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1 Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
       Volume 19, 4

         (December 2010)


Abstracts

Contents

Abstract 摘要

Original Research Communications

 

Clinical Nutrition Trials or Feeding Studies

Kiwifruit improves bowel function in patients with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation
CHUN-CHAO CHANG, YI-TING LIN, YA-TING LU, YU-SHIAN LIU AND JEN-FANG LIU
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(4):451-457.

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Mixed fibers diet in surgical ICU septic patients
KAWEESAK CHITTAWATANARAT, PIMAN POKAWINPUDISNUN AND YAOWALAK POLBHAKDEE
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(4):458-464.

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Vitamin D supplementation and bone mass accrual in underprivileged adolescent Indian girls
ANURADHA V KHADILKAR, MEHMOOD G SAYYAD, NEHA J SANWALKA, DHANSHARI R BHANDARI, SADANAND NAIK, VAMAN V KHADILKAR AND M ZULF MUGHAL
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(4):465-472.

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Growth and Child Nutrition

Effect of a whey-predominant starter formula containing LCPUFAs and oligosaccharides (FOS/GOS) on gastrointestinal comfort in infants
BOOSBA VIVATVAKIN, ATCHARA MAHAYOSNOND, APIRADEE THEAMBOONLERS, PHILIPPE G STEENHOUT AND NELLY J CONUS
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(4):473-480.

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Contribution of complementary food nutrients to estimated total nutrient intakes for rural Guatemalan infants in the second semester of life
RAQUEL CAMPOS, LIZA HERNANDEZ, MARIA JOS SOTO-MENDEZ, MARIEKE VOSSENAAR AND NOEL W SOLOMONS
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(4):481-490.

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Macro- Micro- and Phyto-nutrients

Bitter receptor gene (TAS2R38) P49A genotypes and their associations with aversion to vegetables and sweet/fat foods in Malaysian subjects
SHEE-XUEN OOI, PUI-LENG LEE, HUEY-YI LAW AND YEE-HOW SAY
 Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(4):491-498.

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The bioavailability of eicosapentaenoic acid from reconstituted triglyceride fish oil is higher than that obtained from the triglyceride and monoglyceride forms
AMMAR WAKIL, MIQUEL MIR, DUANE D MELLOR, STEPHEN F MELLOR AND STEPHEN L ATKIN
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(4):499-505.

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Association of interleukin-6 gene -572 C > G polymorphism with dietary intake of n-3 fatty acids on plasma HDL-c level in Chinese male adults
QUAN ZHOU, BO ZHANG, PING WANG, FANG MEI, CHAO-GANG CHEN, LI-NA SUN, YING XU AND YI-XIANG SU
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(4):506-512.

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Maternal and Women's Nutrition

A combination of iron and retinol supplementation benefits iron status, IL-2 level and lymphocyte proliferation in anemic pregnant women
YONG Y SUN, AI G MA, FANG YANG, FENG Z ZHANG, YONG B LUO, DIAN C JIANG, XIU X HAN AND HUI LIANG
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(4):513-519.

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Dietary energy requirements of young adult women in China by the doubly labeled water method
JIAN-MIN LIU, XIAO-GUANG YANG, JIAN-HUA PIAO, RUI SUN AND YING TIAN
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(4):520-525.

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Evidence for under-nutrition in adolescent females using routine dieting practices
JADE GUEST, AYSE BILGIN, ROBYN PEARCE, SURINDER BAINES, CAROL ZEUSCHNER, CORILDA LE ROSSIGNOL-GRANT, MARGARET J MORRIS AND ROSS GRANT
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(4):526-533.

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Relationship between changes of bone mineral density over seven years and A1330V polymorphism of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 gene or lifestyle factors in Japanese female workers
YAYOI FUNAKOSHI, HISAMITSU OMORI, HIRONORI YADA AND TAKAHIKO KATOH
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(4):534-539.

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Nutritional Epidemiology and Public Health

Intake of isoflavone and lignan phytoestrogens and associated demographic and lifestyle factors in older Australian women
KATHERINE L HANNA, SHEILA O’NEILL AND PHILIPPA M LYONS-WALL
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(4):540-549.

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Consumer awareness and self-reported behaviours related to salt consumption in Australia
JACQUELINE L WEBSTER, NICOLE LI, ELIZABETH K DUNFORD, CARYL A NOWSON AND BRUCE C NEAL
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(4):550-554.

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Nutritional adequacy of four dietary patterns defined by cluster analysis in Japanese women aged 18-20 years
HITOMI OKUBO, SATOSHI SASAKI, KENTARO MURAKAMI, YOSHIKO TAKAHASHI, AND THE FRESHMEN IN DIETETIC COURSE STUDY II GROUP
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(4):555-563.

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Prospective cohort study evaluating the relationship between salted food intake and gastrointestinal tract cancer mortality in Japan
ATSUHIKO MURATA, YOSHIHISA FUJINO, TRUONG-MINH PHAM, TATSUHIKO KUBO, TETSUYA MIZOUE, NORITAKA TOKUI, SHINYA MATSUDA AND TAKESUMI YOSHIMURA
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(4):564-571.

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Dietary intake of six minerals in relation to the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
FUMI HIRAYAMA, ANDY H LEE, ASAE OURA, MITSURU MORI, NAOKO HIRAMATSU AND HIROYUKI TANIGUCHI
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(4):572-577.

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 Iodine deficiency status and iodised salt consumption in Malaysia: findings from a national iodine deficiency disorders survey
RUSIDAH SELAMAT, WAN NAZAIMOON WAN MOHAMUD, AHMAD ALI ZAINUDDIN, NOR SYAMLINA CHE ABDUL RAHIM, SUHAILA ABDUL GHAFFAR AND TAHIR ARIS
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(4):578-585.

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Nutritional Status, Dietary Intake, and Body Composition

Comparison of anthropometric indices of obesity in predicting subsequent risk of hyperglycemia among Chinese men and women in Mainland China
FEI XU, YOU FA WANG, LINGENG LU, YAQIONG LIANG, ZHIYONG WANG, XIN HONG AND JIEQUAN LI
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(4):586-593.

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Evaluation of partial body composition using bioelectrical impedance in Japanese children
TOSHIHIDE KUBO, KAORU SUZUKI, YUKARI MIMURA, MAHOKO FURUJO, HIROSHI SHIRAGA, TOMOHISA KANADANI, TERUHISA KOYAMA, JUNYA SHIMIZU, TAKEHIDE KIMURA, KAZUO OGURA AND SHIGEHIRO MORI
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(4):594-601.

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Book Review and Future Events

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(4):602.

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Kiwifruit improves bowel function in patients with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation
CHUN-CHAO CHANG, YI-TING LIN, YA-TING LU, YU-SHIAN LIU AND JEN-FANG LIU
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional disorder of the gastrointestinal system, and is character-ized by abdominal pain, diarrhea (IBS/D), constipation (IBS/C), and alternating diarrhea and constipation (IBSC/A). The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a four week kiwifruit intervention on bowel function in patients diagnosed with IBS/C. Fifty-four patients with IBS/C and 16 healthy adults participated in this study. All subjects participated in the 6 week, three phase study, which included a baseline phase (1 week), a dietary intervention period (4 weeks), and a post-intervention phase (1 week). Forty-one IBS/C patients and all healthy adults consumed two Hayward green (Actinida deliciosa var) kiwifruits per day for 4 weeks. Thirteen IBS/C patients in the control group took two placebo capsules per day for 4 weeks. Colon transit time was meas-ured immediately prior to and following the intervention period. All subjects completed daily defecation records. After the 4-week intervention, weekly defecation frequency significantly increased in the IBS/C group of par-ticipants who consumed kiwifruit (p<0.05). Colon transit time significantly decreased (p=0.026) in the IBS/C group that consumed kiwi fruit. These findings suggest that kiwifruit consumption for 4 weeks shortens colon transit time, increases defecation frequency, and improves bowel function in adults diagnosed with IBS/C.
Key Words: irritable bowel syndrome/constipation, kiwifruit, colon transit time, bowel function, defecation frequency
 

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攝取奇異果可以改善便秘型大腸激躁症患者之腸道功能
大腸激躁症(IBS)為一類腸胃功能失調的慢性疾病,常見的症狀包括腹痛、腹瀉、便秘或者腹瀉與便秘交替等。本研究的目的為探討4週奇異果的介入是否可以改善便秘型大腸激躁症(IBS-C)的患者腸道之功能。共有54位IBS-C與16位健康受試者參與本實驗,每位受試者均參加6週的實驗,包括1週的實驗適應期,4週的介入期及1週的後介入期。其中41位便秘型大腸激躁症患者及健康者每天攝取2顆奇異果(Hayward green (Actinida deliciosa var)),持續4週。其餘13位便秘型大腸激躁症患者則給予2顆安慰劑,亦持續4週。介入前後檢測受試者之腸道蠕動狀況(腸道通過時間),並每天自行記錄其排便的狀況。結果顯示,經過4週奇異果介入後,可以顯著增加便秘型大腸激躁症患者其排便的頻率(p<0.05),腸道通過時間亦顯著降低(p<0.05)。故本研究的結論為,每日攝取2顆奇異果,連續4週,可以增加腸道的蠕動,縮短腸道通過時間,增加排便頻率,進而改善便秘型大腸激躁症患者的腸道健康。
關鍵字: 便秘型大腸激躁症、奇異果、腸道通過時間、腸道功能、排便頻率

 

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Mixed fibers diet in surgical ICU septic patients
KAWEESAK CHITTAWATANARAT, PIMAN POKAWINPUDISNUN AND YAOWALAK POLBHAKDEE
Diarrhea commonly occurs in surgical critically ill patients, especially septic patients and fiber formulas have been reported to improve diarrhea. Most reports have used soluble or insoluble fiber exclusively, while the ef-fects of a mixed fiber diet remain unclear. This study compares diarrhea scores between mixed-fiber and non-fiber diets in surgical septic patients receiving broad spectrum antibiotics. We conducted a prospective random-ized control double blind study in a general surgical ICU. Patients who received broad spectrum antibiotics and no contraindication to enteral feeding were randomly allocated to a fiber or non-fiber diet for up to 14 days. Nu-tritional delivery and diarrhea scores were recorded daily. Intention to treat analysis was performed. Thirty-four patients were enrolled in the study, 17 in the fiber group and 17 in non-fiber group. These two patients groups were similar in demographics, disease severity, nutritional status, cause of sepsis and total feeding per day. The proportion of patients with diarrhea score ≥12 was higher in the non-fiber group than in the fiber group, but the difference was not statistically significant [8/17 (47.06%) vs. 4/17(23.53%); p=0.15]. However, the fiber group had a lower mean diarrhea score (fiber vs. non-fiber = 3.6 2.3 vs. 6.3 3.6; p=0.005), as well as a lower global diarrhea score from the generalized estimation equation model for repeated measurement [Coefficient -3.03 (95%CI= -5.03 to -0.92); p=0.005]. In summary, a mixed fiber diet formula can reduce the diarrhea score in sur-gical critically ill septic patients who received broad spectrum antibiotics. Key Words: mixed fiber, soluble fiber, insoluble fiber, diarrhea, surgical critically ill
 

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外科加護病房敗血症患者之混合纖維飲食
外科重症病患經常會發生腹瀉現象,特別是敗血症患者,而含纖配方已被報告可改善腹瀉症狀。大部分的報告僅使用可溶性纖維或是不可溶性纖維兩者之ㄧ,而混合纖維飲食的效果尚不清楚。本研究是比較混合纖維飲食及不含纖維飲食,兩者在接受廣效性抗生素的外科敗血症患者的腹瀉分數。我們在一個一般外科加護病房進行一項前瞻性雙盲隨機對照研究。接受廣效性抗生素及對腸道營養無禁忌症的病患被隨機分派至含纖飲食與不含纖飲食組進行達14天的研究。每天記錄營養給予及腹瀉分數。以及進行治療意圖分析。一共有34位病患被納入研究,其中17位為含纖飲食組,另外17位為不含纖飲食組。這兩組病患的人口學分布、疾病嚴重度、營養狀況、敗血症的導因以及每日的總攝食量是相似的。不含纖飲食組中,腹瀉分數≥12分的病患比例高於含纖飲食組,但是兩者的差異未達統計上顯著。含纖飲食組有較低的平均腹瀉分數,以及較低的來自廣義估計方程式模式重複測量所得的總腹瀉分數(係數為-3.03,95% CI: -5.03至-0.92,p=0.005)。總體而言,混合纖維飲食配方可以降低那些接受廣效性抗生素的外科術後嚴重敗血症病患的腹瀉程度。
關鍵字:混合纖維、可溶性纖維、不可溶性纖維、腹瀉、外科重症
 

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Vitamin D supplementation and bone mass accrual in underprivileged adolescent Indian girls
ANURADHA V KHADILKAR, MEHMOOD G SAYYAD, NEHA J SANWALKA, DHANSHARI R BHANDARI, SADANAND NAIK, VAMAN V KHADILKAR AND M ZULF MUGHAL
Vitamin D deficiency is common among children and adolescents in India, in spite of abundant sunshine. We conducted a pilot; double blind randomised controlled trial to investigate the effect of vitamin D supplementa-tion on bone mineral content in underprivileged adolescent girls, in Pune, India. Fifty post-menarcheal girls aged 14 to 15 years were randomised to receive 300,000 IU (7.5 mg) of ergocalciferol or placebo orally, 4 times/year. All participants received 250 mg elemental calcium (calcium carbonate) daily. Outcome measures included change in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, size adjusted bone area and bone mineral content at total body and lum-bar spine. Post supplementation, the median serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was 75.2 (64.2-85.5) nmol/L in the intervention group and 28.1 (16.7-34.0) nmol/L in the placebo group. Increment in bone outcome measures was not different in the two groups. However, there was a positive effect of intervention in the size ad-justed total body bone area (p<0.05), total body bone mineral content (p<0.05) and lumbar spine bone mineral content (p<0.05), and positive trend in lumbar spine bone area (p=0.07) in girls who were within 2 years of men-arche. We conclude that vitamin D supplementation did not have a beneficial effect on skeletal mineralization in girls who were more than 2 years post menarcheal. However, there was a significant positive effect of the inter-vention on size adjusted total body and lumbar spine bone mineral content and a positive trend in lumbar spine bone area, in girls who were ≤ 2 years of menarche.
Key Words: vitamin D, calcium intake, PTH, menarche, India
 
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印度貧困青少女補充維生素D對骨質增長之效果
儘管有充足的日曬,印度的兒童與青少年,維生素D缺乏的情況仍然相當常見。以一項雙盲隨機對照試驗,探討印度普那地區貧困青少女攝取維生素D補充劑對於骨礦物質含量之效果。受試者為50位已歷初經後,且年齡為14-15歲的少女,隨機分派為介入組或安慰劑組,並分別在一年內各補充四次,每次7.5 mg之維生素D2或安慰劑,同時給予所有受試者每天250 mg之元素鈣(碳酸鈣)。結果測量包括,血清25-OHD、全身與腰椎之骨面積與骨礦質含量的變化。補充試驗後發現,介入組的血清25-OHD濃度之中位數為75.2 nmol/L,而在安慰劑組為28.1 nmol/L。但是在骨質增長部分,兩組之間沒有顯著差異。然而在初經來潮兩年內少女之全身骨質面積、骨礦質含量及腰椎骨礦質含量呈現介入之正向效應(p<0.05),腰椎骨質面積亦呈現介入的正向趨勢(p=0.07)。綜合以上,對初經來潮兩年後的少女,維生素D的補充,對於骨骼礦化沒有增益效果。然而對初經後兩年內的少女,其全身及腰椎骨礦質含量則有介入之顯著正向效應,並且在腰椎骨質面積顯示介入的正向趨勢。
關鍵字:維生素D、鈣攝取、甲狀旁腺激素、初經、印度

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Effect of a whey-predominant starter formula containing LCPUFAs and oligosaccharides (FOS/GOS) on gastrointestinal comfort in infants
BOOSBA VIVATVAKIN, ATCHARA MAHAYOSNOND, APIRADEE THEAMBOONLERS, PHILIPPE G STEENHOUT AND NELLY J CONUS
Development of new infant formulas aims to replicate the benefits of breast milk. One benefit of breast milk over infant formulas is greater gastrointestinal comfort. We compared indicators of gastrointestinal comfort in infants fed a whey-predominant formula containing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, galacto-oligo-saccharides and fructo-oligosaccharides, and infants fed a control casein-predominant formula without additional ingredients. The single-centre, prospective, double-blind, controlled trial randomly assigned healthy, full-term infants (n=144) to receive exclusively either experimental or control formula from 30 days to 4 months of age. A group of exclusively breast-fed infants served as reference (n=80). At 1, 2, 3, and 4 months, infants’ growth pa-rameters were measured and their health assessed. Parents recorded frequency and physical characteristics of in-fants’ stool, frequency of regurgitation, vomiting, crying and colic. At 2-months, gastric emptying (ultrasound) and intestinal transit time (H2 breath test) were measured, and stool samples collected for bacterial analysis. Compared to the control (n=69), fewer of the experimental group (n=67) had hard stools (0.7 vs 7.5%, p<0.001) and more had soft stools (90.8 vs 82.3%, p<0.05). Also compared to the control, the experimental group’s stool microbiota composition (mean % bifidobacteria: 78.1 (experimental, n=17), 63.7 (control, n=16), 74.3 (breast-fed, n=20)), gastric transit times (59.6 (experimental, n=53), 61.4 (control, n=62), 55.9 (breast-fed, n=67) min-utes) and intestinal transit times (data not shown) were closer to that of the breast-fed group. Growth parameter values were similar for all groups. The data suggest that, in infants, the prebiotic-containing whey-based formula provides superior gastrointestinal comfort than a control formula.
Key Words: gastric emptying, infant formula, whey, prebiotics, gastrointestinal comfort
 

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乳清蛋白為主並含長鏈不飽和脂酸及寡糖的新生兒配方奶對嬰兒腸胃道的舒適性
開發新的嬰兒配方奶粉的重要目標是複製母乳的好處。母乳優於配方奶的益處之一,是腸胃道的舒適性。比較兩種配方奶粉對腸胃道的影響:一種以乳清蛋白為主,並含長鏈不飽和脂酸、半乳糖寡糖和果寡糖;對照配方奶粉是以酪蛋白為主,不添加上述成分。此為單一研究中心、前瞻性、雙盲的控制性試驗,將健康、足月的144位嬰兒隨機分派到實驗組或對照組,實驗時間從出生30天到4個月齡。另以哺餵母乳的嬰兒共80位當參考組。在第1、2、3和4個月測量嬰兒的生長參數以及評估健康狀況。父母親負責記錄嬰兒生理狀況,包括糞便的頻率和特色,溢奶、嘔吐、哭鬧和腹絞痛的頻率。在第2個月時,以超音波測量胃排空以及用氫呼氣試驗測量腸道轉運時間,並收集糞便作微生物分析。與對照組相比,實驗組中祇有少數嬰兒有硬便(0.7比7.5%,p<0.001),軟便情形較多(90.8比82.3%,p<0.05)。三組的糞便微生物組成(雙歧桿菌比例)分別如下:實驗組為78.1%、對照組為63.7%、母乳組為74.3%。三組胃排空時間:實驗組為59.6分鐘、對照組為61.4分鐘、母乳組55.9分鐘。實驗組和對照組的腸道轉運時間與哺餵母乳組相近。各組的生長參數值類似。上述數據顯示,比較對照配方奶,以乳清蛋白為主且含益生菌的配方奶提供嬰兒較佳的腸胃舒適性。
關鍵字:胃排空、嬰兒配方奶、乳清蛋白、益生菌、腸胃道舒適性
 

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Contribution of complementary food nutrients to estimated total nutrient intakes for rural Guatemalan infants in the second semester of life
RAQUEL CAMPOS, LIZA HERNANDEZ, MARIA JOS SOTO-MENDEZ, MARIEKE VOSSENAAR AND NOEL W SOLOMONS
Background: In developing countries, complementary foods are often introduced earlier or later than appropriate and the quality is frequently insufficient, particularly in rural areas where complementary foods have tradition-ally been based on starchy gruels. Adequate intakes of a number of nutrients are recognized to be problematic in traditional complementary feeding regimens in developing societies. Aim: To determine the contribution of the complementary feeding nutrients to the estimated total nutrient intake in Guatemalan infants. Methods: Three non-consecutive 24-hr recalls were collected from a convenience sample of mothers of 64 infants, aged 6-12 month on enrolment, in the rural Guatemalan highland village of Santo Domingo Xenacoj. Additional informa-tion on early introduction of pre- and post-lacteal feeds and on first foods and beverages was included. Human milk intakes were estimated by a model based on assumptions regarding satisfaction of weight-based daily en-ergy needs by the combined diet. The 2004 WHO/FAO recommended nutrient intakes were used as the standard for adequate nutrient consumption. Results: We observed that exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 month is rare. Mean nutrient intakes and densities were above recommended intakes for all nutrients examined, except calcium, iron and zinc. Intakes of most nutrients were greater from the complementary feeding component of the diet. Vi-tamin A intake was excessive due to consumption of fortified sugar. Conclusions: We conclude that intakes of most micronutrients were near recommendation levels, unusual within the complementary feeding experience in scientific literature. Calcium, iron and zinc were identified as “problem nutrients” as persistently reported in de-veloping countries.
Key Words: human milk, complementary foods, infant feeding, micronutrient intake, Guatemala
 

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瓜地馬拉鄉村嬰兒輔食品攝取對整體營養的貢獻
背景:在發展中國家,添加嬰兒輔食品的時機經常太早或太遲,且輔食品品質普遍不良,尤其是鄉村地區,傳統上是以澱粉類粥食為主。從這些傳統的輔食品中較不易攝取充足的營養素。目的:探討瓜地馬拉嬰兒的輔食品對整體營養素攝取的貢獻。方法:以便利取樣方式從Santo Domingo Xenacoj的瓜地馬拉高原村落中,抽出64位6-12個月的嬰兒的母親,挑非連續的三天實施24小時飲食回憶問卷。並額外調查哺乳前後餵食的食物及首項添加的輔食品和飲料。根據體重計算嬰兒熱量需求,並假設除輔食品外,是由母乳滿足其餘熱量需求,由此估算母乳攝取量。依據2004年WHO/FAO的營養素建議攝取量判定營養素是否攝取足夠。結果:完全哺餵母乳達六個月的母親非常稀少。大多數營養素平均攝取量和密度皆達標準,除了鈣、鐵和鋅。營養素攝取量較多來自輔食品。由於強化糖的關係,維生素A攝取量過多。結論:大多數營養素攝取量接近標準,這與多數文獻的輔食品添加經驗不相同。而鈣、鐵和鋅的不足和過去發展中國家的研究結果一致。
關鍵字:母乳、輔食品、嬰兒餵食、微量營養素攝取、瓜地馬拉

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Bitter receptor gene (TAS2R38) P49A genotypes and their associations with aversion to vegetables and sweet/fat foods in Malaysian subjects
SHEE-XUEN OOI, PUI-LENG LEE, HUEY-YI LAW AND YEE-HOW SAY
Recently, the bitter receptor gene (TAS2R38) was identified to be responsible for phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) bitter sensitivity. Its two predominant haplotypes at three Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) are found to be definitive for the PTC status, which the ProAlaVal and AlaValIle haplotypes are associated with tasters and non-tasters, respectively. TAS2R38 haplotypes have been reported to influence food preferences (like cruciferous vegetables and fat foods) and cardiovascular disease risk factors. We examined, in 215 Malaysian subjects (100 males, 115 females), the association of the P49A SNP of TAS2R38 with anthropometric measurements and aversion to a list of 36 vegetables, 4 soy products, green tea and 37 sweet/fat foods. The subjects were successfully geno-typed as 110 PA, 81 PP and 24 AA (with the A49 allelic frequency of 0.37), by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Ethnicity (Malay, Chinese or Indian), but not gender, was associated with the P49A TAS2R38 genotypes (p<0.001). However, no significant differences in terms of Body Mass Index, Total Body Fat, waist circumference and Waist-Hip Ratio were found between the genotypes (p<0.05). Only aversions to green tea, mayonnaise and whipped cream, but not soy products, vegetables, and other sweet/fat foods, were associated with the P49A genotypes (p<0.05). Therefore, the P49A SNP of the bitter receptor gene TAS2R38 could not serve as a predictor of anthropometric measurements and aversion to vegeta-bles or sweet/fat foods in the sampled Malaysian subjects, and this suggests the existence of other possible fac-tors influencing food selection among Malaysians.
Key Words: bitter, TAS2R38, single nucleotide polymorphism, Malaysia, nutrigenomics
 

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苦味受体基因(TAS2R38)P49A基因型与马来西亚受试者对蔬菜和甜/脂肪食物厌恶感的关联
最近,苦味受体基因(TAS2R38)被确认为负责苯基硫脲(PTC)苦味的敏感性。它在三个单核苷酸多形性(SNPs)的两个主要单倍型被确定与PTC感受性有关,而ProAlaVal和AlaValIle单倍型分别對應味感者和味盲者。TAS2R38单倍型已被报道能影响对食物的喜好(如十字花科蔬菜和脂肪食品)和心血管疾病的危险因素。我们检验马来西亚215名受试者(100名男性,115名女性)之TAS2R38的P49A单核苷酸多态性,並測試它們與受试者的体位测量及对36種蔬菜、4項黃豆制品、绿茶和37項甜/脂肪食物的厌恶感之关联性。通过聚合酶链反应限制性片段长度多态性(PCR-RFLP)技术,受试者成功地被鑑定为110PA,81PP和24AA基因型(A49等位基因频率为0.37)。种族特点(马来人,华人或印度人),而不是性别,与TAS2R38之P49A基因型有关联(p<0.001)。然而,在各基因型中,身体质量指数,身体总脂肪,腰围和腰臀围比例并无显着差异(p<0.05)。只有对绿茶,蛋黄酱和鮮奶油,而不是对黃豆制品,蔬菜和其他甜/脂肪食物的厌恶感,与P49A基因型有关联(p<0.05)。因此,苦味受体基因TAS2R38的单核苷酸多态性P49A不能作为马来西亚受试者体位测量和对蔬菜或甜/脂肪食物厌恶的预測。这表明,可能存在其他因素影响马来西亚人对食物的选择。
关键词:苦味、TAS2R38、单核苷酸多态性、马来西亚、营养基因组学

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The bioavailability of eicosapentaenoic acid from reconstituted triglyceride fish oil is higher than that obtained from the triglyceride and monoglyceride forms
AMMAR WAKIL, MIQUEL MIR, DUANE D MELLOR, STEPHEN F MELLOR AND STEPHEN L ATKIN
Omega 3 fatty acids have healthcare benefits, but their absorption characteristics are not well defined, particu-larly for strategies to improve their bioavailability. We performed a double blind study comparing the bioavail-ability of 20% eicosapentaenoic acid in 4.5 grams of: natural triglyceride, reconstituted triglyceride, enzymati-cally synthesized triglyceride, monoglyceride and diglyceride. Seven healthy volunteers were given the supple-ments on five occasions while repeated measurements of eicosapentaenoic acid were taken to calculate the area under the curve for the next 24 hours. There was a significant difference between the mean of calculated area under the curve of eicosapentaenoic acid from reconstituted triglyceride (30.2) and that of the enzymatically syn-thesized triglyceride (11.9) and monoglyceride (13.4), z=-2.36 and -2.19, respectively, p<0.05. In summary, ei-cosapentaenoic acid bioavailability of chemically reconstituted triglycerides was better than that obtained from enzymatically synthesized triglyceride and monoglyceride.
Key Words: eicosapentaenoic, bioavailability, monoglyceride, diglyceride, triglyceride
 

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重組甘油三酯魚油的EPA生物利用率優於甘油三酯及單甘油酯的形式
ω-3脂肪酸對於健康有益,然而有關其吸收特性卻無明確的了解,尤其不清楚如何改善它們的生物可利用性。我們進行一個雙盲試驗來比較不同形式的4.5克油脂其內含的20%二十碳五烯酸(EPA)之生物利用率,包括:天然形式甘油三酯、重組甘油三酯、酵素合成甘油三酯、單甘油酯及双甘油酯。七個健康自願者皆分五次給予油脂補充品,每次攝入油脂後的24小時內,重複測量血清EPA,並計算曲線下面積。結果發現,攝取重組甘油三酯(30.2)的EPA平均曲線下面積與攝取酵素合成甘油三酯(11.9)或單甘油酯(13.4)有顯著差異,z=-2.36與-2.19,p<0.05。總之,當EPA以重組甘油三酯形式呈現,其生物利用率優於酵素合成甘油三酯或單甘油酯的形式。
關鍵字:二十碳五烯酸、生物利用率、單甘油酯、双甘油酯、甘油三酯
 

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Association of interleukin-6 gene -572 C > G polymorphism with dietary intake of n-3 fatty acids on plasma HDL-c level in Chinese male adults
QUAN ZHOU, BO ZHANG, PING WANG, FANG MEI, CHAO-GANG CHEN, LI-NA SUN, YING XU AND YI-XIANG SU
Objective: Heterogeneity in circulating lipid concentrations in response to different dietary fat intakes may be due, in part, to gene polymorphism of cytokine related to inflammation. The objective was to determine whether dietary n-3 PUFAs intake influenced the effects of IL-6 -572 polymorphism on plasma lipids and apolipopro-teins. Study Design: This cross-sectional study included 195 men and 386 women aged 40–65 y. DNA was iso-lated from white blood cell to determine the IL-6 -572 C-G polymorphisms by the polymerase chain reaction-logation detection reaction (PCR-LDR) method. Dietary fatty acids were assessed by measuring erythrocyte membrane fatty acids, and fasting plasma was collected to determine blood lipids and apoproteins. Results: The frequency of the G allele was 0.214. There were no significant differences in plasma lipids across genotypes (all p>0.05). When men and women were grouped into tertiles by the erythrocyte membrane n-3 PUFAs composi-tion; in the lowest group, men with G allele had 18% higher HDL-cholesterol concentrations than did C/C geno-type (p <0.05). Similar effects were observed for apo A. Adjusting for age, BMI and total PUFA did not alter this association. The interaction was not significant in women. Conclusion: Dietary n-3 PUFA intake influenced the effects of IL-6 -572 genotype on HDL-c concentrations in males.
Key Words: interleukin-6, polymorphism, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, HDL-c, interaction
 

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IL-6 -572位点C>G多态性与膳食n-3脂肪酸对中国成年男性血浆HDL-c水平影响的交互作用
目的:相同膳食状況下,人体循环中脂质水平的差异可能与炎症相关细胞因子基因多态性有关。本研究旨在探讨膳食n-3脂肪酸的摄入是否影响IL-6 -572位点基因多态性与血浆脂质及载脂蛋白水平的关系。研究设计:一项横断面研究,受试者均为40-65岁成人,男性195名,女性386名。采集空腹12小时以上静脉血检测血脂及血载脂蛋白水平,利用血白细胞提取基因组DNA,并用LCD-PCR法检测IL-6 -572位点基因多态性。气相色谱检测受试者红细胞膜脂肪酸构成,并用于评价膳食脂肪酸摄入情况。分析受试者IL-6 -572位点基因多态性对血浆脂质及载脂蛋白水平的影响及其与膳食n-3脂肪酸的交互作用。结果:受试人群IL-6 -572位点G等位基因出现频率是0.214,未发现该位点基因多态性与血浆脂质与载脂蛋白水平有关(p>0.05)。按红细胞膜n-3脂肪酸构成以三分位分组,发现当红细胞膜n-3PUFA成分处于最低水平时,男性G等位基因携带者血浆HDL-c及Apo A水平分别较C/C纯合子高18%和15%,校正了年龄、BMI及总脂肪酸后,差异仍然有显著性。未发现女性受试者存在上述交互作用。结论:膳食n-3脂肪酸能改变IL-6 -572位点基因多态性与男性血浆HDL-c水平的相关关系。
關鍵字:白介素-6、基因多态性、n-3多元不饱和脂肪酸、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇、交互作用
 

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A combination of iron and retinol supplementation benefits iron status, IL-2 level and lymphocyte proliferation in anemic pregnant women
YONG Y SUN, AI G MA, FANG YANG, FENG Z ZHANG, YONG B LUO, DIAN C JIANG, XIU X HAN AND HUI LIANG
Background: Iron and vitamin A deficiencies impact anemia and the immune system. Objective: to investigate the effect of iron combined with retinol supplementation on iron status, IL-2 level and lymphocyte proliferation. Methods: a double-blind randomized trial conducted over 2 months. We randomly allocated 186 anemic preg-nant women with 80≤Hb<110 g/L into four groups. Group I (n=47) was supplemented daily with 60 mg iron as ferrous sulfate, IF (n=46) with 60 mg iron and 0.4 mg folic acid, IR (n=46) with 60 mg iron, 2.0 mg retinol and 0.4 mg folic acid and C (n=47) was the placebo group. Results: after the 2 months trial, there were considerable increases of iron status in Hb, plasma iron and ferritin in the I, IF and IR groups compared with Group C. In-creases in plasma iron and ferritin in the IR group were also significantly greater than in Groups I and IF. Com-pared with group C, increases of IL-2 levels were 119, 184 and 206 ng/L; and lymphocyte proliferation in-creased by 0.095, 0.112 and 0.219 in Groups I, IF and IR, respectively. Increases of IL-2 were 65.3 ng/L and 87.5 ng/L in Groups IF and IR, greater than in Group I (both p values <0.01); and lymphocyte proliferation in Group IR were 0.124 and 0.107, also greater than in Groups I and IF, respectively. Conclusion: iron combined retinol supplementation was more beneficial to improving iron status and lymphocyte proliferation during preg-nancy than iron alone.
Key Words: anemia, iron, retinol, IL-2, lymphocyte proliferation
 

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铁和维生素A补充对贫血孕妇改善铁的营养状况、IL-2水平及淋巴细胞增殖活性
背景和目的:铁和维生素A缺乏对贫血和机体免疫功能可产生一定的影响。本研究目的是调查联合补充铁和视黄醇,对铁的营养状况、IL-2水平和淋巴细胞增殖活性的改善效果。方法:本研究设计为2个月双盲随机对照研究(RCT)。贫血孕妇(80≤Hb<110 g/L)186名,随机分为4组,C组(n=47)为安慰剂组;I组(n=47)每天服用60 mg铁(硫酸亚铁);IF组(n=46)每天补充60 mg铁和0.4 mg叶酸,IR组(n=46)每天补充60 mg铁、2.0 mg视黄醇和0.4 mg叶酸。结果:经过2个月补充后,I组、IF组和IR组的血紅素、血浆铁和铁蛋白水平较C组均显著提高。IR组血浆铁和铁蛋白均较I组和IF组显著增加。与C组比较,I组、IF组和IR组IL-2水平分别升高了118.80、184.10和206.29 ng/L,淋巴细胞增殖活性分别升高了0.095、0.112和0.219。IF组和IR组IL-2水平分别较I组升高了65.30 ng/L和87.49 ng/L (p<0.01)。IR组淋巴细胞增殖活性也分别较I组和IF组升高了0.124和0.107。结论:铁和视黄醇联合补充比单纯补铁更有利于改善孕期铁营养状况、IL-2水平和淋巴细胞增殖活性。
关键词:贫血、铁、视黄醇、IL-2、淋巴细胞增殖
 

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Dietary energy requirements of young adult women in China by the doubly labeled water method
JIAN-MIN LIU, XIAO-GUANG YANG, JIAN-HUA PIAO, RUI SUN AND YING TIAN
Objective: The current recommendations on dietary energy requirements in China have been based on total energy expenditure (TEE) derived from theoretical factorial calculations expressed as multiples of basal energy expen-diture (BEE). Few direct measurements of TEE and BEE have been conducted in Chinese people. This study was designed to measure the TEE and BEE of healthy, light active women of normal body weight living in China, and to evaluate the recommendations on dietary energy requirements by comparing the data correspond-ingly. Design: 16 healthy female adults aged 22.11.2 y with a body mass index (in kg/m2) of 20.41.7 were se-lected. Under well-controlled conditions, TEEs were determined by using the doubly labeled water method. At the same time, BEEs were measured by using indirect calorimetry. Results: Measured TEE was 1380118 kcal/d, which was close to the value of energy intake (138296 kcal/d). Comparing the measured TEE with the recom-mended (Chinese recommended value for this group is 2100 kcal/d), the recommended was substantially higher than the measured by 15% or so. Meanwhile, the calculated BEE (123065 kcal/d) by using the adjusted Schofield equation proposed by the Chinese Nutrition Society was significantly higher (p <0.001) than the measured BEE (1130110 kcal/d), by 9% or so. Conclusion: Current recommended energy intake for young adult women may need to be revised on the basis of measured TEE and BEE.
Key Words: energy requirement, Chinese, doubly labeled water, basal energy expenditure, total energy expenditure
 

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应用双标水法对中国青年女性膳食能量需要量的研究
目的:当前中国的能量参考摄入量(RNI)是一个估算值,它是以WHO推荐使用的Schofield公式计算基础代谢能量消耗,进而估算总能量需要量。由于缺乏可靠的针对中国人群的总能量消耗(TEE)及基础代谢能量消耗(BEE)的实测数据,因此其准确性值得商榷。本研究旨在对于中国青年女性的能量消耗值进行实际测定,并将实测值与推荐值加以比较分析。方法:以16名健康中国青年女性(年龄 22.11.2 岁,BMI 20.41.7)为研究对象,在严格控制实验条件的基础上,应用双标水法测定其总能量消耗,并应用气体代谢法测定基础代谢能量消耗。结果:测定的总能量消耗为1380118 kcal/d,与能量平衡观察法得到的膳食能量摄入值(138296 kcal/d)非常接近。将实测的总能量消耗值与相应目标人群的能量推荐值(2100 kcal/d)进行比较,结果发现推荐值比实测值高出15%左右。同时,通过Schofield公式计算得到的基础代谢能量消耗预测值为123065 kcal/d,比实测的基础代谢能量消耗值(1130110 kcal/d)高出9%左右。结论:中国青年女性能量参考摄入量应在实际测定目标人群总能量消耗及基础代谢能量消耗的基础上加以修正。
关键词:能量需要量、中国人、双标水、基础代谢能量消耗、总能量消耗
 

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Evidence for under-nutrition in adolescent females using routine dieting practices
JADE GUEST, AYSE BILGIN, ROBYN PEARCE, SURINDER BAINES, CAROL ZEUSCHNER, CORILDA LE ROSSIGNOL-GRANT, MARGARET J MORRIS AND ROSS GRANT
In Western countries the increasing prevalence of obesity in young people is a major public health concern. While the focus has been on reducing obesity, paradoxically the success of these campaigns may result in unhealthy nutritional practices. The aim of this study was to investigate the use and impact of weight control techniques on the health of adolescent females. Using Analysis of Variance we compared physiological and biochemical markers of health against responses to a modified, Schools Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey (SPANS) in 482 ado-lescent females (14-17 yrs) from secondary schools in the northern Sydney and Central Coast regions of New South Wales, Australia. Participants who ‘often’ used weight control methods had, on average, a healthy BMI of 22.5 (SD=3.7). However, comparison of blood derived markers between participants who ‘never’, ‘occasionally’ or ‘often’ used weight reduction techniques showed that, those who ‘often’ used weight control methods had sig-nificantly lower haemoglobin (p<0.05), alkaline phosphatase (p<0.001), bilirubin (p<0.05), albumin (p<0.05), total protein (p<0.05), and calcium (p<0.05), but higher blood levels of creatinine (p<0.05) and potassium (p<0.05). These data suggest that the use of common weight control techniques by healthy weight adolescent females can produce a metabolically divergent group whose biochemical markers are consistent with subtle levels of chronic under-nutrition.
Key Words: adolescent, nutrition, diet fads, BMI, alkaline phosphatase
 

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青少女使用一般節食方法所致營養不良的證據
漸增的年輕人肥胖盛行率是西方國家重要的公共衛生議題之ㄧ。雖然議題的重點是要減少肥胖,但矛盾的是,這些活動的成功卻可能造成不健康的營養習慣。本研究的目的是調查體重控制方法的使用及其對青春期女性健康的影響。研究對象是澳洲新南威爾斯州的雪梨北部及中部海岸地區中等學校之482位,14至17歲的青少女,檢測她們的生理及生化指標,並以「學校體能活動及營養調查(SPANS)」的部分問卷收集她們對體重控制方法使用的資料。使用變異數分析法加以比較。過去『經常使用』體重控制方法之參與者,其平均BMI為22.5(標準差為3.7),屬健康的。比較『從未使用』、『偶爾使用』與『經常使用』減重方法的三組參與者之間的血液指標,結果顯示『經常使用』體重控制方法者之血液中有顯著較低的血色素、鹼性磷酸酶、膽色素、白蛋白、總蛋白、血鈣值;但是有較高的肌酸苷及血鉀濃度。這些資料顯示,正常健康體重的青少女使用一般的體重控制方法可能造成代謝的差異,其生化指標顯現輕微的慢性營養不良狀況。
關鍵字:青少年、營養、節食狂熱、身體質量指數、鹼性磷酸酶
 

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Relationship between changes of bone mineral density over seven years and A1330V polymorphism of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 gene or lifestyle factors in Japanese female workers
YAYOI FUNAKOSHI, HISAMITSU OMORI, HIRONORI YADA AND TAKAHIKO KATOH
A longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the relation between the changes of bone mineral density (BMD) over a seven-year period and A1330V polymorphism of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) gene or lifestyle factors. The subjects were 113 premenopausal female employees from a large-scale integrated manufacturing facility in Japan aged 25.64.2 years (mean  standard deviation) at baseline. BMD was measured at the radius by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Lifestyle information was obtained by a questionnaire. The genotype frequencies of LRP5 gene polymorphism were 52%, 39%, and 9% for AA, AV, and VV, respectively. After seven years, BMD showed a significant decrease (from 0.4630.045 to 0.4560.046 g/m2) in subjects with the AV or VV genotypes, but not in subjects with the AA genotype. Analysis of covariance with adjustment for age and body mass index showed that subjects who drank alcohol displayed a significantly greater change of BMD if they had the AV or VV genotype than if they had the AA genotype (F=4.547, p=0.036). Investigation of LRP5 A1330V polymorphism may be useful for identifying individuals who are susceptible to osteoporosis, allowing early preventive measures to be provided.
Key Words: bone mineral density, genetic polymorphism, Japan, lifestyle, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 gene
 

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日本女性僱員的骨密度改變與低密度脂蛋白受體相關蛋白5的基因型或生活型態有相關
以一個縱貫性研究來探討七年間骨密度(BMD)的改變與低密度脂蛋白受體相關蛋白5(LRP5)基因A1330V多型性或生活型態因子間的關係。受試者為日本一個大型綜合製造廠的僱員,共包含113位停經前婦女,納入研究時平均年齡為25.64.2歲。以雙能X光骨密度儀(DXA)測量橈骨決定骨密度。生活型態方面資訊則以問卷取得。LRP5基因的不同型頻率分別為52%(AA)、39%(AV)及9%(VV)。七年後,只有在基因型為AV與VV的受試者,其骨密度有顯著的減少(0.4630.045至0.4560.046 g/m2)。在校正年齡與身體質量指數後,發現有飲酒的受試者,當其有AV與VV的基因型,比起基因型為AA的人,骨密度變化更大(F=4.547, p=0.036)。調查LRP5基因A1330V多型性可能有助於辨識個體是否易患骨質疏鬆症,以提供早期的預防方法。
關鍵字:骨質密度、基因多型性、日本、生活型態、低密度脂蛋白受體相關蛋白5基因
 

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Intake of isoflavone and lignan phytoestrogens and associated demographic and lifestyle factors in older Australian women
KATHERINE L HANNA, SHEILA O’NEILL AND PHILIPPA M LYONS-WALL
The purpose was to determine intake of phytoestrogens in a sample of older Australian women, and to investi-gate associated lifestyle factors. Subjects were an age-stratified sample of 511 women aged 40-80 y, randomly selected from the electoral roll and participating in the Longitudinal Assessment of Ageing in Women at the Royal Brisbane and Women’s Hospital. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess isoflavone and lignan intake over the past month from food and supplements using a 112-item phytoestrogen frequency questionnaire. Data were also collected on nutrient intakes, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, non-prescription supplements, hormone therapy, education and occupation. Logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between demographic and lifestyle variables and soy/linseed consumption while controlling for age. Isoflavone intakes were significantly higher in the younger compared to older age groups (p<0.001); there were no age-related dif-ferences in lignan intake. Forty-five percent of women consumed at least one serve of a soy and/or linseed item and were defined as a soy/linseed consumer. Median (range) intakes by consumers for isoflavones and lignans (3.9 (0-172) mg/d and 2.4 (0.1-33) mg/d) were higher than intakes by non-consumers (0.004 (0-2.6) mg/d and 1.57 (0.44-4.7) mg/d), respectively (p<0.001). Consumers had higher intakes of dietary fibre (p=0.003), energy (p=0.04) and polyunsaturated fat (p=0.004), and higher levels of physical activity (p=0.006), socio-economic po-sition (p<0.001), education (p<0.001) and supplement use (p<0.001). Women who consumed soy or linseed foods differed in lifestyle and demographic characteristics suggesting these factors should be considered when investigating associations with chronic disease outcomes.
Key Words: phytoestrogens, isoflavones, lignans, life style, socio-demographic
 

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澳洲年長女性異黃酮及木質酚攝取與相關的人口學及生活型態因子
本篇目的為探討澳洲年長女性,植物雌激素攝取量與相關的生活型態因子。研究對象為年齡分層之樣本,根據選民登記資料隨機選取而參與皇家布里斯班婦女醫院的女性老化長期評估計劃,年齡為40-80歲之女性,共511位。執行ㄧ橫斷性研究,使用112項含植物雌激素食物之頻率問卷,評估參與者在過去一個月,從食物及補充劑中,獲得之異黃酮及木質酚含量。此外也收集營養素攝取量、體能活動、抽菸、飲酒、非處方之補充劑使用、賀爾蒙治療、教育程度及職業等變項。使用羅吉斯回歸,在控制年齡變項後,評估人口學及生活型態因子與植物雌激素攝取之間的相關性。結果發現,較年輕族群之異黃酮攝取量顯著較年老族群高(p<0.001),而木質酚攝取量在不同年齡族群無差異。有45%的參與婦女在過去一個月攝食至少一份含有植物雌激素之食物,被歸類為消費者。消費者每天攝取之異黃酮與木質酚之中位數,分別為3.9 mg及2.4 mg,顯著高於非消費者的攝取量,0.004 mg及1.57 mg (p<0.001)。並且消費者有較高之膳食纖維攝取量(p=0.003)、能量攝取(p=0.04)及多元不飽和脂肪酸攝取量(p=0.004),及較高之體能活動(p=0.006)、社經地位(p<0.001)、教育程度(p<0.001)及補充劑使用(p<0.001)。綜合以上,發現婦女有無攝取含植物雌激素的食物,其生活型態與人口學特性有顯著差異,因此建議在調查慢性疾病相關研究中,應將這些因子納入考慮。
關鍵字:植物雌激素、異黃酮、木質酚、生活型態、社會人口學因子

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Consumer awareness and self-reported behaviours related to salt consumption in Australia
JACQUELINE L WEBSTER, NICOLE LI, ELIZABETH K DUNFORD, CARYL A NOWSON AND BRUCE C NEAL
Australians are eating far more salt than is good for health. In May 2007, the Australian Division of World Ac-tion on Salt and Health (AWASH) launched a campaign to reduce population salt intake. A consumer survey was commissioned to quantify baseline aspects of awareness and behaviour related to salt and health amongst Australians. A total of 1084 individuals aged 14 years or over were surveyed by ACA Research using an estab-lished consumer panel. Participants were selected to include people of each sex, within different age bands, from major metropolitan and other areas of all Australian states and territories. Participants were invited via email to complete a brief questionnaire online. Two-thirds knew that salt was bad for health but only 14% knew the rec-ommended maximum daily intake. Seventy percent correctly identified that most dietary salt comes from proc-essed foods but only a quarter regularly checked food labels for salt content. Even fewer reported their food pur-chases were influenced by the salt level indicated (21%). The survey showed a moderate understanding of how salt effects health but there was little evidence of action to reduce salt intake. Consumer education will be one part of the effort necessary to reduce salt intake in Australia and will require government investment in a tar-geted campaign to achieve improvements in knowledge and behaviours.
Key Words: salt, sodium, consumer, behaviour, public health
 

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澳洲消費者對食塩攝取的認知及消費行為
澳洲人的食塩攝取已趨對健康有危害的高量。2007年5月,食塩與健康的世界行動澳洲分會(AWASH)發起降低食塩攝取量的活動。先執行始點的消費者調查,以評量澳洲人對食塩和健康的認知與行為。從已建立好的消費者固定樣本抽出14歲或以上的1084位民眾,由ACA Research進行調查。受試者從澳大利亞各州及領地的主要城市及其他地區的各年齡層的男女性中分別選出。以電子郵件邀請受試者填寫簡要的網路問卷。有三分之二受試者知道食塩對健康有害,但只有14%的人確知建議的每日最高攝取量。有70%受試者確定飲食中的塩主要來自加工食品,但只有四分之一的人經常查看食品標示的塩含量。只有21%的受試者在購買食物時,會受到塩含量標示的影響。這份調查顯示澳洲人對食塩和健康關係的認知為中等程度,但有助降低食塩攝取量的行動跡象很少。為了降低澳洲人食塩攝取量,消費者教育將是一個必要的努力,並且需要政府投資目標性活動,以改進相關的知識和行為。
關鍵字:食塩、鈉、消費者、行為、公共衛生
 

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Nutritional adequacy of four dietary patterns defined by cluster analysis in Japanese women aged 18-20 years
HITOMI OKUBO, SATOSHI SASAKI, KENTARO MURAKAMI, YOSHIKO TAKAHASHI, AND THE FRESHMEN IN DIETETIC COURSE STUDY II GROUP
Information on nutritional adequacy and inadequacy of dietary patterns is useful when making practical dietary recommendations. We examined nutritional inadequacy of dietary patterns among 3756 Japanese female dietetic students aged 18-20 years. Diet was assessed with a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ). Dietary patterns were determined from intakes of 33 food groups summarized from 147 foods assessed with DHQ, by cluster analysis. Nutritional inadequacy for the selected 21 nutrients in each dietary pattern was exam-ined using the reference values given in the Dietary Reference Intakes for the Japanese (DRIs) as the gold stan-dard. Four dietary patterns identified were labeled ‘fish and vegetables’ (n=697), ‘meat and eggs’ (n=1008), ‘rice’ (n=1041), and ‘bread and confectionaries’ (n=1010) patterns. The ‘fish and vegetables’ pattern, character-ized by high intakes of vegetables, potatoes, pulses, fruits, fish, and dairy products, showed significantly the lowest percentage of subjects with inadequate intakes for 15 nutrients, except for the highest prevalence in sodium. In contrast, ‘bread and confectionaries’ pattern, characterized by high intakes of bread, confectionaries, and soft drinks, showed the highest prevalence of inadequate intakes for nine nutrients. The median number of nutrients not meeting the DRIs as a marker of overall nutritional inadequacy was five in ‘fish and vegetables’ pattern. It was significantly lower than nine both in 'meat and eggs' and ‘rice’, and 10 in ‘bread and confectionaries’ patterns (p<0.001). A dietary pattern high in vegetables, fruits, fish, and some others showed better profile of nutritional adequacy except for sodium in young Japanese women.
Key Words: dietary patterns, cluster analysis, dietary reference intakes, nutritional adequacy, Japanese young women
 

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由群集分析訂定之四種飲食型態在日本18-20歲女性之營養適足性
當要建立實用的飲食建議時,飲食型態的營養適足與否的相關資訊是很有用的。作者檢驗日本3756位年齡18-20歲,修習膳療學的女學生,其飲食型態的營養不適當情形。飲食評估是使用自我填寫的個人飲食歷史問卷(DHQ),此問卷做過效度評估。飲食型態是以DHQ所列的147項食物中,歸納出的33組食物群之攝取量,藉由群集分析決定的。以日本的營養素建議攝取量(DRIs)評估飲食型態中選定的21種營養素攝取量是否適當。共計確認四種飲食型態:魚類和蔬菜(n=697)、肉類和蛋類(n=1008)、米類(n=1041)、麵包和糕點類(n=1010)。魚類和蔬菜的飲食型態之特色是高攝取量的蔬菜、馬鈴薯、豆類、水果、魚類和奶製品,其參與者的15種營養素攝取不適當的百分率明顯最低,除了鈉攝取過多的盛行率是最高的。相較之下,麵包和糕點的飲食型態之特色是攝取高量的麵包、糕點類和非酒精性飲料,其參與者的9種營養素攝取不當的盛行率最高。將攝取量不符合DRIs的營養素項目之中位數做為整體營養不適的判斷標準,結果魚類和蔬菜組的中位數是5,顯著低於其他三種飲食型態(p <0.001),因為肉類和蛋類組及米類組的中位數是9,麵包和糕點類組的中位數是10。對日本的年輕女性而言,高攝取量的蔬菜、水果、魚類等的飲食型態,除了鈉以外,有較佳的營養適足性。
關鍵字:飲食型態、群集分析、營養素建議攝取量、營養適足、日本年輕女性
 

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Prospective cohort study evaluating the relationship between salted food intake and gastrointestinal tract cancer mortality in Japan
ATSUHIKO MURATA, YOSHIHISA FUJINO, TRUONG-MINH PHAM, TATSUHIKO KUBO, TETSUYA MIZOUE, NORITAKA TOKUI, SHINYA MATSUDA AND TAKESUMI YOSHIMURA
Purpose: To investigate whether a high salted food intake increases the risk of gastrointestinal tract cancer mor-tality. Methods: We conducted a prospective study of 6830 Japanese inhabitants to evaluate the association be-tween salted food consumption and the risk of gastrointestinal tract cancer mortality. Data were obtained from a prospective cohort study in Japan. Salted food consumption, determined from a baseline questionnaire, was clas-sified into the two categories of ‘low intake’ and ‘high intake’. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Findings: Total of 174 gastrointestinal tract cancer deaths (47 esophagus cancer, 87 stomach cancer, 23 colon cancer and 17 rectal cancer) were observed during 94996 person-years of follow-up, with a mean follow-up period of 8.9 years. After adjustment for age, body mass index, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, history of diabetes mellitus and dietary items, including vegetables, fruit, tea, red meat and processed meat, the HR for stomach cancer in males with high salt intake was 2.05 (95% CI:1.25 - 3.38) whereas that of rectal cancer was 3.58 (95% CI: 1.08 - 11.89). In contrast, no associa-tion was seen in females. Further, no association was seen between higher salted food consumption and esopha-gus and colon cancer in either sex. Conclusions: A significant association was seen between higher salted food consumption and stomach and rectal cancer mortality in men, but not in women. No association was seen be-tween higher consumption and esophagus and colon cancer mortality in either men or women.
Key Words: prospective cohort study, gastrointestinal tract cancer, diet, mortality, salted food
 

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探討日本塩漬食物攝取與胃腸道癌死亡率關係之前瞻性世代研究
目的:探討高塩食物的摄入是否增加胃肠道癌症死亡的風险。方法:以一项前瞻性研究评估6,830位日本居民塩漬食品消费和消化道癌症死亡率风险的关系。數据取自日本一前瞻性世代研究。從基线問卷调查的結果,依塩漬食品的消费量,歸類為低摄入量與高摄入量两組。使用Cox比例风险模型来估计风险比(HR)和95%信赖区间。结果:共計94,996人年的随访中,消化道癌死亡有174例(47例食道癌、胃癌87例、23例结肠癌和直肠癌17例),平均随访8.9年。經過年龄,身体质量指数,体能活动,吸烟,饮酒,糖尿病史和饮食项目,包括蔬菜、水果、茶叶、红肉和加工肉的校正後,高塩摄入量在男性胃癌的风险比為2.05 (95%信赖区间:1.25 - 3.38),對直肠癌为3.58 (95%信赖区间:1.08 - 11.89)。反之在女性卻没有关联。此外,不论男女性,高塩食品消费和食道癌或结肠癌之间都没有相关。结论:較高的塩漬食品消费和男性胃癌及直肠癌的死亡率有显着相关,但在女性則無。而高塩食品消费與男性或女性的食道癌或结肠癌死亡率没有关联。
關鍵字:前瞻性世代研究、胃肠道癌症、飲食、死亡率、塩漬食品
 

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Dietary intake of six minerals in relation to the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
FUMI HIRAYAMA, ANDY H LEE, ASAE OURA, MITSURU MORI, NAOKO HIRAMATSU AND HIROYUKI TANIGUCHI
To investigate the relationship between dietary intake of minerals and the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a case-control study was conducted in central Japan. A total of 278 referred patients (244 men and 34 women) aged 50-75 years with COPD diagnosed within the past four years and 340 community-based controls undertook spirometric measurements of lung function. A structured questionnaire was administered face-to-face to obtain information on demographics and habitual food consumption. Dietary intakes of six major minerals were derived from the Japanese food composition tables. The COPD patients had lower habitual en-ergy-adjusted intakes of calcium, phosphorus and iron than controls, but not sodium. A significant reduction in prevalence of COPD was observed for calcium, with adjusted odds ratio 0.65 (95% confidence interval: 0.37- 0.98) for the highest level versus lowest level of intake. A high iron intake was also inversely associated with the COPD risk. In conclusion, an inverse association was evident between dietary calcium intake and the risk of COPD for Japanese adults.
Key Words: calcium, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, iron, lung function, minerals
 

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六種礦物質攝取量與慢性阻塞性肺疾之風險相關
為探究膳食礦物質攝取量與慢性阻塞性肺病(COPD)風險之相關性,在日本中部進行一病例對照研究。病例組共278位(男性244位,女性34位),年齡50-75歲,均在過去四年內被診斷患有慢性阻塞性肺病。對照組來自相同社區,共340人。所有參與者都經肺功能檢查,並接受面訪以結構式問卷獲得基本人口學資料及慣常的食物攝取。再根據日本食物成分表,量化6種主要礦物質之攝取量。以能量校正後,COPD病例組與對照組相比,有較低的鈣、磷及鐵攝取,而鈉則相反。結果也發現,鈣攝取量最高組與最低組相比,COPD盛行率之勝算比顯著較低(OR=0.65;95% CI: 0.37- 0.98)。鐵的高攝取量與COPD風險亦呈負相關。綜合以上,日本成年人膳食鈣攝取量與慢性阻塞性肺病風險,呈現顯著負相關。
關鍵字:鈣、慢性阻塞性肺病、鐵、肺功能、礦物質
 

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Iodine deficiency status and iodised salt consumption in Malaysia: findings from a national iodine deficiency disorders survey
RUSIDAH SELAMAT, WAN NAZAIMOON WAN MOHAMUD, AHMAD ALI ZAINUDDIN, NOR SYAMLINA CHE ABDUL RAHIM, SUHAILA ABDUL GHAFFAR AND TAHIR ARIS
A nationwide cross-sectional school-based survey was undertaken among children aged 8-10 years old to deter-mine the current iodine deficiency status in the country. Determination of urinary iodine (UI) and palpation of the thyroid gland were carried out among 18,012 and 18,078 children respectively while iodine test of the salt samples was done using Rapid Test Kits and the iodometric method. The results showed that based on WHO/ ICCIDD/UNICEF criteria, the national median UI was 109 g/L [25th, 75th percentile (67, 166)] showing border-line adequacy. The overall national prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) with UI<100 g/L was 48.2% (95% CI: 46.0, 50.4), higher among children residing in rural areas than in urban areas. The highest pre-valence of UI<100 g/L was noted among the aborigines [(81.4% (95% CI: 75.1, 86.4)]. The national total goi-tre rate (grade 1 and grade 2 goitre) was 2.1%. Of 17,888 salt samples brought by the school children, 28.2% (95% CI: 26.4, 30.2) were found to have iodine content. However, the overall proportion of the households in Malaysia using adequately iodised salt as recommended by Malaysian Food Act 1983 of 20-30 ppm was only 6.8% (95% CI: 5.1, 9.0). In conclusion, although a goitre endemic was not present in Malaysia, almost half of the states in Peninsular Malaysia still have large proportion of UI level <100 g/L and warrant immediate action. The findings of this survey suggest that there is a need for review on the current approach of the national IDD prevention and control programme.
Key Words: iodine deficiency, urinary iodine, iodised salt, school children, Malaysia
 

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馬來西亞的碘缺乏與加碘塩攝取:全國性的碘缺乏疾病調查
馬來西亞進行全國性的碘缺乏橫斷式調查,以學校為基礎,對象為8-10歲孩童。測定18,012位孩童尿中碘含量,並有18,078位孩童經甲狀腺觸診。而塩的含碘量檢測,使用便捷試劑測定和碘滴定法。全体學童尿碘的中位數為109g/L,依據WHO/ICCIDD/UNICEF的標準,是位於碘適量的邊緣。整体孩童的碘缺乏疾病(尿碘<100g/L)盛行率為48.2%,其中鄉村的盛行率比市鎮高。原住民的盛行率最高,達81.4%。全國學童的甲狀腺腫(等級一和二)比率為2.1%。學校孩童帶來的17,888件塩樣本中,有28.2%含碘。然而在所有家戶中,使用的塩含碘量符合馬來西亞食物法1983所建議的(20-30ppm)戶數比率只有6.8%。總之,雖然甲狀腺腫未成為馬來西亞的地方性流行病,但馬來半島上將近半數的州,其學童尿碘<100g/L的比例很高,應當立即採取相關行動。本次調查結果建議,有必要檢討目前全國預防甲狀腺腫疾病的措施和控制方案。
關鍵字:碘缺乏、尿碘、加碘塩、學童、馬來西亞
 

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Comparison of anthropometric indices of obesity in predicting subsequent risk of hyperglycemia among Chinese men and women in Mainland China
FEI XU, YOU FA WANG, LINGENG LU, YAQIONG LIANG, ZHIYONG WANG, XIN HONG AND JIEQUAN LI
Background: Obesity is a strong risk factor for hyperglycemia. However, the performance of waist-to-height ra-tio (WHtR), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) in predicting hy-perglycemia was inconclusive; and ethnic differences may exist in the associations. Objective: The objective was to compare WHtR, WC, WHR and BMI in predicting hyperglycemia among Chinese adults and identify optimal cut-off points. Design: A community-based prospective cohort study was conducted during 2004-2007 in Nan-jing China. WHtR, WC, WHR, BMI, fasting capillary blood glucose, covariates and potential confounders were assessed at baseline and third year of follow-up. Results: The overall cumulative incidence of hyperglycemia was 8.6% (8.0% in men, 9.0% in women). Relative risks across quartiles of WHtR, WHR, WC and BMI were 1.00, 1.33, 1.67, 3.40; 1.00, 2.38, 2.53, 3.87; 1.00, 1.29, 1.75, 2.90; and 1.00, 1.45, 1.49, 2.41 in men, and 1.00, 1.24, 1.99, 2.87; 1.00, 1.14, 2.28, 2.66; 1.00, 1.32, 1.80, 3.14; and 1.00, 1.39, 1.50, 2.08 in women, respectively. p for trend was <0.01 for each marker and gender. Adjustment for potential confounders did not change such dose-response relationships materially. ROC analysis indicated that WHtR had the best sum of sensitivity and specificity compared to the other measures .Optimal cut-offs for WHtR, WHR, WC and BMI were 0.51, 0.92, 85 and 24 for men, while 0.55, 0.86, 82 and 25 for women, respectively. Conclusion: WHtR, WHR, WC and BMI were positively associated with subsequent hyperglycemia. WHtR and WC best predicted hyperglycemia among Chinese adults.
Key Words: body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio, hyperglycemia
 

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中国大陆地区成年男女肥胖指数对高血糖症罹患风险的预测
研究背景:肥胖是高血糖症的一个重要危险因素。然而,腰高比(WHtR)、腰臀比(WHR)、腰围(WC)和体质指数(BMI)对高血糖症的预测效用尚未取得一致的研究结论,而且也存在种族差异。研究目的:比较以腰高比、腰臀比、腰围和体质指数预测中国的成人高血糖症的效用,并估计最佳切点值。研究设计:在中国南京于2004-2007年间实施的社区为基础的人群队列研究。腰高比、腰臀比、腰围、体质指数、空腹末梢血糖、相关协变量和混杂因素在基线和终点时分别进行了测量。研究结果:总的高血糖症的累计发生率为8.6%(男性8.0%,女性9.0%)。在男性成人中,腰高比、腰臀比、腰围、体质指数预测高血糖症的相对危险度,按4等份由低到高分别为1.00、1.33、1.67、3.40,1.00、2.38、2.53、3.87,1.00、1.29、1.75、2.90,及1.00、1.45、1.49、2.41;女性成人的相对危险度則为1.00、1.24、1.99、2.87,1.00、1.14、2.28、2.66,1.00、1.32、1.80、3.14,及1.00、1.39、1.50、2.08。针对每一个上述变量和性别,p值都小于0.05。调整混杂因素并未实质改变这种剂量反应关系。ROC曲线分析表明腰高比具有最佳的预测高血糖症的灵敏度和特异度。对男性而言,腰高比、腰臀比、腰围、和体质指数的最佳切点值分别为0.51、0.92、85和24;女性則为0.55、0.86、82和25。结论:腰高比、腰臀比、腰围、体质指数都与高血糖症的发生存在正向的联系。针对中国成人的高血糖症,腰高比和腰围的预测效用最好。
关键词:腰高比、腰臀比、腰围、体质指数、高血糖症
 

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Evaluation of partial body composition using bioelectrical impedance in Japanese children
TOSHIHIDE KUBO, KAORU SUZUKI, YUKARI MIMURA, MAHOKO FURUJO, HIROSHI SHIRAGA, TOMOHISA KANADANI, TERUHISA KOYAMA, JUNYA SHIMIZU, TAKEHIDE KIMURA, KAZUO OGURA AND SHIGEHIRO MORI
To clarify the growth pattern of body composition by body part for the management of childhood obesity, we measured body fat and muscle using BIA (bioelectrical impedance analysis) in 685 Japanese elementary school-children (aged 6-11 years). The growth patterns of percentage body fat (%BF), fat mass (FM), and muscle mass (MM) were examined throughout the whole body and in various body parts. The %BF of the whole body was greater in females than in males, and this difference widened with age. The %BF, FM, and MM in each body part showed similar growth patterns and gender differences to those of the whole body. The mean %BF of the left limbs was higher than that of the right limbs at all age groups. BMI was strongly correlated with %BF in both sexes. In conclusion, the compositions of all body parts change similarly with age, and gender differences are also similar in childhood. The effect of one's dominant arm on body composition is seen at a young age. The accumulation of body composition data according to body part is indispensable for understanding childhood body composition and managing obesity.
Key Words: bioelectrical impedance, partial body composition, fat, muscle, children
 

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以生物電阻法評估日本兒童各部位體組成
為釐清部位體組成在成長期之模式,俾有助於兒童肥胖之管理,本研究以生物電阻法測量685位日本國小學童(6-11歲)之體脂肪與肌肉組織。測量全身及身體不同部位的體脂率、脂肪質量及肌肉質量,並探究它們的成長模式。結果顯示,女生的全身體脂率較男生高,且隨年齡增長,差距越大。同時發現身體不同部位的體脂率、脂肪質量及肌肉質量之成長模式與性別差異和全身類似。在所有年齡層中,左肢的平均體脂率均較右肢高。在男生及女生中,身體質量指數與體脂率都存在很強的相關性。總之,在孩童期,體組成隨年齡的增長及性別間的差異,在所有身體部位都是相似的。慣用的肢體對體組成之效應在幼年就顯現。對於了解兒童時期體組成與監控肥胖狀況,累積身體各部位體組成之資料是必需的。
關鍵字:生物電阻法、部位體組成、脂肪、肌肉、兒童


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Last Updated: December 2010