肥胖女性參與臨床減重試
驗,評估不同招募策略之成效。方法:預定招募70 位18-25 歲之過重及肥胖
(BMI≥27.5 kg/m2)女性,做滿12 個月的臨床體重管理,包括飲食、運動和行為
矯正。與研究者保持聯繫,最後招募情形以不同招募策略方式呈現,資料以
百分比或平均值±標準誤表示。結果:在預定招募期間內(24 個月),只招募到
50 位,未達70 位。接受評估的自願者中約只有1/4 (27%)納入試驗中。而以張
貼在地方高等教育校園中的傳單最為成功,約佔36%參與者。其次為藉由地
方健康服務網站廣告而招募的,佔26%;透過地區及都會區報紙,則佔
16%。結論:招募Y 世代過重及肥胖女性參與臨床體重管理試驗很不容易;
針對該年齡、性別之族群,需要多方向的策略。減少嚴格的篩選條件和面對
面介入時間,或可改善招募成效及避免試驗中此年齡層之個案流失。
關鍵字:體重、Y 世代、女性、招募、介入

 


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Plasma adiponectin concentrations are associated with dietary glycemic index in Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes
BENG-IN LOH, DANIEL ROBERT SATHYASURYA AND HAMID JAN JAN MOHAMED
Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone has been implicated in the control of blood glucose and chronic inflammation in type 2 diabetes. However, limited studies have evaluated dietary factors on plasma adiponectin levels, especially among type 2 diabetic patients in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of dietary glycemic index on plasma adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 305 type 2 diabetic patients aged 19-75 years from the Penang General Hospital, Malaysia. Socio-demographic information was collected using a standard questionnaire while dietary details were determined by using a pre-validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometry measurement included weight, height, BMI and waist circumference. Plasma adiponectin concentrations were measured using a commercial ELISA kit. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression. After multivariate adjustment, dietary glycemic index was inversely associated with plasma adiponectin concentrations (β =-0.272, 95% CI -0.262, - 0.094; p<0.001). It was found that in individuals who consumed 1 unit of foods containing high dietary glycemic index that plasma adiponectin level reduced by 0.3 μg/mL. Thirty two percent (31.9%) of the variation in adiponectin concentrations was explained by age, sex, race, smoking status, BMI, waist circumference, HDL-C, triglycerides, magnesium, fiber and dietary glycemic index according to the multiple linear regression model (R2=0.319). These results support the hypothesis that dietary glycemic index influences plasma adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. Controlled clinical trials are required to confirm our findings and to elucidate the underlying mechanism.
Key Words: dietary glycemic index, adiponectin, type 2 diabetes, food frequency questionnaire, linear regression

 

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馬來西亞第2型糖尿病患之膳食升糖指數與血漿脂聯素濃度之相關性
脂肪細胞衍生的激素-脂聯素,被認為會調控第2型糖尿病患之血糖濃度及慢
性發炎反應。然而,僅有限的研究評估飲食因子對血漿中脂聯素濃度的影
響,更缺少針對馬來西亞第2型糖尿病患者的研究。本研究的目的在於評估
膳食升糖指數對於第2型糖尿病患血漿脂聯素的影響。此橫斷面研究,受試
者為305 位,於馬來西亞檳城總醫院就醫,年齡介於19-75 歲的第2型糖尿
病患。使用標準化問卷蒐集社會人口學資訊,膳食評估則使用具效度的半定
量食物頻率問卷。體位測量包括體重、身高、身體質量指數及腰圍。血漿脂
聯素濃度是使用市售的酵素結合免疫吸附(ELISA)試劑組檢測。統計方法為多
元線性迴歸。校正多變項後,膳食升糖指數與血漿脂聯素濃度呈顯著負相關
(β= -0.272;95%CI: -0.262, -0.094;p<0.001)。個體每攝取一單位高升糖指
數之食品,血漿脂聯素下降0.3 g/mL。依據多元線性迴歸模式(R2=0.319),
血漿脂聯素濃度31.9%的變異量可由年齡、性別、種族、抽菸、身體質量指
數、腰圍、高密度脂蛋白膽固醇、三酸甘油酯、鎂、膳食纖維及升糖指數所
解釋。這些結果證實,膳食升糖指數會影響第2型糖尿病患者血漿中脂聯素
的濃度。對於此結果的驗證以及可能機制的闡明,仍需要臨床試驗進一步釐
清。
關鍵字: 膳食升糖指數、脂聯素、第2型糖尿病、食物頻率問卷、線性迴歸
 

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Attenuated associations between increasing BMI and unfavorable lipid profiles in Chinese Buddhist vegetarians
HUI-JIE ZHANG, PENG HAN, SU-YUN SUN, LI-YING WANG, BING YAN, JIN-HUA ZHANG, WEI ZHANG, SHU-YU YANG AND XUE-JUN LI
Obesity is related to hyperlipidemia and risk of cardiovascular disease. Health benefits of vegetarian diets have well-documented in the Western countries where both obesity and hyperlipidemia were prevalent. We studied the association between BMI and various lipid/lipoprotein measures, as well as between BMI and predicted coronary heart disease probability in lean, low risk populations in Southern China. The study included 170 Buddhist monks (vegetarians) and 126 omnivore men. Interaction between BMI and vegetarian status was tested in the multivariable regression analysis adjusting for age, education, smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activity. Compared with omnivores, vegetarians had significantly lower mean BMI, blood pressures, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein ratio, triglycerides, apolipoprotein B and A-I, as well as lower predicted probability of coronary heart disease. Higher BMI was associated with unfavorable lipid/lipoprotein profile and predicted probability of coronary heart disease in both vegetarians and omnivores. However, the associations were significantly diminished in Buddhist vegetarians. Conclusions: Vegetarian diets not only lower BMI, but also attenuate the BMI-related increases of atherogenic lipid/ lipoprotein and the probability of coronary heart disease.
Key Words: vegetarian diet, BMI, lipid, lipoprotein, Chinese

 

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素食膳食影响中国人的BMI 及相关的血脂代谢水平
肥胖往往伴随着血脂升高和心血管疾病的风险增加。在肥胖和高脂血症高发的
西方国家,素食已经被证实能够给患者带来益处。本文着重探讨低心血管风险
的中国南方人的BMI 和血脂代谢水平,以及其与心血管风险预测值的关系。
本研究共纳入170 名素食者和126 普通饮食的正常男性,运用交互作用多元回
归等统计方法探讨BMI 和心血管多种危险因素的关系。结果显示,素食组的
BMI、血压、總胆固醇、LDL 胆固醇、HDL 胆固醇、總胆固醇/HDL 胆固醇、
三酸甘油酯、载脂蛋白B、载脂蛋白A-I,以及心血管风险预测值等均明显比
普通饮食组較低。不管是素食组或者普通饮食组,随着BMI 升高,研究对象
的血脂水平和心血管风险预测值均呈现升高的趋势。然而,相比于普通饮食
组,素食组BMI 与血脂水平和心血管风险预测值的交互作用明显下降。结
论:素食不仅降低研究对象的BMI 水平,同时能够改善BMI 相关的血脂紊乱
和心血管风险增加。
关键词:素食、BMI、血脂、血脂蛋白、中国人群

 

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Hair mineral analysis by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry: associations with body fat
KATSUJI UETAKE AND TOSHIO TANAKA
Hair mineral analysis using an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer as a method of estimating body fat percentage (BF%) was investigated. Body fat percentage of 24 healthy Japanese, aged 20-27 years, was measured using a hand-held impedance analyzer (BF%IMP). X-ray (Kα-ray) intensities of sulfur, chlorine, potassium, calcium, titanium, and iron (Fe) in hair were measured using an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Body fat percentage was also measured using a Hologic whole body dual energy X-ray absorptiometer (BF%DXA) in nine subjects selected from the above 24 subjects based on their BF%IMP. Correlations of the two BF%s with Fe-Kα were significant (BFIMP: r = 0.60 n = 24, p <0.01; BFDXA: r = 0.67 n = 9, p<0.05). The mean (±SD) biases (measured minus estimated using multiple regression equations by Fe-Kα) for BF%IMP and BF%DXA were 2.97 ± 2.25% and 1.77 ± 1.33%, respectively. The SEEs for the two equations for BF%IMP and for BF%DXA were less than 4%. These results suggest that Fe-Kα may be a predictor of body fat percentage. However, the subjects were few and only Japanese in their twenties, so that further investigation is needed for methodological generalization.
Key Words: body fat percentage, hair mineral content, Japanese, prediction equations, X-ray fluorescence spectrometer

 

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X-光螢光分析儀分析之頭髮礦物質及其與體脂肪之相關性
探討利用X 光螢光分析儀分析之頭髮礦物質是否可用來估測體脂肪百分比。
以手握式阻抗分析儀測量24 位20-27 歲健康日本人之體脂肪百分比
(BF%IMP),並利用X 光螢光分析儀檢測頭髮中硫、氯、鉀、鈣、鈦和鐵之X
光(Kα 射線)強度。此外,根據BF%IMP 之結果,從24 位中選出9 位受試者再
利用全身性雙能X 光吸光儀來檢測其體脂肪百分比(BF%DXA)。兩種體脂肪百
分比與鐵之Kα 射線強度(Fe-Kα)有顯著相關(BFIMP: r=0.60,n=24,p<0.01;
BFDXA: r=0.67,n=9,p<0.05)。BF%IMP 和BF%DXA 的平均(±標準差)偏差(測量
值減去利用Fe-Kα 多元迴歸方程式求出之估計值)分別為2.97±2.25%和
1.77±1.33%;且BF%IMP 和BF%DXA 方程式之估計值的標準誤差(SEE)皆小於
4%。以上結果顯示Fe-Kα 可能當做體脂肪百分比之預測因子。然而,本研究
受試者人數過少,且主要為20 餘歲日本人,因此為了使此估測方式更為普
及,有賴更多研究證實。
關鍵字:體脂肪百分比、頭髮礦物質含量、日本人、預測方程式、X-光螢光
分析儀

 

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Japanese mothers’ breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes assessed by the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitudes Scale
MADOKA INOUE, COLIN W BINNS, YOKO KATSUKI AND MIKIO OUCHI
This study describes Japanese mothers’ knowledge and attitudes towards breastfeeding using the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitudes Scale (IIFAS). A cross-sectional survey of 1,612 mothers was conducted in Japan in 2007. The participants were recruited at the free health checks conducted for infants at 18 months of age. The survey was self-administered using the Japanese version of the IIFAS. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise sample characteristics and IIFAS score followed by multiple logistic regression to identify association between total IIFAS score and breastfeeding duration. While the IIFAS showed that the majority recognized some benefits of breastfeeding, their overall knowledge and attitudes towards breastfeeding were neutral and more positive towards the use of infant formula. It is important to provide accurate prenatal education that focuses on methods and long-term benefits of infant feeding to mothers, family and health professionals.
Key Words: infant feeding practices, Iowa Infant Feeding Attitudes Scale, breastfeeding duration, perinatal education, Japanese mothers

 

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以IOWA 嬰兒餵養態度問卷評估日本母親母乳哺餵知識和態度
本研究透過Iowa 嬰兒餵養態度問卷(IIFAS)描述日本母親的母乳哺餵知識
和態度。2007 年,在日本對1612 名母親進行一個橫斷面調查。受訪者是參加
產後18 週的免費健康檢查時召募的。調查採用日語版的IIFAS,以自填的方
式進行。描述性統計用於總結樣本特徵和IIFAS 分數,隨後採用多元迴歸分
析來找出IIFAS 總分和母乳餵養時間的關係。儘管IIFAS 分數表明大多數日
本母親認識到母乳餵養的一些好處,但她們對於母乳哺餵總體的知識和態度
是中性的,並更傾向於使用嬰兒配方奶。向母親、家庭和健康專業人士提供
準確的,針對嬰兒餵養方法和長期好處的產前教育非常重要。
關鍵詞:嬰兒餵養實踐、Iowa 嬰兒餵養態度問卷、母乳哺餵時間、產前教
育、日本母親


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Attitudes towards breastfeeding – the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale in Chinese mothers living in China and Australia
SHU CHEN, COLIN W BINNS, YI LIU, BRUCE MAYCOCK, YUN ZHAO AND LI TANG
This study aimed to translate and validate a Chinese (simplified) version of the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS) and compare the infant feeding attitudes of Chinese mothers living in Perth Australia and in Chengdu P.R. China. A survey was undertaken on 200 Chinese mothers living in Perth and 1620 mothers living in Chengdu. The simplified Chinese version of IIFAS had a moderate level of internal consistency with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.69 for mothers in Australia and 0.55 for mothers in China. The mean IIFAS scores in both country groups lay in the range of ‘neutral breastfeeding attitudes’. Higher IIFAS scores were significantly associated with the likelihood of both breastfeeding initiation (OR: 3.85; CI: 2.49-5.96; p<0.001) and longer (≥8 months) breastfeeding duration (OR: 2.52; CI: 1.87-3.40; p<0.001). Chinese mothers in Perth (mean IIFAS score=60.0±6.3) tended to have more positive attitudes towards breastfeeding than mothers in Chengdu (mean IIFAS score=57.7±5.1, p<0.001), and had a longer duration of ‘any breastfeeding’ (10.0±6.2 months in Perth compared to 7.4±4.3 months in Chengdu, p<0.001). In conclusion, higher scores on the IIFAS in simplified Chinese are associated with breastfeeding initiation and duration in Chinese populations.
Key Words: breastfeeding, Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale, attitudes, infant feeding, migrants

 

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以IOWA 嬰兒餵養態度問卷評估居住在中國及澳洲的華人母親其母乳餵養態度
本研究的目的是翻譯和驗證簡體中文版的Iowa 嬰兒餵養態度問卷(IIFAS),并
比較生活在澳洲珀斯和中國成都的華人母親的嬰兒餵養態度。本研究調查了
200 名生活在珀斯的華人母親和1620 名成都的母親。簡體中文版的IIFAS 問
卷具有中等水平的內部一致性,在澳洲母親中的Cronbach’s alpha 值為0.69,
在中國母親中的alpha 值為0.55。兩組調查對象的IIFAS 評分平均值都處於
“中立的母乳餵養態度”。IIFAS 評分高的母親有更大的可能性會進行母乳餵養
(OR: 3.85; CI: 2.49-5.96; p<0.001)和更長時間的(大於8 個月)母乳餵養(OR:
2.52; CI: 1.87-3.40; p<0.001)。珀斯的華人母親(IIFAS 平均分數=60.0±6.3)比
起成都的母親(IIFAS 平均分數=57.7±5.1, p<0.001),對母乳餵養有更積極的態
度,也有著更長的母乳餵養時間(珀斯10.0±6.2 個月,而成都7.4±4.3 個月,
p<0.001)。由此得出結論,更高的簡體中文版IIFAS 評分與華人是否進行母乳
餵養及母乳餵養時間有關。

關鍵詞:母乳哺餵、Iowa 嬰兒餵養態度問卷、態度、嬰兒餵養、移民

 

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Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in low birth weight infants at NICU discharge and the start of complementary feeding
KIMIYO MAMEMOTO, MASARU KUBOTA, AYAKO NAGAI, YUKIHIRO TAKAHASHI, TOMOYUKI KAMAMOTO, HIDEKI MINOWA AND HAJIME YASUHARA
The aim of the present study was to clarify clinical factors in low birth weight infants and their mothers associated with exclusive breastfeeding at both neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) discharge and the start of complementary feeding. One hundred and fifteen low birth weight children and 98 mothers attending the follow-up clinic of two tertiary NICUs in Nara prefecture (Japan), between June and September, 2011, were enrolled. The relationship between the feeding categories at NICU discharge or the start of complementary feeding, and clinical factors of the mothers and low birth weight infants collected by either their charts or a face-to-face interview was analyzed. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding was 22.6% at NICU discharge, and 15.7% at the start of complementary feeding. In logistic analysis, exclusive breastfeeding at NICU discharge was associated with mother’s younger age at delivery and an earlier start of oral nutrition. Among 26 exclusively breast-fed infants at NICU discharge, fifteen infants (57.7%) were still being exclusively breast-fed at the start of complementary feeding. In low birth weight infants, a shorter stay at NICU and an earlier start of oral nutrition were associated factors with exclusive breastfeeding at the start of complementary feeding. None of maternal factors were found to be associated with exclusive breastfeeding at the start of complementary feeding. Conclusively, starting of oral nutrition as early as possible is thought to be crucial for introducing exclusive breastfeeding in low birth weight infants both at NICU discharge and the start of complementary feeding.

Key Words: breastfeeding, low birth weight infants, NICU, interview, complementary feeding
 

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從新生兒加護病房出院及開始副食品餵食之際以全母乳哺餵低出生體重嬰兒之相關因素
本研究之目的,為探討從新生兒加護病房出院及開始副食品餵食時,以全母乳
哺餵之低出生體重嬰兒及其母親之臨床因素。從2011 年6 月至9 月之間,在日
本奈良縣兩間具有三級設備之新生兒加護病房的醫院,共召募來看追蹤門診的
低出生體重嬰兒115 位及98 位母親。從新生兒加護病房出院或開始餵食副食品
時之哺餵型態與母親及低出生體重嬰兒之臨床因素資料,是藉由兒童生長圖表
或是一對一面訪蒐集。全母乳哺餵的盛行率,在新生兒加護病房出院時,及開
始餵食副食品之際,分別為22.6%及15.7%。邏輯斯迴歸分析顯示,新生兒加護
病房出院時以全母乳哺餵與母親生產年齡較低及較早的口服營養相關。從新生
兒加護病房出院時以全母乳哺餵的26 位嬰兒中,有15 位在副食品餵食開始之
際仍以全母乳哺餵。在新生兒加護病房住院時日較短及較早的口服營養之低出
生體重嬰兒,有較高比例在開始副食品餵食時仍接受全母乳哺餵。母體因素與
開始餵食副食品時是否以全母乳哺餵,兩者間並無顯著相關。總結而論,儘早
開始口服營養,為低出生體重嬰兒無論在新生兒加護病房出院時或是開始副食
品餵食之際,以全母乳哺餵的決定性因素。
關鍵字: 母乳哺餵、低出生體重嬰兒、新生兒加護病房、面訪、副食品餵養素


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The fatty acid composition of colostrum in three geographic regions of China
YI-XIONG GAO, JIAN ZHANG, CHUNRONG WANG, LIXIANG LI, QINGQING MAN, PENGKUN SONG, LIPING MENG,ØVYIND LIE AND LIVAR FRØYLAND
Purpose: To describe the fatty acids composition of human colostrum in three different regions of China. Methods: Women were recruited from river/lake, coastal and inland regions of China during late pregnancy. Their diet frequency was assessed during the 34th week of pregnancy. Colostrum samples were collected between postpartum days 3 and 5. Thirty-one different fatty acids were separated and identified in colostrum. Results: There were significant differences among the women in the three regions with respect to food and culinary oil consumption patterns. The mean±SD fat content (g/100 g) of colostrum from river/lake, coastal and inland regions was 2.17±1.26, 2.50±1.39 and 2.68±1.26, respectively (p=0.265, adjusted by pregnant women’s age). The main saturated, monounsaturated, n-6 polyunsaturated and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in colostrum were 16:0, 18:1n9, 18:2n6 and 18:3n3, respectively. Colostrum from river/lake region had the lowest composition of total SFA and of total n-6 PUFA and the highest composition of total MUFA and of total n-3 PUFA. The amount of DHA (22:6n3) in colostrum (mean±SD, % wt/wt) was 0.51±0.18, 0.52±0.20 and 0.35±0.13 in the river/lake, coastal and inland regions, respectively (p=0.0002, adjusted by pregnant women’s age). Frequency of maternal marine fish intake during the late pregnancy was positively correlated with DHA in colostrum (r=0.203, p=0.040). Conclusions: The fatty acid composition of colostrum differs across geographical regions in China, which may be related to differences in maternal dietary pattern.
Key Words: human colostrum, fatty acids, marine fish, rapeseed oil, docosahexaenoic acid

 

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中国三个不同地理区域人初乳脂肪酸构成
目的:描述中国三个不同区域人初乳脂肪酸构成。方法:募集来自于淡水河
湖地区、沿海及内陆地区的妊娠晚期孕妇。调查妊娠第34 周前一个月的膳食
消费频率。采集产后3 至5 天内初乳样品。分析初乳中31 种脂肪酸的含量。
结果:三地区孕妇膳食与食用油消费模式存在显著差异。淡水河湖地区,沿
海和内陆地区产妇的初乳总脂含量(均值±标准差,g/100 g 初乳)分别为
2.17±1.26、2.50±1.39 和2.68±1.26 (经孕妇年龄校正后p=0.265)。初乳中主要
饱和、单不饱和、n-6 多不饱和及n-3 多不饱和脂肪酸分别为16:0、18:1n9、
18:2n6 和18:3n3。河湖地区初乳脂肪中总SFA 和总n-6PUFA 的百分含量最
低,而总MUFA 和总n-3PUFA 的百分含量最高。三地区初乳DHA 含量(均值
±标准差,%)分别为0.51±0.18、0.52±0.20 和0.35±0.13 (经孕妇年龄校正后
p=0.0002)。妊娠晚期海鱼摄入频率与初乳中DHA 构成呈正相关(r=0.203,
p=0.040)。结论:中国三个不同地理区域,人初乳脂肪酸构成存在差异,并与
母体膳食模式相关。
关键词:初乳、脂肪酸、海鱼、菜籽油、二十二碳六烯酸

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The influence of primary caregivers on body size and self-body image of preschool children in Taiwan
YUECHING WONG, YU-JHEN CHANG AND CHIA-JUNG LIN
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate preschool children’s body size and image, and analyze the impact of the primary caregiver on a child’s body size and awareness in Taiwan. METHODS: In a crosssectional survey, 699 preschool children and their primary caregivers participated in this study. Our study used an anonymous self-administered questionnaire, which was divided into parts A and part B. Part A was a questionnaire for the primary caregivers, including their demographic and anthropometric information, and expectation for children’s body size. Part B was a two part questionnaire for children, including the children’s expectation on their own body size and their consciousness in terms of body size evaluation by parents and teachers. Data was analyzed by chi-square analysis. RESULTS: In our study, the majority of boys and girls have a normal body size (69.0% and 64.6%, respectively). There was a significant positive correlation (p<0.05) between children and primary caregivers’ body size, and a negative correlation (p<0.05) between children body size and caregivers’ education level. Furthermore, we found that caregiver’s satisfaction and evaluation of the children’s body size had significantly affected the children’s satisfaction towards their body size. CONCLUSION: Influences by the primary caregiver is an important factor that affects a preschool child’s body size and body image in Taiwan. Body size evaluation by caregivers will influence the child’s satisfaction level.
Key Words: preschool children, body image, body size, caregivers, satisfaction of body size

 

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主要照顧者對台灣學齡前兒童的體型及體型意識的影響
本研究主要目的在調查台灣學齡前兒童的體型和體型意識現況,並探討主要
照顧者對幼兒體型及體型意識的影響。本研究為橫斷式調查,共有699 位學
齡前兒童及其主要照顧者參與本研究,以匿名自填式問卷為研究工具,內容
包括A、B 兩部分,A 部分為主要照顧者問卷,內容包括基本資料及對幼兒的
體型期待;B 部分為幼兒問卷,內容包括幼兒對自我體型的期待及幼兒對父母
和老師對自己體型評價的認知。以卡方檢定來分析統計資料。結果發現,分
別有69.0%的男幼兒及64.6%的女幼兒為正常體型,幼兒的體型與主要照顧者
的體型有顯著正相關(p<0.05),但與主要照顧者的教育程度有顯著負相關
(p<0.05)。進一步我們也發現主要照顧者對於幼兒的體型滿意度及體型評價會
顯著影響幼兒對自己體型的滿意度。主要照顧者為台灣學齡前兒童的體型及
體型意識的重要影響因子。

關鍵詞:學齡前兒童、體型意識、體型、照顧者、體型滿意度析

 

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Vitamin D deficiency awareness among African migrant women residing in high-rise public housing in Melbourne, Australia: a qualitative study
ALANA PIRRONE, TERESA CAPETOLA, ELISHA RIGGS ANDANDRE RENZAHO
The aims of this study were: 1) to explore the individual perceptions, experience and understandings of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) amongst African migrant women residing in high-rise public housing, 2) to identify the most useful sources of information about VDD among this population, and 3) to document the barriers and enablers to addressing VDD. The Health Belief Model was used to guide the study. Convenience sampling was used with women living in particular high-rise public housing. Five focus group discussions were conducted (n=30). Thematic analysis was used to code and categorise the data to develop a deeper, conceptual understanding of the issue. We found that participants were aware of VDD and could identify the impacts that VDD had on their health. Barriers to addressing VDD included the women’s: 1) living conditions in Australia, 2) risk of skin cancer, and 3) cultural roles in the family. The most positive strategy for preventing and addressing VDD was peer information sharing. This study has highlighted the significant need for health promotion strategies to combat VDD in this population. Future health promoting public health strategies for this population should encompass communitybased peer education programs. This study demonstrates the critical role of qualitative inquiry in gaining a deeper understanding of VDD in a particular migrant community. It is clear that this issue requires a coordinated solution that must involve the community themselves. Health care professionals must take into consideration the multiple barriers that exist to address VDD which is a significant public health issue.
Key Words: vitamin D deficiency, migrant, women’s health, public housing, health promotion

 

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居住於澳洲墨爾本國宅之非裔移民婦女對維生素D 缺乏之認知:質性研究
本篇研究之目的:1)探討居住於國宅之非裔移民婦女,個人對於維生素D 缺乏
的認知、經歷和理解之情形;2)確立族群中關於維生素D 缺乏之資訊的最有效
來源;3)確認防治維生素D 缺乏之障礙與可行辦法。本研究以健康信念模式
(HBM)為準則,並以任意抽樣方式擇出居於國宅之婦女為研究對象,分成五個
焦點討論小組進行(共30 位)。為了利於對問題有更深入及概念之理解,利用主
題分析法將資料編碼及分類。我們發現,參與者對於維生素D 缺乏都有認知,
並且可指出維生素D 缺乏對於健康的影響。阻礙防治這些婦女維生素D 缺乏之
因素有:1)她們在澳洲的居住情形;2)擔心患皮膚癌之風險;3)婦女在家庭文化
的角色。防治維生素D 缺乏最有效的策略,就是同輩間的訊息分享。本研究已
突顯此族群中防治維生素D 缺乏最需要之健康促進策略,未來針對此族群的健
康促進公衛策略應包含以社區為主的同輩教育計畫。本研究也呈現了質性訪問
的重要角色,可增加對特殊移民社區之維生素D 缺乏現況的深入了解。很明顯
的,此問題之解決需整合各界,包含社區本身。醫療照護專業者必須將防治維
生素D 缺乏之多重障礙納入考量,而這是一個重要的公共衛生議題。
關鍵字:維生素D 缺乏、移民、婦女健康、國民住宅、健康促進

 

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Dietary exposure to essential and potentially toxic elements for the population of Hanoi, Vietnam
HELLE MARCUSSEN, BODIL H JENSEN, ANNETTE PETERSEN AND PETER E HOLM
Knowledge of the dietary intake of essential and toxic elements in fast-developing Southeast Asian countries such as Vietnam is limited. Iron and Zn deficiency in Asia is a well-known problem and is partly due to rice constituting a major part of the diet. Dietary habits are changing and there is a need to build more knowledge so authorities can give dietary recommendations. The aim of this study was to determine the total dietary intake of essential and potentially toxic elements and to assess the nutritional quality and food safety risks of the average Hanoi diet. Twenty-two foods or food groups were identified and 14 samples of each food group were collected from markets and/or supermarkets in the period 2007-2009. Water spinach, water dropwort, watercress, water mimosa and pond fish are typically produced in wastewater-fed systems. Therefore, these samples were collected both at markets and from wastewater-fed production systems. The results showed little or no risk of toxic elements from the Hanoi diet in general. Further, element contributions from wastewater-fed products were low and does not seem to constitute a problem with respect to potentially toxic elements. A comparison of the average Hanoi dietary intake of essential elements to required intakes shows that the Hanoi diet is sufficient in most elements. However, the diet may be insufficient in Ca, Cr, Fe, K and possibly Zn for which dietary diversification of biofortification
might provide solutions.
Key Words: essential elements, toxic elements, dietary intake, diet survey, Hanoi

 

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越南河內居民之必需及潛在毒性元素的飲食暴露
在快速開發之東南亞國家如越南,對於其飲食攝取必需及潛在毒性元素的所知
有限。在亞洲,鐵和鋅缺乏是一項眾所周知的問題,部分原因來自於米飯是構
成飲食的主體。但飲食習慣正改變中,需要獲取更多新知,俾有關當局能給予
適當之飲食建議。本篇研究的目的在於確立必需和潛在毒性元素之總膳食攝取
量,並評估河內市一般飲食之營養品質及食品安全風險。將所有食物定義成22
項食物類別,每一食物類別各收集14 個樣本,樣本主要來自市場和/或超級市
場,時間為2007-2009 年間。空心菜、水芹菜、水田芥、水含羞草、池水魚,
這些食物通常會藉由汙水養殖系統來生產。因此,這些樣本之收集包含來自市
場與汙水養殖系統。研究結果顯示,大部分的河內市食物中只含有極少或無危
害風險之毒性元素。再者,來自汙水養殖的產品中,其所含的元素量極低,關
於潛在毒性元素之含量亦不構成問題。將河內市飲食中必需元素之平均攝取量
與需要量相比較,顯示河內飲食所含元素大部分皆足夠。然而,飲食中鈣、
鉻、鐵、鉀及鋅可能不足,為此,加強飲食多樣性及生物強化或許可提供解決
之道。
關鍵字:必需元素、毒性元素、飲食攝取、飲食調查、河內市

 

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Dental caries is correlated with knowledge of comprehensive food education in Japanese university students
DAISUKE EKUNI, TAKAAKI TOMOFUJI, SHINSUKE MIZUTANI, MICHIKO FURUTA, KOICHIRO IRIE, TETSUJI AZUMA, AZUSA KOJIMA, YOSHIAKI IWASAKI AND MANABU MORITA
In Japan, the "Food Education Basic Law" (The Basic Law on Shokuiku, food education) was enacted in 2005. The comprehensive food education programs, namely Shokuiku, aim to improve dietary practices to reduce lifestyle-related diseases. Dental caries is one of the diseases associated with inappropriate dietary habits. Thus, food education may influence the prevalence of dental caries. However, there are no data regarding the association between public based-food education and dental caries. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between knowledge about comprehensive food education (Shokuiku) and dental caries experience in Japanese university students. A total of 2,184 students (1,240 men, 944 women), aged 18-20 years, were examined. They had attended the Shokuiku program while in junior/senior high school. The numbers of teeth present, and decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) (dental caries experience) were recorded. Additional information was collected via a questionnaire regarding knowledge about food education, dietary habits and oral health behavior. Of the students, 315 men (20.7%) and 345 women (52.8%) reported that they know and can explain the meaning and content of the word "Shokuiku". After adjusting for potential confounding factors, subjects who did not have knowledge about Shokuiku had higher adjusted odds ratio (OR) for dental caries experience (DMFT >0) than those who had (adjusted OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.02-1.48; p<0.05). These observations revealed that having knowledge about comprehensive food education in university students correlates with low prevalence of dental caries.
Key Words: food education, dental caries, university students, cross-sectional studies, behavioral science
 

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日本大学生龋齿患病率与对综合食育的了解呈现相关性
日本于2005 年制定颁布了 “食育基本法”(关于饮食教育的基本法律)。该项关
于饮食教育的综合計劃,名为“食育”,旨在改善人们的饮食生活,进而减少与
生活习惯相关的疾病发生。龋齿病是由不恰当的饮食习惯引起的疾病之一。
因此,食育或将影响龋病的发生率。然而,关于龋病的发生與基于大众的饮
食教育之间的关联性,目前尚无具体数据。本研究的目的是调查日本大学生
的龋齿患病情况与该群体对食育的综合了解间的关联。共计调查了2,184 名学
生(其中男性1,240 名,女性944 名),年龄在18 至20 岁之间。调查对象均在
初/高中的就学期间参加过“食育”的課程。记录他们现在的存留齿、龋齿、失
及补齿数(DMFT)。此外,通过问卷调查,收集了该群体对食育认识、饮食习
惯及口腔健康行为等資訊。在该学生群体中,有315 名男生(20.7%)和345 名
女生(52.8%)的自答為知道并可以解释“食育”一词的意义及内容。在调整了潜
在的混淆因素后,对“食育”不了解的受试者之龋失补齿指数(DMFT>0),相对
于了解该词的受试者,有更高的调整后比值比(调整后比值比1.23;95%可信
区间1.02-1.48;p<0.05)。观察结果表明,在大学生中,了解综合食育與較低
的龋齿患病率相关联。
关键词:饮食教育、龋齿病、大学生、横断面研究、行为科学

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Estimation of usual intake and food sources of choline and betaine in New Zealand reproductive age women
VANESSA L MYGIND, SOPHIE E EVANS, MEREDITH C PEDDIE, JODY C MILLER AND LISA A HOUGHTON
Recently, choline has been associated with neurodevelopment, cognitive function and neural tube defect incidence. However, data on usual intakes are limited, and estimates of dietary intakes of choline and its metabolite betaine, are not available for New Zealanders. The objective of the present study was to determine usual intake and food sources of choline and betaine in a group of New Zealand reproductive age women. Dietary intake data were collected from a sample of 125 women, aged 18-40 years, by means of a 3-day weighed food record, and usual choline and betaine intake distributions were determined. The mean (SD) daily intakes of choline and betaine were 316 (66) mg and 178 (66) mg, respectively. The total choline intake relative to energy intake and body weight was 0.18 mg/kcal and 5.1 mg/kg, respectively. Only 16% of participants met or exceeded the Adeuate Intake (AI) for adult women of 425 mg of choline. The top five major food contributors of choline were eggs, red meat, milk, bread and chicken; and of betaine were bread, breakfast cereal, pasta, grains and root vegetables (carrots, parsnips, beetroot, swedes). Our findings contribute towards the recent emergence of published reports on the range of dietary choline and betaine intakes consumed by free-living populations. In our sample of New Zealand women, few participants were meeting or exceeding the AI level. Given recent epidemiological evidence suggesting health benefits of increased choline and betaine intakes, recommendations should be made to encourage the consumption of choline and betaine-rich foods.
Key Words: choline, betaine, reproductive age women, usual intakes, major food contributors

 

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紐西蘭育齡婦女膽鹼及甜菜鹼的日常攝取量及食物來源評估
近年來,膽鹼被認為與神經發展、認知功能及神經管缺陷的發生有關。然
而,紐西蘭人的膽鹼日常攝取資料不足,且缺乏膽鹼及其代謝物甜菜鹼的飲
食攝取量評估。本研究的目的為估算紐西蘭育齡婦女,其膽鹼及甜菜鹼的日
常攝取量及食物來源。飲食攝取數據是來自125 名年齡18-40 歲的婦女樣本,
收集三天的秤重食物記錄,估算膽鹼及甜菜鹼攝取的分布值。膽鹼及甜菜鹼
每日攝取平均(標準差)量分別為316(66)毫克及178(66)毫克。總膽鹼攝取量相
對於熱量攝取及體重分別為0.18 mg/kcal 及5.1 mg/kg。只有16%的參與者符
合或超過成年女性膽鹼的足夠攝取量(AI)- 425 毫克。膽鹼的前五項主要食物
來源為蛋類、紅肉類、奶類、麵包及雞肉;甜菜鹼的來源為麵包、早餐穀
片、麵條類、穀類及根莖類(紅蘿蔔、歐洲防風草根、甜菜根、瑞典蕪菁)。近
期出現較多對於一般人群的膽鹼及甜菜鹼飲食攝取量範圍的報告,本研究結
果將對此有貢獻。在這群紐西蘭女性樣本中,少數參與者符合或是超過AI
量。鑑於近期流行病學證實增加膽鹼及甜菜鹼攝取的健康效益,應提出建議
鼓勵攝取富含膽鹼及甜菜鹼的食物。
關鍵字:膽鹼、甜菜鹼、育齡婦女、日常攝取量、主要食物貢獻者

 

 

Last Updated: April 2013