Food & Nutrition Information


HEC PRESS Publisher of the
Healthy Eating Club website &
A
sia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition

 


Volume 20 (2011)
1 issue 1
Volume 19 (2010)
1 issue 1
1 issue 2
1 issue 3
1 issue 4
Volume 18 (2009)
1 issue 1
1 issue 2
1 issue 3
1 issue 4
Volume 17 (2008)
1 issue 1
1 issue 2
1 issue 3
1 issue 4
1 Supplement 1
1 Supplement 2
Volume 16 (2007)
Issue 1
Issue 2
1 Supplement 1
1 Supplement 2
Issue 3
Issue 4
Volume 15 (2006)
Issue 1
Issue 2
Issue 3
Issue 4
Supplement
Nutrition Society of Australia
Volume 14 (2005)
Issue 1
Supplement on CD
IUNS/APCNS proceedings
Issue 2
Issue 3
Issue 4
Supplement
Nutrition Society of Australia
CURRENT YEAR ISSUES
View full papers (free)
PAST ISSUES
View full papers (free)
CD-Rom AU$190 vol1-13
NUTRITION SOCIETY OF AUSTRALIA 1976-
View Abstracts
Search our site
 

 

1 Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
       Volume 20, 1

         (March 2011)


Abstracts

Contents

Abstract Papers

The Asia Pacific Clinical Nutrition Society Award for 2011: Citation for Junshi Chen
MARK L WAHLQVIST
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(1):i.

html PDF

Review

 

Harmonisation of food labelling regulations in Southeast Asia: benefits, challenges and implications
WILLIAM KASAPILA AND SHARIFUDIN MD SHAARANI
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(1):1-8.

html PDF

Original Research Communications

 

Nutritional Status, Dietary Intake, and Body Composition

Evaluation of weight loss in the community-dwelling elderly with dementia as assessed by eating behavior and mental status
KEIKO MIYAMOTO, SADANORI HIGASHINO, KAZUKI MOCHIZUKI, TOSHINAO GODA AND HIDEO KOYAMA
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(1):9-13.

html PDF

Associations between combinations of body mass index plus non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and diabetes mellitus among Korean adults
SANG-HWAN KIM, JI-WON LEE AND HEE-JIN HWANG
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(1):14-20.

html PDF

Dieting practices and body image perception among Lebanese university students
NAJAT YAHIA, HIBA EL-GHAZALE, ALICE ACHKAR AND SANDRA RIZK
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(1):21-28.

html PDF

Eating behavior in relation to prevalence of overweight among Japanese men
YASUMI KIMURA, AKIKO NANRI, YUMI MATSUSHITA, SATOSHI SASAKI AND TETSUYA MIZOUE
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(1):29-34.

html PDF

Prevalence of overweight and obesity among adult Malaysians: an update
WAN NAZAIMOON WAN MOHAMUD, KAMARUL IMRAN MUSA, AMIR SHARIFUDDIN MD KHIR, AZIZ AL-SAFI ISMAIL, IKRAM SHAH ISMAIL, KHALID ABDUL KADIR, NOR AZMI KAMARUDDIN, NOR AZWANY YAACOB, NORLAILA MUSTAFA, OSMAN ALI, SITI HARNIDA MD ISA, WAN MOHAMAD WAN BEBAKAR
 Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(1):35-41.

html

PDF

Macro- Micro- and Phyto-nutrients

The nutritional status of iron, folate, and vitamin B-12 of Buddhist vegetarians
YUJIN LEE AND MICHAEL KRAWINKEL
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(1):42-49.

html PDF

Bone is more susceptible to vitamin K deficiency than liver in the institutionalized elderly
AKIKO KUWABARA, MINORI FUJII, NOBUKO KAWAI, KUNIHIKO TOZAWA, SHOKO KIDO AND KIYOSHI TANAKA
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(1):50-55.

html PDF

High prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and K in patients with hip fracture
TETSUO NAKANO, NAOKO TSUGAWA, AKIKO KUWABARA, MAYA KAMAO, KIYOSHI TANAKA AND TOSHIO OKANO
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(1):56-61.

html PDF

Growth and child nutrition

Exclusive breastfeeding of low birth weight infants for the first six months: infant morbidity and maternal and infant anthropometry
GRACE V AGRASADA, UWE EWALD, ELISABETH KYLBERG AND JAN GUSTAFSSON
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(1):62-68.

html PDF

Improved growth of toddlers fed a milk containing synbiotics
AGUS FIRMANSYAH, PRAMITA G DWIPOERWANTORO, MUZAL KADIM, SAFIRA ALATAS, NELLY CONUS, LEILANI LESTARINA, FLORILENE BOUISSET AND PHILIPPE STEENHOUT
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(1):69-76.

html PDF

Nutrition Education

Nutrition education guided by Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents on metabolic syndrome characteristics, adipokines and inflammatory markers
SHI-XIU ZHANG, HONG-WEI GUO, WEN-TAO WAN AND KUN XUE
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(1):77-86.

html PDF

Nutrition education for adolescents: Principals’ views
WAI LING THERESA LAI-YEUNG
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(1):87-94.

html PDF

Influence of awareness of the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top on eating behavior and obesity
KANAE TAKAIZUMI, KAZUHIRO HARADA, AI SHIBATA AND YOSHIO NAKAMURA
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(1):95-101.

html PDF

Nutritional Epidemiology and Public Health

A comparative study of the culture of thinness and nutrition transition in university females in four countries
HALA N MADANAT, RYAN LINDSAY, STEVEN R HAWKS AND DING DING
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(1):102-108.

html PDF

Chronic hemodialysis patients with visceral obesity have a higher risk for cardiovascular events
YUKIE MORIYAMA, RIEKO ERIGUCHI, YUZURU SATO AND YUTAKA NAKAYA
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(1):109-117.

html PDF

The effectiveness of fortified flour on micro-nutrient status in rural female adults in China
JUNSHENG HUO, JING SUN, JIAN HUANG, WENXIAN LI, LIJUAN WANG, LILIAN SELENJE, GARY R GLEASON AND XIAODONG YU
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(1):118-124.

html PDF

 Alcohol consumption and the risk of endometrial cancer: a meta-analysis
QINGMIN SUN, LINLIN XU, BO ZHOU, YOU WANG, YALI JING AND BIN WANG
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(1):125-133.

html PDF

Validation of a simplified food frequency questionnaire as used in the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) for the elderly
YI-CHEN HUANG, MEEI-SHYUAN LEE, WEN-HARN PAN AND MARK L WAHLQVIST
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(1):134-140.

html PDF

Special Report

Seminar on young child nutrition: improving nutrition and health status of young children in Indonesia
MIA ISABELLE AND PAULINE CHAN
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(1):141-147.

html PDF

 

Book Review and Future Events

 

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(1):148.

  PDF

 

top

Harmonisation of food labelling regulations in Southeast Asia: benefits, challenges and implications
WILLIAM KASAPILA AND SHARIFUDIN MD SHAARANI
In the globalised world of the 21st century, issues of food and nutrition labelling are of pre-eminent importance. Several international bodies, including the World Health Organisation and World Trade Organisation, are en-couraging countries to harmonise their food and nutrition regulations with international standards, guidelines and recommendations such as those for Codex Alimentarius. Through harmonisation, these organisations envisage fewer barriers to trade and freer movement of food products between countries, which would open doors to new markets and opportunities for the food industry. In turn, increased food trade would enhance economic develop-ment and allow consumers a greater choice of products. Inevitably, however, embracing harmonisation brings along cost implications and challenges that have to be overcome. Moreover, the harmonisation process is complex and sporadic in light of the tasks that countries have to undertake; for example, updating legislation, strengthening administrative capabilities and establishing analytical laboratories. This review discusses the legislation and regulations that govern food and nutrition labelling in Southeast Asia, and highlights the discrepancies that exist in this regard, their origin and consequences. It also gives an account of the current status of harmonising labelling of pre-packaged foodstuffs in the region and explains the subsequent benefits, challenges and implications for governments, the food industry and consumers.
Key Words: food industry, packaging, consumers, health claims, nutrition
 

top

東南亞食品標示規範的一致化:利益、挑戰及關聯
在趨向全球化的21世紀,食品及營養標示的議題是非常重要的。一些國際組織,包括世界衛生組織(WHO)和世界貿易組織(WTO),都鼓勵各國的食品和營養規範與國際標準、準則和建議(例如Codex Alimentarius)一致。透過一致化,這些組織預計可減少國家間貿易的壁壘、增加食品的自由移動,這有助於食品產業打開新的市場和機會。結果是,促進食品貿易有助於經濟發展,以及讓消費者有更多的選擇。然而,在一致化的過程中,不可避免地有成本支出及挑戰必須克服。此外,國家必須負責這些過程中複雜及零碎的任務,例如:制定新法、加強行政管理能力及建立分析實驗室。本文討論東南亞地區食品與營養標示的立法和規章,舉出不一致的地方及它們的來源和後果。同時也敘述這個地區當前對未包裝食物標示一致化的情形,並解釋對政府、食品產業和消費者的後續利益、挑戰和關聯。
關鍵字:食品產業、包裝、消費者、健康宣稱、營養
 

top

Evaluation of weight loss in the community-dwelling elderly with dementia as assessed by eating behavior and mental status
KEIKO MIYAMOTO, SADANORI HIGASHINO, KAZUKI MOCHIZUKI, TOSHINAO GODA AND HIDEO KOYAMA
Involuntary weight loss is a symptom of protein energy malnutrition often reported among elderly people, espe-cially those with dementia. In this study, we examined whether dementia-related eating difficulties increase the probability of weight loss in the elderly. This cross-sectional observation study was conducted in 60 community-dwelling elderly people with dementia (84.1±6.7 yr of age). Over 6 months, 26.7% of the subjects lost at least 5% of body weight. Impaired mental status and eating difficulties were closely associated with weight loss as de-termined by Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. Assessment of eating difficulties combined with mental states in the subjects by discriminant analysis enabled us to differentiate subjects with ≥5% weight loss from those with less than 5% weight loss at a probability of 76.4%. This result suggests that eating difficulties and impaired mental status among elderly people with dementia are closely associated with weight loss.
Key Words: eating difficulties, elderly, dementia, nutritional assessment, weight loss
 

top

 

以飲食行為及智力狀態評估患失智症之社區老人體重下降的可能性
非蓄意性體重減輕是蛋白質能量營養不良的症狀,常發生在患有失智症的老人身上。本研究檢視與失智相關的進食困難,是否會增加老人體重下降的可能性。以橫斷性研究,調查60位失智的社區老人,他們平均年齡為84±6.7歲。有26.7%的研究對象在六個月當中,流失至少5%的體重。由Spearman等級相關係數顯示,受損的智力狀態及進食困難與體重減輕有密切相關。利用區別分析,以進食困難及智力狀態合併評估,有76.4%的概率可區分體重減輕≥5%與體重減輕<5%的老人。由結果推論,患有失智症之老人,進食困難及受損的智力狀態與體重下降有密切相關。
關鍵字:進食困難、老年人、失智症、營養評估、體重下降
 

   top

 

Associations between combinations of body mass index plus non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and diabetes mellitus among Korean adults
SANG-HWAN KIM, JI-WON LEE AND HEE-JIN HWANG
The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between combinations of body mass index (BMI) cate-gories plus non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) among Korean adults. We prepared the data of 5665 subjects aged 20 years and over who had visited a health promotion center. We ex-cluded 582 subjects as they had a viral or alcoholic liver disease. According to BMI-NAFLD status, the subjects were categorized as non-obese (BMI<25 kg/m2) without NAFLD (n=2568), obese (BMI≥25 kg/m2) without NAFLD (n=572), non-obese with NAFLD (n=748), or obese with NAFLD (n=1195). The prevalence of NAFLD was highest in the obese subjects with DM (87.9%). In non-obese and non-DM subjects, the prevalence of NAFLD was lowest (18.4%). After adjustment of age, gender, waist circumference, smoking status, alcohol drinking, regular exercise, the odd ratios for DM or DM plus impaired fasting glucose (IFG) of subjects with mild NAFLD regardless of obesity were almost 2-fold compared to non-obese subjects without NAFLD. More-over, those of subjects with moderate or severe NAFLD regardless of obesity were about 4- fold. Clinicians and investigators need to pay attention to non-obese patients with fatty liver.
Key Words: fatty liver, glucose metabolism, diabetes, body mass index, obesity
 

top

 

韓國成年人身體質量指數及非酒精性脂肪肝與糖尿病的相關性
本研究調查韓國成年人在不同身體質量指數下合併非酒精性脂肪肝 (NAFLD)與糖尿病之間的關係。研究對象為年齡20歲或以上,在健康促進中心有就診紀錄者,共5665位。進一步排除582位患有病毒性或酒精性肝臟疾病者。將研究對象分成四組,分別為未患NAFLD且非肥胖者(BMI<25 kg/m2) (n=2568)、未患NAFLD但肥胖者(BMI≥25 kg/m2) (n=572) 、患NAFLD但非肥胖者(n=748)、患NAFLD且肥胖者(n=1195)。結果發現在肥胖 並患有糖尿病者,其NAFLD盛行率最高 (87.9%)。而在非肥胖且未患糖尿病者,其NAFLD盛行率最低 (18.4%)。在校正年齡、性別、腰圍、抽菸、飲酒、運動後,患有輕微NAFLD者,不論是否肥胖,發生糖尿病或糖尿病及空腹血糖偏高情形的勝算比,為未患NAFLD且非肥胖者者的兩倍。再者,不論是否肥胖,患有中度或嚴重的NAFLD者,其發生糖尿病的勝算比為未患NAFLD且非肥胖者的四倍。因此,臨床醫師及研究者應更加注意正常體位但患有脂肪肝者。
關鍵字:脂肪肝、葡萄糖代謝、糖尿病、身體質量指數、肥胖

top

 

Dieting practices and body image perception among Lebanese university students
NAJAT YAHIA, HIBA EL-GHAZALE, ALICE ACHKAR AND SANDRA RIZK
Dieting is becoming a popular phenomenon among university students to achieve or maintain a healthy weight. The purpose of this study is to obtain a preliminary understanding of what dieting practices university students use in order to achieve their desirable body weight and to determine the magnitude of body dissatisfaction in re-lation to weight status among a sample of students (n=252) from the Lebanese American University in Beirut, Lebanon. Students filled out a self-reported questionnaire that included questions on their dieting and physical activity practices in addition to the body shape questionnaire (BSQ). Weight and height were measured to calcu-late body mass index. Percentage body fat was measured using Tanita scale body fat analyzer 300A. The out-come of this study showed that smoking and unhealthy dieting practices were not common among students (only 26% reported smoking, 8% reported taking laxatives and 4% taking diet pills). Half of the students reported practicing regular physical activity. Multivitamin intake was also not popular among students. BSQ scores indi-cate that the majority of students were not worried about their body image perception (64% reported not being worried, 19% were slightly worried, 12% were moderately worried and 5% were extremely worried). A gender difference was observed in the BSQ scores, as 89% of the “extremely worried” students were females. Collec-tively, results indicate that unhealthy dieting practices are uncommon among students. However, developing health promotion awareness’ programs to promote good self image within the concept of a realistic healthy weight will be beneficial, especially among females.
Key Words: dieting, body shape questionnaire, body image, Middle East, university students
 

top

黎巴嫩大學生節食及自覺身體形象之調查
大學生為了維持或是達到健康的體重,節食已經成為ㄧ種流行的現象。本研究目的為初步瞭解大學生如何進行節食以達到他們希冀的體重及了解大學生對於自己體重及體形不滿意的程度,研究族群為黎巴嫩美國大學的學生共252位。研究對象自填問卷包括節食及體能活動情形,再加上身體形態問卷(BSQ)。測量學生的體重與身高,以計算身體質量指數。使用Tanita體脂肪分析儀 以分析體脂肪率。結果發現,抽菸與不健康的節食方式並不常見(26%學生抽菸、8%使用瀉藥及4%使用減肥藥)。半數的學生有經常的體能運動。另外發現綜合維生素的攝取並不普遍。 從BSQ分數看出,大部分學生不在意他們的身體形象(64%從不擔心、19%稍微擔心、12%會擔心、5%非常擔心)。BSQ分數結果有性別差異,非常擔心身體形象的學生中有89%是女性。整體而言,不健康的節食方式並不常見於這些大學生中。但發展健康意識促進方案以提升對於健康體重自覺形象良好的概念,將特別有益於女性大學生。
關鍵字:節食、身體形態問卷、身體形象、中東地區、大學生
 

top

Eating behavior in relation to prevalence of overweight among Japanese men
YASUMI KIMURA, AKIKO NANRI, YUMI MATSUSHITA, SATOSHI SASAKI AND TETSUYA MIZOUE
Obesity is an important risk factor for lifestyle diseases. There has been much interest in the role of eating be-havior in the development of obesity, but findings from population-based epidemiologic studies are limited and inconsistent. The objective of our cross-sectional study was to examine the association between eating behavior and prevalence of overweight. Subjects were 290 men of two municipal offices in northeastern Kyusyu, Japan. A positive association was found between overweight and some eating behaviors; multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for overweight were 4.33 (2.46-7.64), 2.29 (1.22-4.32), and 2.01 (1.06-3.80) for the behaviors of eating quickly, eating until full and eating fatty foods, respectively. Moreover, the prevalence of overweight was further increased when these eating behaviors were combined; multivariate odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of overweight for men with 1, 2 and ≥3 versus no high-risk eating behaviors were 2.66 (1.27-5.56), 4.32 (1.87-9.97) and 7.32 (3.01-17.84), respectively (p<0.0001 for trend). Our findings suggest that eating quickly, eating until full and eating fatty foods are related to overweight in Japanese men.
Key Words: overweight, eating behavior, eating quickly, eating until full, epidemiology
 

top

 

日本男性飲食行為與過重盛行率的關聯
肥胖是生活型態相關疾病的重要危險因子。目前有很多關注於飲食行為在肥胖發展的角色,然而針對人群所做的流行病學研究相當有限且結果不一致。本篇橫斷面研究的目的是調查飲食行為和過重盛行率的關係。對象為日本九州東北部的兩個市政廳的290位男性員工。結果發現過重和某些飲食行為呈正相關;校正多變項後,吃得快、吃到飽和吃脂肪食物的體重過重勝算比(95%信賴區間)分別是4.33 (2.46-7.64)、2.29 (1.22-4.32)和2.01 (1.06-3.80)。此外,當這些飲食行為合併時,過重盛行率更增加;校正多變項後,不當飲食行為有1項、2項、及3項含以上的男性過重勝算比(95%信賴區間),相對于非高風險飲食行為,分別為2.66 (1.27-5.56)、4.32 (1.87-9.97)和 7.32 (3.01-17.84),趨勢上升有顯著意義(p<0.0001)。本篇研究結果顯示吃得快、吃到飽和吃脂肪食物與日本男性過重有關。
關鍵字:過重、飲食行為、吃得快、吃到飽、流行病學

top

Prevalence of overweight and obesity among adult Malaysians: an update
WAN NAZAIMOON WAN MOHAMUD, KAMARUL IMRAN MUSA, AMIR SHARIFUDDIN MD KHIR, AZIZ AL-SAFI ISMAIL, IKRAM SHAH ISMAIL, KHALID ABDUL KADIR, NOR AZMI KAMARUDDIN, NOR AZWANY YAACOB, NORLAILA MUSTAFA, OSMAN ALI, SITI HARNIDA MD ISA, WAN MOHAMAD WAN BEBAKAR
A total of 4428 adults (>18 years old) from 5 different selected regions in Peninsular and East Malaysia partici-pated in this health survey. Using World Health Organization recommendations for body mass index (BMI), the prevalence of overweight and obesity were found to be 33.6% (95% CI= 32.2, 35.0) and 19.5% (95% CI= 18.3, 20.7) respectively. There were more females who were obese (22.5%, 95% CI=20.9, 24.0) compared to males (14.1%, 95% CI=12.3, 15.9). Highest prevalence of obesity were among the Indians (24.6%, 95% CI=20.3, 29.3), followed closely by the Malays (23.2%, 95% CI=21.6, 24.8%) and lowest prevalence was among the Chinese subjects (8.2%, 95% CI=6.2, 10.6). More than 43% of the 531 younger subjects (<30 years old) were either overweight (20%, 95% CI=16.6, 23.6) or obese (13.9%, 95% CI=11.1, 17.2%). All subjects who claimed to be non-diabetes were required to undergo 75 g glucose tolerance test. Compared to subjects with normal BMI (18.5-24.9 kg/m2), there was a 3- and 2-folds increase in the prevalence of newly diagnosed diabetes and im-paired glucose tolerance respectively, among obese subjects (BMI >30 kg/m2) who initially claimed to have no diabetes. This study highlights a need for more active, inter-sectoral participation advocating a health-promoting environment in order to combat obesity in this country.
Key Words: overweight, obesity, prevalence, oral glucose tolerance test, Malaysia
 

top

馬來西亞成人過重和肥胖最近的盛行率
總計有4428位(18歲以上)國民參與這次健康調查,分別來自馬來半島與東馬的五個不同地區。根據世界衛生組織以BMI所定義的標準,發現過重和肥胖的盛行率分別為33.6% (95% CI= 32.2, 35.0) 和19.5% (95% CI= 18.3, 20.7) 。肥胖部分,女性(22.5%, 95% CI=20.9, 24.0)盛行率比男性(14.1%, 95% CI=12.3, 15.9)高。肥胖盛行率最高的是印度裔(24.6%, 95% CI=20.3, 29.3),其次是馬來裔(23.2%, 95% CI=21.6, 24.8%),最低的是華裔(8.2%, 95% CI=6.2, 10.6)。在531位30歲以下的年輕人中,超過43%是過重(20%, 95% CI=16.6, 23.6)或肥胖(13.9%, 95% CI=11.1, 17.2%)。所有自稱沒有罹患糖尿病的參與者都接受75 g的葡萄糖耐受性測驗。而一開始聲稱沒有糖尿病的肥胖者,他們的糖尿病新發率和葡糖糖耐受性不佳分別是BMI正常者的3倍和2倍。這份研究顯示要降低國家的肥胖盛行率,需要更積極的跨部門合作,來營造促進健康的環境。
關鍵字:過重、肥胖、盛行率、葡糖糖耐受性測試,馬來西亞

top

 

The nutritional status of iron, folate, and vitamin B-12 of Buddhist vegetarians
YUJIN LEE AND MICHAEL KRAWINKEL
Nutritional status of iron, folate, and vitamin B-12 in vegetarians were assessed and compared with those of non- vegetarians in Korea. The vegetarian subjects were 54 Buddhist nuns who ate no animal source food except for dairy products. The non-vegetarians were divided into two groups: 31 Catholic nuns and 31 female college stu-dents. Three-day dietary records were completed, and the blood samples were collected for analyzing a complete blood count, and serum levels of ferritin, folate, and vitamin B-12. There was no difference in hemoglobin among the diet groups. The serum ferritin and hematocrit levels of vegetarians did not differ from that of non- vegetarian students with a high intake of animal source food but low intake of vitamin C, and the levels were lower than that of non-vegetarian Catholic nuns with a modest consumption of animal source food and a high in-take of vitamin C. The serum vitamin B-12 levels of all subjects except one vegetarian and the serum folate lev-els of all subjects except one non-vegetarian student fell within a normal range. In vegetarians, there was a posi-tive correlation between the vitamin C intake and serum ferritin levels as well as between the laver intake and se-rum vitamin B-12 levels. In order to achieve an optimal iron status, both an adequate amount of iron intake and its bioavailability should be considered. Sufficient intake of vegetables and fruits was reflected in adequate se-rum folate status. Korean laver can be a good source of vitamin B-12 for vegetarians.
Key Words: iron, folate, vitamin B-12, Buddhist vegetarians, vegetarian diet
 

top

佛教素食者之鐵、葉酸及維生素B-12之營養狀況
本研究比較韓國素食者與非素食者之鐵、葉酸及維生素B-12之營養狀況。研究對象之素食者共54位比丘尼,其飲食除了乳製品以外,其它動物性來源食品皆不攝取。在非素食者部分分成兩組,分別為31位修女及31位女性大學生。研究方法:使用三天飲食記錄,同時收集血液樣本,分析完整血液指標與血清鐵蛋白、葉酸及維生素B-12濃度。結果發現不同飲食組別,其血紅素濃度沒有顯著差異。另外素食者血清鐵蛋白與血比容百分比,與有較高動物食品攝取量,及較低維生素C攝取量之非素食的大學生組相比,沒有顯著差異;但是與適量動物性食品攝取,及較高維生素C攝取之非素食修女組相比,則有較低的情況。除了一位素食者與一位非素食的大學生以外,所有研究對象的血清維生素B-12濃度與葉酸濃度,都在正常的範圍之內。在素食者發現,維生素C攝取量與血清鐵蛋白濃度存在正相關,另外紫菜攝取量與血清維生素B-12濃度也存在正相關。為了達到適當的鐵營養狀況,必須同時考慮鐵的攝取量及其生物利用率。適量血清葉酸濃度反映出受試者蔬果攝取充足。最後發現韓國的紫菜是素食者維生素B-12很好的來源。
關鍵字:鐵、葉酸、維生素B-12、佛教素食者、 素食飲食


top

Bone is more susceptible to vitamin K deficiency than liver in the institutionalized elderly
AKIKO KUWABARA, MINORI FUJII, NOBUKO KAWAI, KUNIHIKO TOZAWA, SHOKO KIDO AND KIYOSHI TANAKA
In Japan, γ-carboxylation of blood coagulation factors is the basis for determining adequate intake (AI) for vita-min K in Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) issued in 2010. Recently, vitamin K is also known to be essential for preventing fracture. In this study, relative susceptibility of liver and bone to vitamin K deficiency was studied. Thirty-seven elderly institutionalized subjects were evaluated for vitamin K status by measuring serum PIVKA (protein induced by vitamin K absence) –II and ucOC (undercarboxylated osteocalcin) levels, as sensitive markers for hepatic and skeletal vitamin K deficiency, respectively. Serum PIVKA-II and ucOC levels, with their cut-off values in the parentheses, were 20.2±8.9 mAUmL (28 mAU/mL) and 4.7±3.0 ng/mL (4.5 ng/mL), respectively. Median vitamin K intake was approximately 200 μg/day, which is more than 3 times higher than the current Japanese AI. Vitamin K intake was significantly correlated with serum PIVKA-II and ucOC/OC lev-els, but not with serum ucOC level. Although serum ucOC level is generally a good indicator for vitamin K status, multiple regression analysis revealed that elevated bone turnover marker significantly contributed to se-rum ucOC level. All subjects had vitamin K intake exceeding AI for vitamin K. Nevertheless, serum PIVKA-II and ucOC concentrations exceeded the cut-off value in 14% and 43% of subjects, respectively. The present find-ings suggest that vitamin K intake greater than the current AI is required for the skeletal health in the institution-alized elderly.
Key Words: vitamin K, adequate intake, γ-carboxylation, ucOC, PIVKA-II
 

top

 

居住機構老人骨骼比肝臟易受維生素K缺乏影響
日本2010年發佈的膳食營養素參考攝取量(DRI)中,維生素K的足夠攝取量是根據凝血因子的γ-羧化作用而訂定的。近來,維生素K也被視為預防骨折不可或缺的角色。本研究在於比較肝和骨骼對維生素K缺乏的敏感性。評估37位居住機構的老人之維生素K狀況─測量血清PIVKA–II (因維生素K缺乏所產生的蛋白質)和ucOC (未羧化的骨鈣素)濃度,兩者分別為肝和骨骼在維生素K缺乏時的敏感指標。受試者血清PIVKA-II和ucOC濃度分別為20.2±8.9 mAU/mL (臨界值28 mAU/mL)和4.7±3.0 ng/mL (臨界值4.5 ng/mL)。維生素K攝取量中位數約為200 μg/day,超過了日本目前所建議的足夠攝取量3倍。維生素K攝取量與血清PIVKA-II和ucOC/OC濃度顯著相關,但與血清ucOC濃度無相關。雖然血清ucOC濃度是體內維生素K狀況很好的指標,但複迴歸分析顯示骨骼轉換標記增加,也會影響血清ucOC濃度。所有的受試者維生素K攝取量皆超過足夠攝取量。然而,分別有14%和43%受試者的血清PIVKA-II和ucOC濃度超過臨界值。本研究結果建議,對於住在機構的老人,為維持骨骼健康,維生素K攝取量應超過目前建議的足夠攝取量。
關鍵字:維生素 K、足夠攝取量、γ-羧化作用、未羧化骨鈣素、PIVKA-II
 

top

High prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and K in patients with hip fracture
TETSUO NAKANO, NAOKO TSUGAWA, AKIKO KUWABARA, MAYA KAMAO, KIYOSHI TANAKA AND TOSHIO OKANO
Although hip fracture is considered to be associated with hypovitaminosis D and K, few reports have previously studied both of them. We have studied the vitamin D- and K-status as well as the general nutritional status in ni-nety-nine patients with hip fracture. Mean serum concentration of 25hydroxy-vitamin D (25OH-D) in female fractured patients was only approximately 9 ng/mL, suggesting severe vitamin D deficiency. There was no sig-nificant difference between the two groups in serum concentration of intact parathyroid hormone in both genders and serum 25OH-D levels in the male subjects. Plasma concentrations of phylloquinone (vitamin K1; PK) and menaquinone-7 (MK-7) were significantly lower in the fractured group than in the control group in both genders. Logistic regression analysis indicated that circulating concentrations of albumin, PK and 25OH-D were the sig-nificant and independent determinants of fracture risk, with their higher concentrations associated with decreased fracture risk. Finally, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to summarize the clinical parameters into smaller numbers of independent components. Three components were obtained, each representing the over-all nutritional status, the vitamin D status, and the vitamin K status. In conclusion, our study has shown that pa-tients with hip fracture have vitamin D and K deficiency independent of general malnutrition.
Key Words: hypovitaminosis D, hypovitaminosis K, patients with hip fracture, general malnutrition, princi-pal component analysis
 

top

髖部骨折病患維生素D與K不足之高盛行率
過去研究顯示髖部骨折與維生素D及維生素K不足有關,但較少研究將兩者共同納入探討。本研究之對象為99位有髖部骨折的病患,檢測其整體營養及體內維生素D與維生素K的狀態。女性患者血清25-羥化維生素D(25OH-D)濃度平均只有約9 ng/mL,顯示女性患者有嚴重維生素D缺乏。男女性患者血清中副甲狀腺素及男性血清25OH-D平均濃度與對照組皆沒有顯著差異。然而在男女性髖部骨折患者,其血漿維生素K1及維生素K2濃度都顯著較對照組低。以羅吉斯回歸分析發現,體內白蛋白、維生素K1及25OH-D濃度皆為骨折發生風險之顯著獨立預測因子,具呈負相關。最後以主成份分析進行臨床參數統整後,獲得三項代表參數,分別代表整體營養狀態、維生素D營養狀態及維生素K狀態。總而言之,本研究顯示髖部骨折患者易出現維生素D及維生素K缺乏,且與整體營養不良無關。
關鍵字:維生素D缺乏、維生素K缺乏、髖部骨折病患、整體營養不良、主成分分析


top

Exclusive breastfeeding of low birth weight infants for the first six months: infant morbidity and maternal and infant anthropometry
GRACE V AGRASADA, UWE EWALD, ELISABETH KYLBERG AND JAN GUSTAFSSON
Background: to report anthropometry and morbidity among term low birth weight infants and anthropometry of their first time mothers during the first six months in relation to breastfeeding practice. Methods: we examined data from a randomized controlled trial in Manila, the Philippines. Of the 204 mothers randomized, 68 mothers received eight postpartum breastfeeding counseling sessions, the rest did not. Maternal and infant anthropomet-ric data at birth, 2, 4 and 6 months were taken. During seven follow-up hospital visits, an independent inter-viewer recorded feeding data. Results: the 24 infants exclusively breastfed from birth to six months did not have diarrhea compared to 134 partially breastfed (mean 2.3 days) and 21 non-breastfed infants (mean 2.5 days). Par-tially breastfed and non-breastfed infants compared to exclusively breastfed infants had more frequent, as well as more severe episodes of respiratory infections. At six months, neither overall gain in infant weight, length and head circumferences nor mean maternal weight and body mass index differed significantly between the feeding groups. Conclusions: exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months can be recommended in term low birth weight in-fants, who were protected from diarrhea, had fewer respiratory infections, required no hospitalization and had catch up growth. Exclusively breastfeeding mothers did not differ from mothers who breastfed partially or those who did not breastfeed with regard to weight changes at six months.
Key Words: breastfeeding, counseling, diarrhea, anthropometry, growth
 

top

六個月內完全哺餵母乳對低出生體重嬰兒之罹病率及母親和嬰兒體位的影響
前言:探討足月的低出生體重嬰兒之體位與罹病率,以及分析他們的母親在分娩後六個月內,哺餵母乳情形及體位改變狀況。材料與方法:分析資料來自菲律賓馬尼拉一項隨機對照試驗。將204位母親隨機分派,其中68位接受8次產後母乳哺餵諮詢課程。紀錄產後母親與嬰兒在六個月內的體位變化共四次,分別在分娩完、兩個月、四個月與第六個月。並安排七次醫院回診,由面訪者記錄哺餵情形。結果:24位六個月內完全母乳哺餵之嬰兒都未發生腹瀉,而134位部份哺餵母乳與21位完全沒有哺餵母乳之嬰兒平均腹瀉持續日數分別為2.3天與2.5天。部份哺餵母乳與未哺餵母乳之嬰兒,比起完全母乳哺餵之嬰兒,呼吸道感染的發生率比較高,也較嚴重。在第六個月時,嬰兒之體重、身長、頭圍及母親之體重及身體質量指數之改變,在各組皆無顯著差異。結論:建議給予足月的低出生體重嬰兒完全母乳哺餵持續六個月,可預防腹瀉與降低呼吸道感染,免除住院需求,同時維持正常成長。而且六個月內完全哺餵母乳之母親與部份哺餵或是完全不哺餵母乳者,體重變化沒有差異。
關鍵字:哺餵母乳、諮詢、腹瀉、體位、成長
 

top

Improved growth of toddlers fed a milk containing synbiotics
AGUS FIRMANSYAH, PRAMITA G DWIPOERWANTORO, MUZAL KADIM, SAFIRA ALATAS, NELLY CONUS, LEILANI LESTARINA, FLORILENE BOUISSET AND PHILIPPE STEENHOUT
Bifidobacterium longum (BL999), Lactobacillus rhamonosus (LPR), prebiotics (inulin and fructo-oligosaccharides), and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are believed to have health benefits. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial we compared growth and development of toddlers fed milk containing synbiotics (BL999, LPR, and prebiotics) and LCPUFA or a control milk. Three hundred and ninety three healthy, 12 month-old toddlers were fed approximately 400 mL/day for 12 months. Anthropometric measurements were tak-en at 12, 14, and 16 months. Toddlers’ response to measles and hepatitis A vaccine was measured at 16 months, and Bayley scale for motor, cognitive, and behavioral functions made at 24 months. The primary outcome was weight gain between 12 and 16 months. Secondary outcomes were gain in length, head circumference, and body mass index, gastrointestinal tolerance (stool characteristics), stool bacterial counts, safety, anti-vaccine IgG, and neurodevelopment. Weight gain was greater in the synbiotics group (mean±SD, 7.57±4.13 g/day) compared with the control group (6.64±4.08 g/day). The difference of 0.93 g/day (with a 95% confidence interval of 0.12 to 1.75) is significant (p=0.025). The gain in the synbiotics group resulted in a change in z-score weight-for-age closer to WHO Child Growth Standard. There was a significant increase in lactobacilli and enterococci counts between 12 months and 16 months in the synbiotic group. We conclude that in healthy toddlers milk containing synbiotics and LCPUFA provides better growth and promotes favorable gut colonization, as shown by higher Lactobacillus counts.
Key Words: lactobacillus, bifidobacterium, fructo-oligosaccharide, long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, growth
 

top

含合生元的奶粉有助幼兒成長
双歧桿菌屬的Bifidobacterium longum (BL999)、乳酸菌屬的Lactobacillus rhamonosus (LPR)、益菌助生質(菊糖和果寡糖)和長鏈不飽和脂酸(LCPUFA)被認為對健康有益。在一項隨機、雙盲控制試驗中,比較有添加合生元(BL999、LPR和益菌助生質)及長鏈不飽和脂酸的奶粉和沒有添加的奶粉,兩者對幼兒成長發育的影響。計393位健康的12個月大幼兒每天被餵食約400毫升配方奶,持續12個月。於第12、14和16個月測量體位。於第16個月檢測幼兒對痲疹和A型肝炎疫苗的反應,並於第24個月以貝氏量表評估運動、認知和行為。首要結果是第12個月到第16個月間增加的體重。次要結果是身長、頭圍和BMI的增加、腸胃道耐受性(糞便特色)、糞便中細菌量、安全性、抗疫苗IgG抗體和神經發展情形。與控制組(6.64±4.08克/天)相比,實驗組體重增加較多(7.57±4.13克/天)。兩組體重差值0.93克/天,有統計上顯著差異(p=0.025)。實驗組體重增加使得年齡別體重值的Z分數更接近世界衛生組織孩童生長標準。在第12個月和第16個月之間,實驗組的乳酸菌和腸內菌數量顯著增加。總結,添加合生元和長鏈不飽和脂酸的奶粉對幼兒成長有益處,且從乳酸菌屬總量較高,顯示對腸道菌落也有好處。
關鍵字:乳酸菌、双歧桿菌、果寡醣、長鏈不飽和脂酸、成長
 

top

Nutrition education guided by Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents on metabolic syndrome characteristics, adipokines and inflammatory markers
SHI-XIU ZHANG, HONG-WEI GUO, WEN-TAO WAN AND KUN XUE
Objective: The objective of this study was to test whether “Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents” have beneficial effects on anthropometric and metabolic variables, adipokines and inflammatory markers in metabolic syndrome patients. Methods & Procedures: A multi-stage sampling method was applied to select metabolic syn-drome patients in two districts of Shanghai. Two hundred and seventy-two metabolic syndrome patients were di-vided into control and intervention groups according to their district. Nutrition education guided by “Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents” was performed in the intervention group for one year. Results: Nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes and behavior were improved in the intervention group. Potassium intake and food to total energy ratio for grain, vegetable and fruit increased while sodium intake as well as fat to total energy ratio decreased in the intervention group compared to the control group (p<0.05). Correspondently, the intervention group significantly improved its waist circumference, waist to hip ratio, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, adiponectin, leptin and tumor necrosis factor-α compared to the control group (p<0.05). Waist circumference changes from baseline to end of the study in the intervention and the control groups were -3.9±0.3 and -2.3±0.4 cm respectively. There was a significant difference between the two groups (p=0.004). Means of waist circum-ference, waist to hip ratio, leptin and tumor necrosis factor-α were lower, and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol was higher in the intervention group than the control group (p<0.05). Conclusion: This study con-firmed “Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents” had beneficial effects on anthropometric, lipids, adipokines and inflammatory markers in metabolic syndrome patients.
Key Words: the metabolic syndrome, nutrition education, adiponectin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor-α
 

top

以中国居民膳食指南为指导的营养教育对代谢综合征患者体征、脂肪因子及炎症因子影响的研究
目的:本研究探讨中国居民膳食指南是否对代谢综合征患者的体格、生化指标、脂肪因子以及炎症因子有改善作用。方法与步骤:通过多阶段抽样在上海市的两个城区筛选出代谢综合征患者272名。将筛选出的患者按照区域划分为对照组和干预组。在干预组进行为期一年的以“中国居民膳食指南”为指导方针的营养教育。结果:干预组营养相关知识,态度及行为均有改善。 与对照组比较,干预组钾摄入量、谷物供能比、蔬菜供能比、水果供能比上升,而钠摄入量和脂肪供能比下降(p<0.05)。同時,干预组腰围、腰臀比、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇、脂联素、瘦素及肿瘤坏死因子-α均较对照组有所改善 (p<0.05)。干预组和对照组的腰围变化值分别为 -3.9±0.3 和 -2.3±0.4 cm,腰围变化值在两组间具有显著的统计学差异(p=0.004)。干预组腰围、腰臀比、瘦素和肿瘤坏死因子-α低于对照组,高密度脂蛋白胆固醇高于对照组 (p<0.05)。结论:本研究证实“中国居民膳食指南”对代谢综合征患者的体格、血脂、脂肪因子及炎症因子均有改善作用。
關鍵字:代谢综合征、营养健康教育、 脂联素、 瘦素、肿瘤坏死因子-α
 

top

Nutrition education for adolescents: Principals’ views
WAI LING THERESA LAI-YEUNG
This study aimed to examine school principals’ perceptions of the school environment in Hong Kong as a con-text for the dissemination of food knowledge and inculcation of healthy eating habits. A questionnaire survey was administered in secondary schools in Hong Kong to survey Principals’ views of students’ food choices, op-eration of the school tuck shop, and promotion of healthy eating at school. Questionnaires were disseminated to all the secondary schools offering Home Economics (300 out of 466), and 188 schools responded, making up a response rate of 63%. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS. Most of the schools (82%) claimed to have a food policy to monitor the operation of the school canteen, and about half (52%) asserted there were insufficient resources to promote healthy eating at school. Principals (88%) generally considered it not acceptable for the school tuck shop to sell junk food; however, 45% thought that banning junk food at school would not help stu-dents develop good eating habits. Only 4% of the principals believed nutrition education influenced eating hab-its; whereas the majority (94%) felt that even with acquisition of food knowledge, students may not be able to put theory into practice. Cooking skills were considered important but principals (92%) considered transmission of cooking skills the responsibility of the students’ families. Most of the principals (94%) believed that school-family collaboration is important in promoting healthy eating. Further efforts should be made to enhance the ef-fectiveness of school food policies and to construct healthy school environments in secondary schools.
Key Words: adolescent nutrition sciences, diet, education, curriculum, food services
 

top

校長對青少年營養教育的看法
本研究旨在探討香港的中學校長們對於在校內灌輸食物營養知識及培養健康飲食習慣的看法。此項在香港進行的問卷調查,收集了中學校長對學生的食物選擇,學校小食部的管理,以及在學校促進健康飲食的意見。問卷分發到所有提供家政科的中學(466所中學的其中300所),共有188位校長回覆,回應率為63%,並採用 SPSS統計軟件將所收集的數據進行分析。調查結果顯示大部分的受訪校長(82%)聲稱有政策監察學校食堂供應食物的運作;而大約一半(52%)則表示沒有足夠的資源在學校推廣健康飲食。校長(88%)一般認為不可接受小食部出售垃圾食物,却有45%的受訪校長認為禁止在學校售賣垃圾食物對養成學生良好的飲食習慣並無幫助。只有4%的受訪校長認為營養教育能影響飲食習慣,而大多數(94%)則認為即使學生對食物及營養有認識,亦未必能夠把理論付諸實踐。雖然受訪校長一般認同烹調技能的重要性,但大多數(92%)認為教授學生烹調技能是家庭的責任。受訪校長(94%)幾乎一致認為家庭及學校的合作對促進健康飲食極為重要。相關工作者仍需進一步的努力,以加強學校食物監察政策的有效性,為學校建構健康的飲食環境。
關鍵詞:青少年營養學、飲食、教育、課程、膳食服務

top

Influence of awareness of the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top on eating behavior and obesity
KANAE TAKAIZUMI, KAZUHIRO HARADA, AI SHIBATA AND YOSHIO NAKAMURA
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of awareness of the Japanese Food Guide Spin-ning Top on eating behavior and obesity in Japan. Participants were 1,558 Japanese male and female adults (40.2±12.2 years) who had been registered with a social research company. The cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted via the Internet in November 2007. Potential respondents were invited to complete the survey via e-mail, which contained a link to the survey Uniform Resource Locator (URL). The measures were awareness of the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top, eating knowledge scores, eating attitude scores, and eating behaviors scores, according to the recommendations of the Health Japan 21 and the Food Balance Guide Spin-ning Top. Obesity was assessed by self-reported body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. The relation-ships between awareness of the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top, eating knowledge scores, eating attitude scores, eating behavior scores, and obesity were analyzed using path analysis. Path analysis revealed that aware-ness of the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top was associated with BMI and waist circumference via eating be-havior scores. In addition, eating knowledge scores and eating attitude scores were mediators of the association between awareness of the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top and eating behavior scores. These results suggest that promotion of the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top would be a useful strategy to encourage healthy eating and prevent obesity in the Japanese population.
Key Words: health promotion, food guide, campaign, nutrition survey, obesity
 

top

日本飲食指南認知度對飲食行為與肥胖的影響
本研究目的在於調查日本國人飲食行為與肥胖是否受到飲食指南認知所影響。研究對象為1558位曾經參與過社會研究的日本成年人(平均年齡40.2±12.2歲)。於2007年11月透過網路而做的橫斷型調查,以電子郵件邀請可能參與的研究對象,連結至執行調查的網路位址,填寫網路問卷。根據日本21世紀健康促進指引(Health Japan 21)及食物平衡指南,測度飲食指南認知度及飲食知識、態度及行為的得分。參與者自我提供的身體質量指數與腰圍用來評估肥胖程度。利用路徑分析(path analysis)探討飲食指南認知度、飲食知識、態度及行為得分與肥胖的關係。路徑分析結果顯示,飲食指南認知度與身體質量指數及腰圍有相關,且是透過飲食行為表現。此外也發現,飲食知識與態度是飲食指南認知與飲食行為關聯性的中介者。這些結果顯示,倡導日本飲食指南為有利的策略,可鼓勵日本國民健康的飲食及預防肥胖。
關鍵字:健康促進、飲食指南、宣導活動、營養調查、肥胖
 

top

A comparative study of the culture of thinness and nutrition transition in university females in four countries
HALA N MADANAT, RYAN LINDSAY, STEVEN R HAWKS AND DING DING
The purpose of this study was to examine the nutrition transition in four countries with respect to body dissatis-faction and eating styles. The target population for this study was college students in China (n=207), Japan (n=865), Jordan (n=322), and the United States (n=432). A cross-sectional survey was used to assess eating styles, disordered eating attitudes and behaviors, body esteem and dissatisfaction, and media influence. Results indicated that the Chinese sample was in an earlier stage of the nutrition transition, followed by Japan, Jordan, and the US. Interestingly, Jordanian and Chinese students exhibited the lowest level of body dissatisfaction. However, Jordanian students exhibited high levels of restrained eating similar to those seen in the Japanese and American students. The Japanese sample demonstrated a complex relationship between the culture of thinness, body dissatisfaction and eating styles. However the US sample reflected the expected levels of body dissatisfac-tion, high levels of restrained eating, emotional eating, and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. Implica-tions and suggestions for further research are discussed.
Key Words: Asia, eating behavior, body image, overweight, nutrition
 

top

比較四個國家的大學女學生對體型的看法及營養轉變
本研究的目的是探討四個國家攸關體型不滿意及飲食型態而致的營養轉變。目標族群為中國、日本、約旦及美國的大學學生,分別有207人、865人、322人及432人。以橫斷性調查評估飲食型態、不當的飲食態度及行為、體型自覺良好及不滿、媒體影響程度。研究結果指出,中國學生處於營養轉變的早期階段,接著是日本、約旦及美國。有趣的是,約旦和中國的學生對體型的不滿意程度最低。然而,約旦的學生在飲食克制程度與日本及美國一樣高。日本學生則顯示出偏好纖瘦的文化與體型不滿意、飲食型態的複雜關係。然而,美國學生反映出如預期的體型不滿意程度、高度的飲食克制、情緒化的進食及不當的飲食態度及行為。本研究結果的啟示與進一步研究的建議亦在本文中加以討論。
關鍵字:亞洲、飲食行為、身體形象、過重、營養


top

Chronic hemodialysis patients with visceral obesity have a higher risk for cardiovascular events
YUKIE MORIYAMA, RIEKO ERIGUCHI, YUZURU SATO AND YUTAKA NAKAYA
The risk of cardiovascular disease is substantially high in hemodialysis patients. The risk factors for cardiovascular disease in dialysis patients include age, malnutrition, duration of dialysis, diabetes mellitus and hyperphos-phatemia. However, it is not clear whether cardiovascular disease is associated with abdominal obesity in dialysis patients. The aim of the present study was to clarify the relationship among visceral fat area and cardiovascular complications in chronic dialysis patients. Area of visceral fat was measured using computed tomography scan in 94 patients. The abdominal aortic calcification index (ACI), blood lipid profile and complication of cardiovas-cular disease were evaluated in these patients. Compared to patients with smaller visceral fat area (<100 cm2), those with larger visceral fat area (≥100 cm2) showed significantly higher cardiovascular complication and high-er serum levels of triglyceride and significantly lower serum levels of HDL-cholesterol. Patients with larger vis-ceral fat area and longer duration of dialysis showed severer calcification by ACI analysis, and showed higher incidences of ischemic heart disease. This study suggested that chronic dialysis patients with higher visceral fat area have a higher risk for vascular events, especially ischemic heart disease.
Key Words: visceral fat area, obesity, cardiovascular disease, ischemic heart disease, abdominal aortic calci-fication index
 

top

血液透析患者的內臟型肥胖和心血管併發症風險相關
血液透析患者罹患心血管疾病的風險相當高。透析患者罹患心血管疾病的危險因子包括年齡、營養不良、透析治療持續時日、糖尿病及高血磷。然而,透析患者腹部肥胖與心血管疾病的關係並不清楚。本研究的目的即在釐清長期透析患者內臟脂肪面積和心血管併發症的關係。利用電腦斷層掃描測量94位患者的內臟脂肪面積,並且評估這些患者的腹部主動脈鈣化指數(ACI)、血脂肪和心血管併發症。與內臟脂肪面積少於100 cm2的患者相比,內臟脂肪面積較大(≥100 cm2)的患者,其心血管併發症和血清三酸甘油酯顯著較高,且高密度脂蛋白膽固醇顯著較低。內臟脂肪面積較大且長期接受透析治療的患者,其ACI分析結果較嚴重,且缺血性心臟病發病率較高。這篇研究結果顯示內臟脂肪面積較大的慢性透析患者,其心血管疾病風險較高,特別是缺血性心臟病。
關鍵字:內臟脂肪面積、肥胖、心血管疾病、缺血性心臟病、腹部主動脈鈣化指數
 

top

The effectiveness of fortified flour on micro-nutrient status in rural female adults in China
JUNSHENG HUO, JING SUN, JIAN HUANG, WENXIAN LI, LIJUAN WANG, LILIAN SELENJE, GARY R GLEASON AND XIAODONG YU
This research was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of fortified flour on micronutrient status in poor rural adult women. A total of 4,700 farmers as the intervention group were supplied with multi-nutrient fortified wheat flour for three years, while 2750 farmers as the control group were supplied with unfortified wheat flour. Wheat flour was fortified with vitamins A, B-1, B-2, niacin, folic acid, iron and zinc in mg/kg at 2, 3.5, 3.5, 35, 1, 20 and 25, respectively. Blood samples were taken at baseline and annually from about 300 volunteer adult fe-males aged 20-60 years in each group. Hemoglobin (Hb), serum retinol, serum iron, free erythrocyte protopor-phyrin, serum zinc were measured annually and a dietary survey conducted every 6 months. Average intakes of fortified micronutrients increased to adequate levels with average consumption of fortified flour at 117 g per per-son per day. Intervention groups showed a significant increase in terms of Hb levels from 24 m to 36 m and anemia rate decreased from 15.1% at baseline to 10.8% at 36 m. Serum iron levels of the intervention group sig-nificantly increased from 12 m to 36 m and erythrocyte protoporphyrin decreased from 24 m to 36 m respec-tively. Serum retinol and serum zinc of intervention group improved significantly from 12 m to 36 m compared with baseline and control group. The results showed that the fortified flour could improve micronutrient status of adult females in poor rural region.
Key Words: wheat flour, fortification, intervention, micronutrients, anemia
 

top

营养强化小麦面粉对农村成年妇女微量营养素状况的影响
本研究的目的是评估营养强化面粉对贫困农村地区成年妇女微量营养素状况的作用。项目选择国家级贫困县围场进行3年强化面粉营养干预。干预组为4,700名农民,由项目组通过退耕还林补贴方式,提供多种微量营养素强化的小麦面粉,同时对照组2,750名农民食用未强化的面粉。面粉中强化的营养素及其在每公斤面粉中的用量为維生素A 2 mg、維生素B1 3.5 mg、維生素B2 3.5 mg, 尼克酸35 mg、叶酸1 mg、铁20 mg、锌25 mg。从对照组和干预组各选择约300位妇女,年龄为20-60岁的自愿者,并在干预前及每12个月进行血液样品的收集,检测血红蛋白、血清视黄醇、血清铁、游离原卟啉、血清锌,且每6个月进行血红蛋白检测和膳食调查。平均每人每日强化面粉摄入量为117 g,从而使强化的营养素之平均摄入增加并达到充足水平。干预组血红蛋白水平在24-36月间明显高于对照组,且贫血率从基线的15.1%下降到36个月的10.8%。与对照组和基线相比,干预组血清铁在12-36个月间显著增加,而游离原卟啉则从24至36月显著下降。干预组血清视黄醇和血清锌从12-36月显著比基线和对照组高。结果显示强化面粉对中国贫困地区成年妇女的微量营养素状况具有改善作用。
关键词:小麦面粉、营养强化、营养干预、微量营养素、贫血
 

top

Alcohol consumption and the risk of endometrial cancer: a meta-analysis
QINGMIN SUN, LINLIN XU, BO ZHOU, YOU WANG, YALI JING AND BIN WANG
Epidemiologic findings are inconsistent concerning the association of endometrial cancer risk with alcohol con-sumption. Therefore, we conduct a meta-analysis of studies that assessed the association of alcohol consumption and the risk of endometrial cancer. A systematic literature search up to April 2010 was performed in MEDLINE and EMBASE, and study-specific risk estimates were pooled using a random-effects model. In the present study, six prospective and 14 case-control studies were included. Alcohol intake was not significantly associated with the risk of endometrial cancer among prospective studies (relative risk (RR): 1.04; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.91-1.18) or among case-control studies (odds ratio (OR): 0.89; 95% CI: 0.76-1.05). However evidence from the results of our stratified analyses revealed that increased risk of endometrial cancer was associated with liquor consumption (RR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.03-1.45) but null association with wine and beer consumption. In conclusion, alcohol consumption is not associated with the risk of endometrial cancer. Future studies should also examine whether the relation varies according to different type of alcoholic beverages.
Key Words: alcohol consumption, endometrial cancer, risk, association, meta-analysis
 

top

饮酒与子宫内膜癌发病风险的相关性:統合分析
流行病学研究饮酒与子宫内膜癌发病风险的相关性結果并不一致,因此我们进行一项統合分析(meta-analysis)来评估子宫内膜癌发病风险与饮酒的相关性。从MEDLINE和EMBASE数据库,系统性地搜索2010年4月前的相关文献,用随机效应模式对风险评估结果进行加权。纳入了6个前瞻性研究和14个病例对照研究。结果发现在前瞻性研究中,饮酒与子宫内膜癌发病风险无相关性(RR值为1.04,95%可信区间是0.91-1.18),病例对照研究中同样无相关性(OR值为0.89,95%可信区间是0.76-1.05)。然而,分层分析结果却发现,饮蒸餾酒者有較高的子宫内膜癌的发病风险(RR值为1.22,95%可信区间是1.03-1.45),葡萄酒与啤酒则无相关性。总言之,饮酒与子宫内膜癌的发病风险无相关性。未来的研究應檢測子宫内膜癌风险与饮酒的關聯性是否依酒的種类而異。
關鍵字:饮酒、子宫内膜癌、发病风险、相关性、統合分析
 

top

Validation of a simplified food frequency questionnaire as used in the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) for the elderly
YI-CHEN HUANG, MEEI-SHYUAN LEE, WEN-HARN PAN AND MARK L WAHLQVIST
A 28-item simplified food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) combined with 9 open questions about basic com-modities was designed for the Elderly Nutrient and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) to collect participants’ usual intake of the previous month. We have examined the validity this SFFQ as assessed by multiple 24-hour dietary recall (n=81) and biomarkers (n=1473). All questionnaires were completed by face-to-face interview and fasting blood taken. Thirty seven males and 44 females were randomly selected from NAHSIT participants. Of these, 31 and 50 subjects completed 2 or 3 24-hour dietary recalls within one month, respectively. Mean daily in-take frequencies for each food group were calculated from the SFFQ and 24-hr recalls, respectively. Spearman rank correlation coefficients between frequencies of food intake from the FFQ and dietary recalls ranged from 0.132 to 0.678 for men; 0.052 to 0.759 for women. For food weight, the trends were similar to frequency find-ings. For biomarkers, the most correlated were dairy intake frequency judged by vitamin B-2 and calcium in-takes and by erythrocyte glutathione reductase (EGRAC) for B-2 functionality, where the correlation coefficients were, respectively, 0.533, 0.518 and -0.205 for men; 0.494, 0.475 and -0.174 for women; fish and fruit followed in overall validity. The SFFQ measured the food patterns of elderly NAHSIT elders with validity high for dairy and good for fish, and fruit intakes in both genders.
Key Words: simple food frequency questionnaire, 24-hour dietary recall, food group, biomarker, NAHSIT Elderly
 

top

臺灣老人營養健康狀況變遷調查簡易食物頻率問卷之效度研究
臺灣老人營養健康狀況變遷調查 (NAHSIT Elderly) 使用簡易食物頻率問卷(SFFQ),詢問參與者前一個月的日常飲食攝取狀況。該SFFQ有28題,另有9題主食開放問題。這份SFFQ的效度以多次24小時飲食回憶法 (n=81) 及生化指標(n=1473) 評估。問卷是以面對面的訪視完成,並採集禁食血液。從NAHSIT中隨機選取37名男性及44名女性。分別有31名及50名研究對象在一個月之內完成2天或是3天的24小時飲食回憶。分別計算SFFQ及24小時飲食回憶的9類食物的每日平均攝取頻率。計算9類食物之FFQ及24小時回憶的飲食攝取頻率間的Spearman等級相關係數,男性為0.132-0.678;女性為0.052-0.759之間。食物重量的相關性,與頻率結果相似。而在生化指標的部分,乳類的攝取頻率以維生素B-2,鈣質攝取量以及紅血球麩胱甘肽還原酶來評估,相關係數分別為男性0.533、0.518及-0.205;女性0.494、0.475及-0.174;魚類及水果類的效度與此結果類似。這份SFFQ測量臺灣老人的飲食攝取頻率,不論男女,在乳類均有高的效度,而魚類及水果類則有為良好。
關鍵字:簡易食物頻率問卷、24小時飲食回憶、食物類別、生物標記、臺灣老人營養狀況變遷調查
 

top

Seminar on young child nutrition: improving nutrition and health status of young children in Indonesia
MIA ISABELLE AND PAULINE CHAN
The Seminar on Young Child Nutrition: Improving Nutrition and Health Status of Young Children in Indonesia held in Jakarta on November 2009 reviewed the current nutritional and health status of young children in Indo-nesia and identified key nutrient deficiencies affecting their optimal growth. The continuation of child growth from fetal stage is of paramount importance; and maternal and child health should be a central consideration in policy and strategy development. Clinical management of nutrient deficiency and malnutrition, as well as strate-gies and education to improve feeding practices of young Indonesian children were discussed in the seminar. Relevant experiences, approaches and strategies from France, New Zealand and Malaysia were also shared and followed with discussion on how regulatory systems can support the development of health policy for young children. This report highlights important information presented at the seminar.
Key Words: infant, child, nutrition, health, Indonesia
 

top

改善印尼幼童營養及健康狀況的研討會
於2009年11月,在雅加達舉行「改善印尼幼童營養及健康狀況」的研討會。會中回顧當下印尼幼童的營養及健康狀況,並確認哪些關鍵營養素缺乏,導致阻礙孩童的理想成長。幼童從胎兒時期持續的成長發育是非常重要的,而孕婦和孩童的健康應該是政府制定政策時的主要考量。在這次的研討會中,探討營養素缺乏和營養不良在臨床上的管理,以及攸關改善印尼幼童飲食供應的政策及教育。會中亦分享法國、紐西蘭和馬來西亞的相關經驗、方法和政策,並隨後討論監管系統如何支持幼童健康政策的發展。這篇報告呈現研討會中的精要資訊。
關鍵字:嬰兒、孩童、營養、健康、印尼

2top

 

Last Updated: March 2011