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1 Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
       Volume 19, 3

         (September 2010)


Abstracts

Contents

Abstract Papers

Original Research Communications

 

Growth and child nutrition

Body mass composition: a predictor of admission outcomes among hospitalized Nigerian under 5 children
FELIX OLUKAYODE AKINBAMI, TAL-HATU KOLAPO HAMZAT, ADEBOLA EMMANUEL ORIMADEGUN, OLUKEMI TONGO, LUKMAN OYEYEMI, OLUBUKOLA OKAFOR AND OLUSEGUN OLUSINA AKINYINKA
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(3):295-300.

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Neonatal hypernatremia and dehydration in infants receiving inadequate breastfeeding
HASSAN BOSKABADI, GHOLAMALI MAAMOURI, MANSOUR EBRAHIMI, MAJID GHAYOUR-MOBARHAN, HABIB ESMAEILY, AMIRHOSSEIN SAHEBKAR AND GORDON AA FERNS
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(3):301-307.

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Effect of extrusion cooking and amylase addition to gruels to increase energy density and nutrient intakes by Vietnamese infants
NGUYEN VAN HOAN, CLAIRE MOUQUET-RIVIER, SABRINA EYMARD-DUVERNAY AND SERGE TRECHE
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(3):308-315.

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Infant and toddlers’ feeding practices and obesity amongst low-income families in Mexico
ARTURO JIMENEZ-CRUZ, MONTSERRAT BACARDI-GASCON, ALEXANDRA PICHARDO-OSUNA, ZALLY MANDUJANO-TRUJILLO AND OCTELINA CASTILLO-RUIZ
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(3):316-323.

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Macro- Micro- and Phyto-nutrients

A study of calcium intake and sources of calcium in adolescent boys and girls from two socioeconomic strata, in Pune, India
NEHA J SANWALKA, ANURADHA V KHADILKAR, M ZULF MUGHAL, MEHMOOD G SAYYAD, VAMAN V KHADILKAR, SHILPA C SHIROLE, UMA P DIVATE AND DHANSHARI R BHANDARI
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(3):324-329.

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Towards the discovery of novel phytochemicals for disease prevention from native Australian plants: an ethnobotanical approach
AARON C TAN, IZABELA KONCZAK, DANIEL M-Y SZE AND IQBAL RAMZAN
 Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(3):330-334.

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Maternal and Women's Nutrition

Vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation and plasma total homocysteine concentrations in pregnant Indian women with low B12 and high folate status
PRACHI KATRE, DATTATRAY BHAT, HIMANGI LUBREE, SUHAS OTIV, SUYOG JOSHI, CHARUDATTA JOGLEKAR, ELAINE RUSH AND CHITTARANJAN YAJNIK
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(3):335-343.

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Amino acid composition of lactating mothers’ milk and confinement diet in rural North China
MING DING, WEI LI, YUMEI ZHANG, XIAOLI WANG, AI ZHAO, XIAOHUI ZHAO, PEIYU WANG AND QING HAI SHENG
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(3):344-349.

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Nutritional Epidemiology and Public Health

Validity and reliability of skinfold measurement in assessing body fatness of Chinese children
DANIEL CHI-SHING YEUNG AND STANLEY SAI-CHUEN HUI
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(3):350-357.

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Behavioral control is an important predictor of soy intake in adults in the USA concerned about diabetes
SUYUN LI, SHIRLEY CAMP, JANANNE FINCK, MARTHA WINTER AND KAREN CHAPMAN-NOVAKOFSKI
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(3):358-364.

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Changes in body mass index among Tongan adults in urban and rural areas between the 1970s and 2000s
NOBUKO MURAYAMA, TAEKO YAMAMOTO, MIDORI ISHIKAWA, TANIELA PALU AND MIYUKI ADACHI
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(3):365-371.

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Breakfast skipping as a risk correlate of overweight and obesity in school-going ethnic Fijian adolescent girls
JONAS J THOMPSON-MCCORMICK, JENNIFER J THOMAS, ASENACA BAINIVUALIKU, A NISHA KHAN AND ANNE E BECKER
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(3):372-382.

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The association of carbohydrate intake, glycemic load, glycemic index, and selected rice foods with breast cancer risk: a case-control study in South Korea
SUNG HA YUN, KIRANG KIM, SEOK JIN NAM, GU KONG AND MI KYUNG KIM
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(3):383-392.

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Comparison of plasma and intake levels of antioxidant nutrients in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and healthy people in Taiwan: a case-control study
YI-CHIN LIN, TZU-CHIN WU, PEI-YING CHEN, LI-YUN HSIEH AND SHU-LAN YEH
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(3):393-401.

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A recycling index for food and health security: urban Taipei
SUSANA TZY-YING HUANG
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(3):402-411.

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Nutritional status, Dietary Intake, and Body Composition

Secular trends in growth and nutritional status of Vietnamese adults in rural Red river delta after 30 years (1976-2006)
NGUYEN CONG KHAN, HA HUY TUE, LE BACH MAI, LE GIA VINH AND HA HUY KHOI
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(3):412-416.

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Contribution of selected wild and cultivated leafy vegetables from South India to lutein and β-carotene intake
JULIE BÉLANGER, MUNGARA BALAKRISHNA, PUTTA LATHA, SHOBA KATUMALLA AND TIMOTHY JOHNS
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(3):417-424.

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 Relationships between body size and percent body fat among Melanesians in Vanuatu
KELSEY NEEDHAM DANCAUSE, MIGUEL VILAR, CHRISTA DEHUFF, MICHELLE WILSON, LAURA E SOLOWAY, CHIM CHAN, J KOJI LUM AND RALPH M GARRUTO
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(3):425-431.

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Intake of dairy products and bone ultrasound measurement in late adolescents: a nationwide crosssectional study in Japan
KAZUHIRO UENISHI AND KAZUTOSHI NAKAMURA
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(3):432-439.

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Nutritional screening in community-dwelling older adults: a systematic literature review
MEGAN B PHILLIPS, AMANDA L FOLEY, ROBERT BARNARD, ELISABETH A ISENRING AND MICHELLE D MILLER
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(3):440-449.

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Book Review and Future Events

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(3):450.

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Body mass composition: a predictor of admission outcomes among hospitalized Nigerian under 5 children
FELIX OLUKAYODE AKINBAMI, TAL-HATU KOLAPO HAMZAT, ADEBOLA EMMANUEL ORIMADEGUN, OLUKEMI TONGO, LUKMAN OYEYEMI, OLUBUKOLA OKAFOR AND OLUSEGUN OLUSINA AKINYINKA
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition remains a public health problem and a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality among children less than 5 years, in spite of global efforts at improving nutrition. OBJECTIVE: To ex-amine the impact of nutritional status, by measured anthropometric indices and derived body composition, on disease outcomes in under-5 children hospitalised in an emergency unit. METHODS: All (n=164) consecutive children aged 12–59 months admitted into the Children Emergency Ward of the University College Hospital, Ibadan over a 3 month period (May to July, 2007) had weight, length/height, mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) and skin fold thicknesses recorded. The BMI, Rohrer index, z-scores for weight-for-height and weight-for-age were calculated. Malnutrition was defined as z scores < –2. Other derived parameters included Arm-Fat-Area (AFA), Arm-Muscle-Area (AMA), Upper-Arm-Muscle-Estimate (UME), and Total-Upper-Arm-Area (TUA). Relative risk was calculated and logistic regression was used to determine which variables independently predict death. RESULTS: There were 153 survivors and 11 deaths giving an overall death rate of 6.7%. The mean age of survivors (26.7 ± 12.5 months) compared with those who died (23.1 ± 12.1 months) were similar (p>0.05). The risk of death was significantly higher among the malnourished compared with the well nourished. The TUA, AMA and UME of those who died were significantly lower than survivors’ (p<0.05). MUAC re-mained an independent predictor of death among other measured and derived anthropometric indices. CON-CLUSIONS: MUAC remains a useful anthropometric measurement for nutritional assessment and an independ-ent predictor of survival among hospitalised under-5 children in Nigeria.
Key Words: anthropometry, body mass, malnutrition, death, children
 

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身體質量組成為奈及利亞5歲以下住院孩童預後的預測因子
背景:儘管全球致力於改善營養,營養不良仍是一個公共衛生課題,並且是5歲以下孩童罹病率及致死率的重要影響因子。目的:藉由測量體位指標及其衍申的體組成,來檢測營養狀態對於醫院急診病房5歲以下孩童疾病預後的影響。方法:在三個月期間(2007年5月-7月),共有164位12-59月齡的孩童進入伊巴丹市大學醫院的兒童急診病房,紀錄每位的體重、身長或身高、上臂中圍及皮脂厚度。然後計算其身體質量指數、羅勒指數、重高指數和年齡標準體重的Z分數。營養不良定義為Z分數小於-2。由測量數據衍申的其它指標,包括臂脂肪面積、臂肌肉面積、上臂肌肉估計值、總上臂面積。最後計算其相對危險性,並且利用邏輯迴歸來確定何種變項是死亡的獨立預測因子。結果:共計有153個存活個案及11個死亡個案,整體死亡率為6.7%。存活個案(26.7±12.5月齡)與死亡個案(23.1±12.1月齡)的平均年齡並無差異(p>0.05)。營養不良孩童死亡的相對危險性高於營養狀況佳的孩童。死亡個案的總上臂面積、臂脂肪面積、上臂肌肉估計指標顯著地低於存活個案(p<0.05)。在所有體位測量及衍申的指標中,上臂中圍是死亡的獨力預測因子。結論:對於營養評估,上臂中圍仍然是一項有用的體位測量,並且對於奈及利亞5歲以下住院治療的孩童,是一個存活與否的獨立預測因子。
關鍵字:體位測量、身體質量、營養不良、死亡、孩童
 

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Neonatal hypernatremia and dehydration in infants receiving inadequate breastfeeding
HASSAN BOSKABADI, GHOLAMALI MAAMOURI, MANSOUR EBRAHIMI, MAJID GHAYOUR-MOBARHAN, HABIB ESMAEILY, AMIRHOSSEIN SAHEBKAR AND GORDON AA FERNS

Introduction: Neonatal hypernatermic dehydration (NHD) is a potentially very serious condition, which has been reported to occur in infants who have breast feeding problems in the first week of the life. This study looked at the incidence, risk factors, clinical symptoms and complications of NHD in healthy breastfed term neonates. Methods: A prospective case-control study was conducted on 53 neonates with serum sodium concentrations of ≥ 150 mmol/L (as the case group) who were recruited between June 2006 and June 2007 from the Ghaem hospi-tal (Mashhad, Iran) to investigate the relationship between NHD and breastfeeding. Fifty-three healthy breastfed full-term neonates (serum sodium <150 mmol/L) from the same hospital were also recruited as the control group. Result: The results showed an average weight loss of 1.6% in the healthy neonates vs. 16.2% in infants with NHD (p<0.001). The frequency of feeds received per day was 10.2 for the healthy neonates vs. 7.6 in the NHD group (p<0.001). The NHD group had mothers who had a higher frequency of breast problems (23 vs. 7, p<0.001). Mean serum sodium concentration was significantly lower in the control group compared with the cases (137.80 vs.160.06 mmol/L, p<0.001). The main presenting features of the infants with NHD were fever, lethargy and jaundice. Conclusion: Breastfeeding problems are associated with the presence of NHD. Therefore, more breast examination during prenatal and postnatal periods and careful neonatal weight watch during the first week of life could decrease the incidence of NHD.
Key Words: hypernatremia, dehydration, neonates, risk factor, breastfeeding
 

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母乳哺餵不足與新生兒高鈉血症和脫水
前言:新生兒高鈉血症脫水(NHD)是一種潛在的嚴重病狀,這個情形曾發生在有母乳哺餵問題的第一週新生兒。這個研究探究以母乳哺餵的健康足月新生兒,其NHD的發生率、危險因子、臨床症狀及併發症。方法:一個前瞻性病例對照研究,從2006年6月至2007年6月共有53名在Ghaem醫院(伊朗Mashhad市)的新生兒,其血清鈉濃度150 mmol/L(病例組)被納入NHD及母乳哺餵之相關性研究。另外53名來自於同一家醫院,有母乳哺餵且健康的足月新生兒(血清鈉<150 mmol/L)則納入當做對照組。結果:研究結果顯示在健康的新生兒及有NHD的嬰兒平均體重分別減輕1.6%及16.2% (p<0.001)。健康的新生兒每天餵食的頻率為10.2次,NHD組為7.6次 (p<0.001)。NHD組的媽媽有較高頻率的母乳問題(23比7,p<0.001)。對照組比起病例組有顯著較低的血清鈉濃度(137.80 比 160.06 mmol/L,p<0.001)。有NHD的嬰兒明顯症狀為發燒、嗜睡及黃疸。結論:母乳哺餵的問題與NHD發生有相關。因此,在孕期前後做較多的胸部檢查,且在出生後第一週關注新生兒體重的變化,可以降低NHD的發生率。
關鍵字:高鈉血症、脫水、新生兒、危險因子、母乳哺餵
 

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Effect of extrusion cooking and amylase addition to gruels to increase energy density and nutrient intakes by Vietnamese infants
NGUYEN VAN HOAN, CLAIRE MOUQUET-RIVIER, SABRINA EYMARD-DUVERNAY AND SERGE TRECHE
Extrusion cooking and amylase addition are two processing methods used for the preparation of high energy dense (ED) gruels of suitable consistency. A quantitative study of energy and nutrient intakes of 67 infants aged 6 to 10 months in rural areas in Vietnam was carried out to compare the effects of these processes used alone or in combination. Twice a day, for a period of four days each, infants successively ate four gruels prepared from different flours based on a blend of rice, sesame and soybean: an instant flour obtained by extrusion cooking (gruel A), a ready-to-cook flour obtained by extrusion cooking plus α-amylase addition (gruel B), a flour pro-duced by milling crude rice, sesame and roasted soybean plus α-amylase addition (gruel C) and without amylase (control gruel D). Gruels A, B and C had a high ED of respectively 94, 122 and 124 kcal/100 g while the control gruel D had a low ED (59 kcal/100 g). The intakes of the four gruels were inversely linked to their ED. However, despite the fact that gruels B and C had similar ED, larger intakes were obtained with gruel B, which was attrib-uted to better acceptability. The average energy intakes of high ED gruels A, B and C, respectively 112, 134 and 117 kcal/meal, were significantly higher than that of gruel D (81 kcal/meal). Of the three processing methods, the one combining extrusion cooking and amylase addition gave the best results in terms of gruel acceptability and energy intake.
Key Words: instant flour, ready-to-cook flour, α-amylase, energy density, energy intake
 
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使用擠壓蒸煮法並附加澱粉酶增加越南嬰兒稀粥熱量密度及營養素攝取
擠壓蒸煮法及附加澱粉酶是兩種運用在製備高熱量密度且具一致性稀粥的方法。為比較使用單一或合併這些加工方法對熱量及營養攝取的效應,召募越南鄉村67名6至10個月的嬰兒,完成一個量性研究。以米、芝麻及黃豆混合,再以四種不同加工方法製備成穀粉。稀粥A:來自擠壓蒸煮法製成的速食穀粉;稀粥B:來自擠壓蒸煮法並附加α-澱粉酶的快煮穀粉;稀粥C:來自碾磨未精緻米、芝麻和烘熟黃豆並附加α-澱粉酶的穀粉;稀粥D:成份與稀粥C同,但未加澱粉酶(控制組)。每位嬰兒一天兩次,接續四天為一期,餵食同一種稀粥。所有嬰兒都完成四種稀粥試驗。稀粥A、B和C有較高的熱量密度,分別為94、122和124 kcal/100 g,控制組稀粥D的熱量密度較低 (59 kcal/100 g)。四種稀粥的攝取量與它們的熱量密度成負相關。儘管稀粥B和C有相同的熱量密度,稀粥B的攝取量較高,這歸因於稀粥B的接受度較高。稀粥A、B和C平均每餐熱量攝取分別為112、134和117 kcal,顯著高於稀粥D(每餐81 kcal)。這三種加工方法之中,合併擠壓蒸煮法並附加澱粉酶,就稀粥接受性和熱量攝取而言,顯示有較好的結果。
關鍵字:速食穀粉、快煮穀粉、α-澱粉酶、熱量密度、熱量攝取

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Infant and toddlers’ feeding practices and obesity amongst low-income families in Mexico
ARTURO JIMENEZ-CRUZ, MONTSERRAT BACARDI-GASCON, ALEXANDRA PICHARDO-OSUNA, ZALLY MANDUJANO-TRUJILLO AND OCTELINA CASTILLO-RUIZ

The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors of childhood obesity among infants and toddlers from low-income families from three cities in México. This is a cross-sectional study of mothers and their infants and toddlers attending a vaccination centre at three primary care clinics in Tijuana, Tuxtla, and Reynosa. Anthro-pometric measurements of the mothers and children were conducted at the clinic and a questionnaire was admin-istered to the mother. Eight-hundred and ten mothers and their 5 to 24 months old infants participated in the study. Average age for the mothers was 24 (21-28) years, and 57% of them were either overweight or obese. The children’s average age was 12.7 (5-24) months. Overall overweight prevalence in this sample was 11% and obe-sity 8%, these increased with age, from 3% for overweight and 6 % for obesity before 6 months, to 13 and 10% between 12 to 24 months respectively. Thirty-five percent of infants were breastfed ≥6 month and 92% were in-troduced to other solid foods before 6 months. Introduction of high-fat content snacks (HFS) and carbonated and non-carbonated sweetened (CSD) drinks starts before 6 months and more than sixty percent of the children be-tween 12 to 24 months of age were eating HFS and CSD sweetened drinks at least once a week. Consumption of snacks and CSD sweetened drinks (≥1 week) was associated with being overweight and obese (crude), OR, 1.82; 95% CI=1.24-2.65 (p=0.002). These results suggest that preventive programs should be initiated during preg-nancy and continued.
Key Words: infant obesity, feeding practices, breastfeeding, weaning, migration
 

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墨西哥低收入家庭中嬰兒與學步幼兒的哺餵與肥胖之研究
本篇研究目的在找出墨西哥三個城市的低收入家庭中,嬰兒與學步幼兒的肥胖危險因子。這是一個橫斷性研究,在三個基層醫療診所(Tijuana、Tuxtla及Reynosa),招募前來疫苗注射中心的母親及其嬰兒與學步幼兒為對象。母親及嬰幼兒於診所進行體位測量,並且訪談母親完成一份問卷。計810位母親及其5-24個月齡的嬰幼兒參與了這個研究。母親的平均年齡為24(21-28)歲,其中有57%為過重或肥胖。孩童的平均年齡為12.7(5-24)個月齡。這些孩童中,整體的過重盛行率為11%,及8%為肥胖,且盛行率隨年齡增加而上昇。月齡小於6個月的過重和肥胖盛行率,分別為3%和6%;幼兒月齡介於12-24個月的過重和肥胖盛行率,則增為13%和10%。其中有35%的嬰幼兒哺餵母乳超過6個月,而有92%的嬰幼兒在6個月齡前就餵食固體食品。孩童月齡6個月前即開始接受高脂肪含量點心及碳酸或非碳酸含糖飲料;有超過60%月齡12-24的幼兒,至少一個星期攝取一次高脂肪含量點心及碳酸或非碳酸飲料。攝取一個星期超過一次點心及碳酸或非碳酸飲料與過重或肥胖相關,粗勝算比為1.82(95% CI= 1.24-2.65; p=0.002)。根據這些結果,建議應該進行預防性方案,始於懷孕期及繼續至哺餵期。
關鍵字:嬰兒肥胖、哺餵方式、母乳哺餵、斷奶、遷徙
 

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A study of calcium intake and sources of calcium in adolescent boys and girls from two socioeconomic strata, in Pune, India
NEHA J SANWALKA, ANURADHA V KHADILKAR, M ZULF MUGHAL, MEHMOOD G SAYYAD, VAMAN V KHADILKAR, SHILPA C SHIROLE, UMA P DIVATE AND DHANSHARI R BHANDARI
Adequate intake of calcium is important for skeletal growth. Low calcium intake during childhood and adoles-cence may lead to decreased bone mass accrual thereby increasing the risk of osteoporotic fractures. Our aim was to study dietary calcium intake and sources of calcium in adolescents from lower and upper economic strata in Pune, India. We hypothesized that children from lower economic strata would have lower intakes of calcium, which would predominantly be derived from non-dairy sources. Two hundred male and female adolescents, from lower and upper economic stratum were studied. Semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to evaluate intakes of calcium, phosphorus, oxalic acid, phytin, energy and protein. The median calcium intake was significantly different in all four groups, with maximum intake in the upper economic strata boys (893 mg, 689-1295) and lowest intake in lower economic strata girls (506 mg, 380-674). The median calcium intake in lower economic strata boys was 767 mg (585-1043) and that in upper economic strata girls was 764 mg (541-959). The main source of calcium was dairy products in upper economic strata adolescents while it was dark green leafy vegetables in lower economic strata adolescents. The median calcium intake was much lower in lower economic strata than in the upper economic strata both in boys and girls. Girls from both groups had less access to dairy products as compared to boys. Measures need to be taken to rectify low calcium intake in lower economic strata adolescents and to address gender inequality in distribution of dairy products in India.
Key Words: calcium, adolescent, sources, FFQ, Indian
 

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印度Pune兩個社經層級的青春期男女生的鈣質攝取量及其來源
適當的鈣攝取量對於骨骼生長是重要的。在兒童及青少年,鈣質攝取量過低將會導致骨質自然累積減少,因此增加了日後骨質疏鬆症的危險性。我們的目的為研究在印度Pune地區,較低及較高經濟層級的青少年,其飲食鈣質攝取量及來源。我們假設,來自較低經濟層級的兒童有較低的鈣質攝取量,而其主要來源為非乳製品。各兩百名青春期男生與女生,來自較低及較高的經濟層級,參與這個研究。使用半定量食物頻率問卷評估鈣質、磷、草酸、植酸鹽、熱量及蛋白質的攝取量。四組的鈣質攝取量中位數有顯著性差異,最高的攝取量為來自較高經濟層級的男孩(893 mg,689-1295),最低的攝取量則來自較低經濟層級的女孩(506 mg,380-674)。較低經濟層級的男孩鈣質攝取量中位數是767 mg (585-1043),較高經濟層級的女孩是764 mg (541-959)。在較高經濟層級的青少年主要的鈣質來源是乳類製品,較低經濟層級的青少年是深綠色蔬菜。低經濟層級的男女青少年比起較高經濟層級,均有較低的鈣質攝取量。女生比男生較難攝取到乳類製品。必須採取對策修正在印度較低經濟層級的青少年低鈣質攝取量的現象,以及重視乳類製品的可獲性在性別上的差異。
關鍵字:鈣質、青少年、來源、食物頻率問卷、印度人

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Towards the discovery of novel phytochemicals for disease prevention from native Australian plants: an ethnobotanical approach
AARON C TAN, IZABELA KONCZAK, DANIEL M-Y SZE AND IQBAL RAMZAN

Investigation into phytochemicals from foods for disease prevention has increased substantially in the last few decades. However, a clear strategy on the selection of the most promising foods for research has been lacking. An ethnobotanical approach represents an effective method which may improve the outcomes of phytochemical research. Research on the health properties of native Australian plants is limited. The vast number of edible plants used as foods and medicines by the Australian Aboriginal population creates opportunities for the discov-ery of novel physiologically active compounds. Within this review, we propose an ethnobotanical approach to accelerate research towards the utilisation of native Australian plants for foods with health-enhancing properties.
Key Words: chronic disease, drug discovery, functional foods, oceanic ancestry group, traditional medicine
 

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由澳洲本土植物中發現具有疾病預防功效的新植物化合物:民俗植物學方法
在過去數十年,從食物找出具有預防疾病功效的植物化合物之探討已大幅增加。但是,卻仍缺乏一個挑選最有希望的食物以進行研究的明確策略。從民俗植物學著手是一個有效的方法,它可以提高植物化合物的研究成果。針對澳洲本土植物的健康特性之研究數量不多。澳洲原住民做為食物及藥物的眾多可食植物中,為發現具生理活性的新化合物創造了機會。在本篇評論中,我們提出民俗植物學方法,以加速進行對利用澳洲本土植物做為健康促進食品的研究。
關鍵字:慢性疾病、藥物發現、功能性食品、大洋洲先民、傳統醫藥

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Vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation and plasma total homocysteine concentrations in pregnant Indian women with low B12 and high folate status
PRACHI KATRE, DATTATRAY BHAT, HIMANGI LUBREE, SUHAS OTIV, SUYOG JOSHI, CHARUDATTA JOGLEKAR, ELAINE RUSH AND CHITTARANJAN YAJNIK

Maternal vitamin B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia predict poor pregnancy outcome, foetal adiposity and insulin resistance. In India amongst practicing clinicians and policy makers there is little appreciation of widespread vitamin B12 deficiency. We investigated 163 (86 rural, 77 urban) pregnant women attending antena-tal clinics in a rural health centre and a referral hospital in the city of Pune, at 17, 28, and 34 weeks gestation for vitamin supplements, and circulating concentrations of vitamin B12, folate, and total homocysteine. At enrolment 80% rural and 65% urban women had low vitamin B12 but only two rural women had low folate concentrations. During pregnancy 85% rural and 95% of urban women received folic acid; 12% rural and 84% urban women also received vitamin B12. In women receiving no supplementation (n=17) plasma vitamin B12 and folate did not change from 17 to 34 weeks gestation, but homocysteine increased (p<0.05). Homocysteine concentrations at 34 weeks gestation in women receiving only folic acid (n=71, mean 8.4 (95% CI 7.8, 9.1) µmol/L) were compara-ble to the unsupplemented group (9.7 (7.3, 12.7), p=0.15), but women who received a total dose of > 1000 µg of vitamin B12 up to 34 weeks (n=42, all with folic acid) had lower concentrations (6.7 (6.0, 7.4), p<0.001). In-creasing dose of vitamin B12 (rs=-0.31, p=0.006) but not folic acid (rs=-0.19, p=0.11) was associated with lower plasma total homocysteine concentration. In vitamin B12 insufficient, folate replete pregnant women, vitamin B12 supplementation is associated with a reduction of plasma total homocysteine concentration in late pregnancy.
Key Words: vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine, pregnancy, Indian
 

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低維生素B12及高葉酸狀況的印度懷孕婦女,補充維生素B12及葉酸與其血漿中同半胱胺酸濃度
母親若有維生素B12缺乏及高同半胱胺血症,被預測會有較差的懷孕結果、胎兒可能肥胖及有胰島素抗性。在印度,極少數的開業醫生及決策者,領悟維生素B12缺乏的廣泛存在。本研究調查在鄉村健康中心的產前診所及印度浦那市的轉診醫院中看診的163位懷孕婦女(86位鄉村,77位都市),分別於孕期的17、28及34週時給予維生素補充劑,並測量血液中的維生素B12、葉酸及同半胱胺酸濃度。在納入研究時,有80%的鄉村婦女及65%的都市婦女有低維生素B12濃度;但只有2位鄉村婦女有低葉酸濃度。在懷孕期間,有85%的鄉村婦女及95%的都市婦女接受葉酸補充;12%鄉村婦女及84%的都市婦女接受維生素B12補充。沒有接受補充劑的17位婦女中,在懷孕17週至34週的血漿維生素B12及葉酸並沒有變化,但血中同半胱胺酸濃度則顯著增加(p<0.05)。只接受葉酸補充的71位婦女,在懷孕第34週時的平均同半胱胺酸濃度(8.4 mol/L),與沒有接受補充劑的懷孕婦女(9.7 mol/L)相近;但是接受總劑量大於1000 g維生素B12的婦女(42位,皆有接受葉酸補充),至孕期第34週時,則有較低的同半胱胺酸濃度(6.7mol/L)。維生素B12劑量增加,與降低血中同半胱胺酸濃度有相關;但葉酸劑量增加則與血中同半胱胺酸濃度無相關。在維生素B12缺乏,但葉酸足夠的婦女,於懷孕後期給予維生素B12補充劑與降低其血漿同半胱胺酸濃度有關連。
關鍵字:維生素B12、葉酸、同半胱胺酸、懷孕、印度人
 

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Amino acid composition of lactating mothers’ milk and confinement diet in rural North China
MING DING, WEI LI, YUMEI ZHANG, XIAOLI WANG, AI ZHAO, XIAOHUI ZHAO, PEIYU WANG AND QING HAI SHENG
This study was designed to investigate the amino acids composition of lactating mothers’ milk and their con-finement diet in a town in Northern China, as well as to assess the relation of amino acids content in human milk and diet. Forty lactating mothers age 19 to 35 years participated in the study. They were 4 to 180 days postpar-tum. A 24-hour dietary recall was done and amino acids content of maternal milk was analyzed. The main find-ings are as follows: (1) The protein content of human milk is 1.58 g/dL and the ratio of EAA to NEAA is about 1:2. The most abundant amino acids in human milk are GLU (16.0%), PRO (10.2%), LEU (8.67%) and the low-est two are MET (1.76%) and TRP (0.91%). (2) The diet contains enough energy and protein, but lacks vitamins A, B and C, indicating that it is a characteristic confinement diet. Grain and eggs are the main source of protein, and soy and fish were consumed less frequently. (3) Amino acids composition in diet and milk are similar; and the correlation of the amino acids patterns between diet and milk is 0.989, demonstrating that the amino acid composition of diet is the foundation of that in human milk. However, almost no relation is found between the amino acids concentration in maternal diet and milk, suggesting that the amino acids content of the diet does not have a direct relation with that of human milk.
Key Words: amino acids, human milk, confinement diet, Chinese mothers, rural north China
 

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中国北方地区乳母饮食与母乳中氨基酸组成的相关性
本研究描述中国北方鄉鎮母乳中氨基酸的组成和含量,乳母的饮食特点,并对二者的相关性进行分析。40名产后4-180天的乳母参加了此研究,她们的年龄为19-35岁。我们对乳母进行了24小时膳食回顾调查,并测量了母乳中蛋白质和氨基酸的含量。主要结果如下:(1)母乳中平均蛋白质含量为1.58 g/dL,奶中必需氨基酸(EAA)和非必需氨基酸(NEAA)之比为1:2。奶中含量最高的氨基酸为GLU(16.04%),PRO(10.18%),LEU(8.67%),含量最低的为MET(1.76%)和TRP(0.91%)。(2)乳母的膳食中,能量和蛋白质的摄入足量,维生素A、维生素B及维生素C的摄入不足,这与北方地区农村“坐月子”的饮食习惯相符。蛋白质的食物来源主要是谷类和蛋类,大豆和鱼的摄入较少。(3)饮食和母乳的氨基酸组成相似,兩者的氨基酸模式相关性高达0.989,说明饮食中的氨基酸组成是母乳中的基础。但是,母乳中大部分的氨基酸含量和饮食摄取的量没有显著相关性。
關鍵字:氨基酸、母乳、产后饮食、中国產婦、中国北方农村
 

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Validity and reliability of skinfold measurement in assessing body fatness of Chinese children
DANIEL CHI-SHING YEUNG AND STANLEY SAI-CHUEN HUI
Background: Validity and reliability of skinfold equations in estimating body fat in Chinese Children has not been documented. Objective: Using Air Displacement Plethysmography (ADP) as a criterion, the validity and re-liability of skinfold (SKF) measurement in predicting percent body fat (%fat) of Chinese children in Hong Kong were evaluated. Design: 230 Chinese children in Hong Kong were recruited to participate in measurements of ADP, body height and weight, waist and arm circumferences, and skinfold (SKF) from different body sites. A sub-sample of 41 participants was asked to take an additional measurement of Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiome-try (DXA). %fat was measured from ADP, DXA, and estimated from Slaughter SKF equations. Results: internal consistency of SKF and ADP measurements were very high (r≥0.988). Significant difference was found between %fatSlaughter and %fatADP (p<0.05). The Slaughter equations slightly underestimate %fat (boys: 1.52%; girls: 1.84%). The slope of the regression line for boys and both the slope and intercept of regression line for prepu-bescent girls were significantly different from the line of identity. Subsequent stepwise regression found the best model for boys includes predictors of height, and 3SKF (triceps, calf, and suprailiac) (R2=0.88, SE=3.70), and that for girls includes height, 2SKF (triceps and calf), and waist circumference (R2=0.71, SE=3.38). The most convenient model for both genders required only triceps and age (boys: R2=0.81, SE=4.67; girls: R2=0.63, SE=3.77). Conclusions: Skinfold measurements provide valid and reliable %fat estimation in Chinese children. However, the application of Slaughter equations in Chinese children is questionable. Alternative skinfold models are proposed.
Key Words: childhood obesity, body composition, pediatric measurement, overweight, growth and develop-ment
 

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以皮褶厚度測量來評估中國兒童體脂肪的信度和效度
背景:以皮褶厚度測量來估計中國兒童體脂肪比例之信度和效度的報告仍然闕如。目的:以空氣置換體積描記法(ADP)為標準,評量以皮褶厚度量度預估香港的中國兒童體脂肪率(%fat)的信度和效度。設計:以有目的的分層抽樣方法招募了香港230位由不同身體質量指數及年齡組成的中國兒童,參與ADP測量及身高、體重、腰與臂圍、和身體不同部位的皮褶厚度量度。其中41位參與者亦接受雙能量X射線掃瞄(DXA)量度脂肪。由ADP、DXA測量及Slaughter皮褶量度公式所得的體脂肪率,做一比較。結果:皮褶量度和ADP的信度均非常高(r ≥ 0.988)。以ADP量度的體脂肪率和以Slaughter公式推算所得出的結果有顯著差異(p<0.05)。Slaughter公式些許低估體脂肪率(男童:1.52%及女童:1.84%)。男童迴歸分析線的斜度及青春期前女童迴歸分析線的斜度與截線點,均顯著地有別於恆等線。接著以逐步迴歸分析發現,預測男童的最佳模型包含身高和三項皮褶厚度總和(三頭肌、小腿、肩胛骨下) (R2=0.88, SE=3.70);女童最佳模型則包含身高、兩項皮褶總和(三頭肌、小腿)及腰圍(R2=0.71, SE=3.38)。亦發現最方便的模型,只需要代入三頭肌皮褶厚度及年齡來計算(男童:R2=0.81, SE=4.67;女童:R2=0.63, SE=3.77)。結論:皮褶厚度測量對中國兒童體脂肪率提供有效及可信的估計。可是以Slaughter公式推算是值得懷疑的,本研究建議了新的皮褶厚度推算公式。
關鍵字:兒童肥胖、體組成、幼兒測量、過重、生長與發育
 

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Behavioral control is an important predictor of soy intake in adults in the USA concerned about diabetes
SUYUN LI, SHIRLEY CAMP, JANANNE FINCK, MARTHA WINTER AND KAREN CHAPMAN-NOVAKOFSKI
The primary objective of this study was to determine the variables associated with intention to consume soy products and identify key variables that could be used as targets in soy nutrition education and consumption promotion. A pre/post-test survey was used during a three session class focused on diabetes that discussed and introduced soy foods. The Theory of Planned Behavior framed the questions and variables examined. Subjective norms and behavioral control were most important in predicting intention to consume soy foods. Specifically, health experts and providers were important subjective norms; accessibility and ability to prepare were key be-havioural control determinants. While most participants tried soy during the program, taste and texture percep-tions did not impact intention to buy soy in adults concerned about diabetes.
Key Words: soy, theory of planned behavior, taste, health, diabetes
 

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行為控制對於關注糖尿病的美國成年人的黃豆食品攝取是重要的預測因子
這個研究主要的目的為評估傾向攝取黃豆製品的相關變項,以及找出可能當做營養教育及促進攝取的標靶之主要變項。在三期的糖尿病課程之前後,分別作測試調查,課程重點放在討論及介紹黃豆食品。依照計畫性行為理論去架構問題及變項。主觀性規範及行為控制是預測攝取黃豆食品意圖最重要的因素。具體地說,健康專家及醫護者是重要的主觀規範;可獲性及製備能力是主要的行為控制因子。雖然大部分的參與者在課程中試吃了黃豆製品,味道及質地感覺並未影響關注糖尿病的成年人購買黃豆食品的意向。
關鍵字:黃豆、計畫性行為理論、味道、健康、糖尿病
 

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Changes in body mass index among Tongan adults in urban and rural areas between the 1970s and 2000s
NOBUKO MURAYAMA, TAEKO YAMAMOTO, MIDORI ISHIKAWA, TANIELA PALU AND MIYUKI ADACHI
The purpose of this study was to determine trends in body physique among Tongan adults, between the late 1970s and the 2000s. Two areas were studied: Kolofo’ou town (as an urban area) and ‘Uiha village (as a rural area). Measurements of body weight and height were taken 4 times for all residents in both areas in 1977/79, 1983, 1990, and 2001. The number of the subjects in 1977/1979, 1983, 1990, 2001 were 130, 138, 102, 71 in the urban area and 92, 89, 90, 66 in the rural area respectively. The mean body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) values of males in the rural area increased significantly, from 28.0 kg/m2 in 1977 to 31.0 kg/m2 in 2001 (p = 0.001); in fe-males, mean BMI values were 30.6 kg/m2 in 1977 and 33.3 kg/m2 in 2001, this change was not statistically sig-nificant. However, the BMI values did not significantly change in males or females in the urban area. The pro-portion of rural males with a BMI ≥30 kg/m2 had increased from 24.5% in 1977 to 55.5% in 2001 (p = 0.012). Although the mean BMI values for males and females were higher in the urban area than in the rural area until 1990, the differences between the two areas were not observed in 2001, due to an increase of BMI in the rural area. Changes of the mean BMI values in the rural and urban areas studied, between the late 1970s and 2000s, were 10% and 4%, respectively.
Key Words: Tonga, body mass index, urban, rural, trend
 

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東加王國城鎮及鄉村的成年人在1970與2000年代間身體質量指數的改變
這個研究的目的為評估東加群島的成年人體格,從1970年代後期至2000年代的改變趨勢。共有兩個地區被研究:Kolofo’ou 鎮(城鎮區域)和 ‘Uiha 村 (鄉村區域)。在1977/79、1983、1990及2001年,所有居民共完成四次體重及身高的測量。1977/1979、1983、1990、2001年研究參與者在城鎮及鄉村區域分別為130、138、102、71名及92、89、90、66名。居住在鄉村區域的男性,其平均身體質量指數 (BMI) 顯著地增加,從1977年的28.0 kg/m2到2001年的31.0 kg/m2 (p=0.001);在女性方面,平均BMI值1977年為30.6 kg/m2,2001年為33.3 kg/m2,這個改變沒有顯著性差異。然而,在城鎮區域,不論男女性,BMI值都沒有顯著改變。鄉村區域的男性,BMI ≥30 kg/m2的比例,從1977年的24.5%增加到2001年佔55.5% (p=0.012)。直到1990年,不論男性或女性,城鎮居民的BMI值都較鄉村居民高;但由於鄉村居民的BMI增高,在2001年已看不到這兩個地區的差異。從1970年代後期至2000年代,在鄉村及城鎮地區,平均BMI值的改變分別是10%及4%。
關鍵字:東加、身體質量指數、城鎮、鄉村、趨勢
 

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Breakfast skipping as a risk correlate of overweight and obesity in school-going ethnic Fijian adolescent girls
JONAS J THOMPSON-MCCORMICK, JENNIFER J THOMAS, ASENACA BAINIVUALIKU, A NISHA KHAN AND ANNE E BECKER
The prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased globally, and population data suggest that it is also in-creasing among ethnic Fijian youth. Among numerous behavioural changes contributing to overweight in youth residing in nations undergoing rapid economic and social change, meal skipping has not been examined as a po-tential risk factor. The study objectives were to assess the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and breakfast skip-ping and examine their cross-sectional association in a community sample of school-going ethnic Fijian adoles-cent girls (n=523). We measured height and weight, and assessed dietary patterns, eating pathology, dimensions of acculturation, and other socio-demographic and cultural data by self-report. We observed a high prevalence of both overweight (41%, including 15% who were obese) and breakfast skipping (68%). In addition, in multivari-able analyses unadjusted for eating pathology, we found that more frequent breakfast skipping was associated with greater odds of overweight (odds ratio (OR)=1.15, confidence interval (CI)=1.06, 1.26, p<0.01) and obesity (OR=1.18, CI=1.05, 1.33, p<0.01). Regression models adjusting for eating pathology attenuated this relation so that it was non-significant, but demonstrated that greater eating pathology was associated with greater odds of both overweight and obesity. Future research is necessary to clarify the relation among breakfast skipping, eating pathology, and overweight in ethnic Fijian girls, and to identify whether breakfast skipping may be a modifiable risk factor for overweight in this population.
Key Words: overweight, obesity, Fiji, breakfast skipping, adolescents
 

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不吃早餐是斐濟在學少女的過重及肥胖的風險相關因子
全球的體重過重及肥胖的盛行率已經增加,人口數據也顯示斐濟族年青人的狀況亦然。在經濟與社會快速變遷的國家中的青少年,對於他們的行為變化中,忽略一餐是否為體重過重的潛在風險因子,尚未被調查。因此,本研究的目的是以斐濟族社區的在學少女(523位)為樣本,調查其體重過重、肥胖及忽略早餐的盛行率,並評估這些變項之間橫斷面的關聯性。測量每位少女的身高與體重,並評量其自述的飲食型態、進食障礙、文化同化程度、其他社會人口學及文化資料。結果發現,體重過重(41%,其中包括15%的肥胖)及不吃早餐(68%)的盛行率頗高。此外,利用多變量分析,未校正進食障礙時,發現較常不吃早餐與較高的過重比率(OR=1.15,CI=1.06-1.26,p<0.01)及肥胖比率(OR=1.18,CI=1.05-1.33,p<0.01)有關。校正進食障礙後的迴歸模式,則相關性減弱,以致變得不顯著。但是這顯示較大的進食障礙與較高的過重及肥胖的勝算比有關。需要未來研究去闡明斐濟族女孩不吃早餐、進食障礙以及體重過重之間的關係,並確認在此族群中,忽略早餐可能是體重過重的一個可修正之危險因子。
關鍵字:體重過重、肥胖、斐濟、不吃早餐、青少年
 

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The association of carbohydrate intake, glycemic load, glycemic index, and selected rice foods with breast cancer risk: a case-control study in South Korea
SUNG HA YUN, KIRANG KIM, SEOK JIN NAM, GU KONG AND MI KYUNG KIM

Despite carbohydrate hypothesis related to breast cancer development, the inter-relationships of carbohydrate measures with risk of breast cancer are unclear. We evaluated the association between the risk of breast cancer and total carbohydrate intake, glycemic load, and glycemic index, and types of rice in a hospital-based case-control study. Cases were 362 women aged 30-65 years old who were histologically confirmed to have breast cancer. Controls visiting the same hospital were matched to cases according to their age (±2 years) and meno-pausal status. Food intake was estimated by a quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) with 121 items. Conditional and unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to obtain the odds ratios (ORs) and corre-sponding 95% confidence intervals. There were no associations between risk of breast cancer and carbohydrate intake and glycemic load. A positive association with white rice (OR=1.19 per 100 g/d increment, 95% confi-dence interval (CI)=1.01-1.40), no association with mixed white rice (OR=0.95 per 100 g/d increment, 95% CI=0.80-1.13), and an inverse association with mixed brown rice (OR=0.76 per 100 g/d increment of mixed brown rice, 95% CI=0.61-0.95) was found. Additional analysis showed a positive association for white rice and an inverse association for mixed brown rice with breast cancer risk among overweight, postmenopausal women. These results do not support an association between breast cancer and diets high in carbohydrate, glycemic index, or glycemic load. However, a higher consumption of mixed brown rice may be associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer, especially in overweight, postmenopausal women.
Key Words: carbohydrate, glycemic load, glycemic index, rice, breast cancer

 

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醣類攝取、升糖負荷、升糖指數及米食與乳癌危險性之相關:一個南韓的病例對照研究
雖然醣類被假設與乳癌的發生有關,但醣類攝取的評量與乳癌危險性的相關仍不清楚。我們在一家醫院進行病例對照研究,評估乳癌危險性與總醣類攝取、升糖負荷、升糖指數、及米的種類的相關性。病例組為362名婦女,年齡30-65歲,都經組織檢驗證實罹患乳癌。對照組婦女在同一家醫院就診,與病例組依年齡(±2歲)和停經狀況配對。飲食攝取以列有121項目的定量式飲食頻率問卷(FFQ)評估。使用條件式及非條件式邏輯迴歸分析,求得勝算比(OR)及95%信賴區間。結果發現,罹患乳癌的危險性與醣類攝取及升糖負荷沒有相關性。但與白米攝取有正相關 (OR=1.19 每增加100 g/天,95% CI=1.01-1.40);與混合白米沒有相關性(OR=0.95 每增加100 g/天,95% CI=0.80-1.13),與混合糙米為負相關(OR=0.76 每增加100 g/天,95% CI=0.61-0.95)。進一步分析顯示,在體重過重的停經後婦女,乳癌危險性與白米攝取有正相關,與混合糙米攝取為負相關。這些結果並不支持乳癌與高醣飲食、升糖指數或升糖負荷的相關性。然而,攝取較多的混合糙米可能與降低乳癌危險性有相關,尤其是在體重過重的停經後婦女。
關鍵字:醣類、升糖負荷、升糖指數、米、乳癌

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Comparison of plasma and intake levels of antioxidant nutrients in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and healthy people in Taiwan: a case-control study
YI-CHIN LIN, TZU-CHIN WU, PEI-YING CHEN, LI-YUN HSIEH AND SHU-LAN YEH

The imbalance of oxidant/antioxidant plays an important role in the development of chronic obstructive pulmo-nary disease (COPD). There is increasing evidence that individuals with high antioxidative nutrient levels in the diet or in blood tend to maintain better lung function. This study was conducted to determine whether COPD pa-tients in Taiwan have lower plasma concentrations of antioxidative nutrients than do healthy people, and whether the dietary habits of COPD patients in Taiwan affect their intake of vitamin C and carotenoids. Thirty-four COPD patients and 43 healthy persons (with normal lung function) aged 50 years or older were recruited. Fast-ing venous blood was collected to measure concentrations of vitamins A, C, and E and carotenoids. Endogenous and H2O2-induced additional DNA damage (markers of oxidative stress) in white blood cells were assayed. Die-tary intakes of vitamin C and carotenoids were assessed by a food-frequency questionnaire. Compare to the healthy controls, COPD patients had significantly lower plasma concentrations of vitamins A, C, and E; α- and β-carotene; and total carotenoids but significantly higher endogenous and H2O2-induced white blood cell DNA damage. Intakes of vitamin C and several carotenoids were lower in the COPD group, and COPD patients con-sumed significantly fewer vegetables and fruits than did the healthy controls. In conclusion, COPD patients in Taiwan have lower levels of antioxidative nutrients in their plasma and diet than do healthy people. Intakes of vitamin C and carotenoids are correlated with dietary habits.
Key Words: COPD, antioxidants, Taiwan, fruit, vegetable
 

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探討台灣慢性阻塞性肺病患者血液及飲食中的抗氧化營養素含量:病例對照研究
氧化物/抗氧化物間的不平衡在慢性阻塞性肺病(COPD)的疾病發展上扮演著重要的角色。越來越多的證據顯示,血液或膳食中抗氧化營養素濃度較高的個體,可能維持有較好的肺功能。本研究的目的是探討台灣COPD病患血液及飲食中的抗氧化營養素含量是否較健康人低,以及COPD患者的飲食習慣是否影響其維生素C及各種類胡蘿蔔素的攝取量。研究中招募了34名COPD病患及43名肺功能正常的健康人(年齡≧50歲)參與試驗。收集受試者血液樣本,分析血漿維生素A、C、E以及類胡蘿蔔素濃度,並且分析白血球的內生性及H2O2誘發的DNA傷害(氧化壓力指標)。受試者維生素C及類胡蘿蔔素之膳食攝取量則以食物頻率問卷來分析。結果顯示,與健康對照組相比,COPD患者血漿中維生素A、C、E、α-和β-胡蘿蔔素及總類胡蘿蔔素的濃度均顯著較低,但白血球內生性及H2O2誘發的DNA傷害則顯著較高。COPD患者維生素C及數種類胡蘿蔔素的攝取量較健康者低,此外COPD患者蔬菜水果攝取量亦顯著較低。總結而言,本研究結果顯示,台灣COPD患者血漿及膳食中抗氧化營養素含量比健康人低,其維生素C及類胡蘿蔔素攝取量與飲食習慣具相關性。
關鍵字:慢性阻塞性肺病、抗氧化物質、台灣、水果、蔬菜
 

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A recycling index for food and health security: urban Taipei
SUSANA TZY-YING HUANG

The modern food system has evolved into one with highly inefficient activities, producing waste at each step of the food pathway from growing to consumption and disposal. The present challenge is to improve recyclability in the food system as a fundamental need for food and health security. This paper develops a methodological ap-proach for a Food Recycling Index (FRI) as a tool to assess recyclability in the food system, to identify opportu-nities to reduce waste production and environmental contamination, and to provide a self-assessment tool for participants in the food system. The urban Taipei framework was used to evaluate resource and nutrient flow within the food consumption and waste management processes of the food system. A stepwise approach for a FRI is described: (1) identification of the major inputs and outputs in the food chain; (2) classification of inputs and outputs into modules (energy, water, nutrients, and contaminants); (3) assignment of semi-quantitative scores for each module and food system process using a matrix; (4) assessment for recycling status and recy-clability potential; (5) conversion of scores into sub-indices; (6) derivation of an aggregate FRI. A FRI of 1.24 was obtained on the basis of data for kitchen waste management in Taipei, a score which encompasses absolute and relative values for a comprehensive interpretation. It is apparent that a FRI could evolve into a broader eco-system concept with health relevance. Community end-users and policy planners can adopt this approach to im-prove food and health security.
Key Words: food system recycling index (FRI), food security, econutrition, food waste, recyclability
 

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糧食與衛生安全攸關之食物回收指數-以台北市為例
現今的食物體系已經逐漸形成一個高度缺乏效率的系統,從生產、消費到廢棄的每個過程中不斷地產生浪費。目前所面臨到的挑戰是改善食物體系內的回收再利用率,這也是糧食與衛生安全的根基。本文為方法學的研究,主要是發展一個食物回收再利用指數(FRI),藉由此指數來評估食物體系內的回收再利用情形,及發掘可以降低廢棄物產生與環境污染的機會,並且提供參與食物體系過程者一個自我評量的方式。利用台北市的架構來評估食物體系的食物消費和廢棄物管理過程中資源與營養素的流動。FRI的分段步驟為1.判定食物鏈中最主要的輸入與產出 2. 將輸入與產出分類並放入模組(能量、水、營養素和汙染物) 3. 為每個模組給一個半定量的分數並使用食物消費和廢棄物管理兩者來訂定群組分數 4. 評估回收狀態和潛在的可回收與再利用率5. 將分數轉換為次級指數 6. 產生一個FRI總分。從台北市廚餘回收之資料,產生的FRI為1.24,該指數之絕對值與相對值,可供詳盡的闡釋。FRI可以推廣至與衛生相關之生態體系概念。家戶消費者和政策計劃者可以使用FRI以增進糧食與衛生安全。
關鍵字: 食物回收再利用指數、糧食安全、生態營養、食物廢棄物、回收再利用
 

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Secular trends in growth and nutritional status of Vietnamese adults in rural Red river delta after 30 years (1976-2006)
NGUYEN CONG KHAN, HA HUY TUE, LE BACH MAI, LE GIA VINH AND HA HUY KHOI

In order to assess secular trends in growth of the Vietnamese population following a period of rapid economic growth, a follow-up study on physical growth and nutritional status of adults was carried out in a rural section of the Red River delta, Vietnam 30 years after the original study. The initial study in 1976 found that average height and weight of Vietnamese adults was similar to data collected by French experts Huard and Bigot in 1938. Hence, no noticeable secular trends were observed in almost 40 years. However, the 2006 follow-up study re-vealed a positive secular trend in growth of adults, aged 16-60 years. The average increased rate in height of males was up to 1.1 cm/decade in the age group 26-40 years and up to 2.7 cm/decade in the age group 16-25 years. Nutritional status, as indicated by body mass index, increased in both sexes and in all age groups between 1976 and 2006.were observed. In 2006, average dietary intake of fat and animal protein was higher than that found in 1976. The percentage of energy from fat in the diet increased from 6% in 1976 to 16% in 2006. This study shows that Vietnam is entering the nutrition transition period.
Key Words: BMI, growth, dietary intakes, adults, Vietnam
 

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越南紅河三角洲農村人民成長及營養狀態的30年長期趨勢 (1976-2006)
為了評估在經濟快速成長期之後,越南人的長期生長趨勢,在紅河三角洲附近農村進行一個體格成長及營養狀況的30年追蹤研究。在1976年研究開始時發現,越南成人的身高、體重與1938年法國專家Huard及Bigot蒐集的資料相似。因此在之前將近40年間,看不到明顯的生長趨勢。然而於2006年的追蹤研究,卻顯示了越南成人(16-60歲)有正成長的長期趨勢。在26-40歲年齡層的男性,平均身高的增加速率,每10年為1.1公分;16-25歲男性則每10年增高2.7公分。在營養狀態的部份,以身體質量指數當指標,發現從1976年到2006年,在兩性及各年齡層的身體質量指數皆增加。在2006年,平均飲食脂肪及動物性蛋白質的攝取量皆高於1976年。由飲食脂肪得到的能量攝取比率,從1976年的6%增加到2006年的16%。這個研究顯示了越南正進入一個營養過渡期。
關鍵字:身體質量指數、成長、飲食攝取、成人、越南
 

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Contribution of selected wild and cultivated leafy vegetables from South India to lutein and β-carotene intake
JULIE BÉLANGER, MUNGARA BALAKRISHNA, PUTTA LATHA, SHOBA KATUMALLA AND TIMOTHY JOHNS

Carotenoids, especially lutein and β-carotene, offer benefits to human health in general and to eye health in particular. However, more data on the contribution of plant foods to carotenoid intake is of importance for developing strategies for promoting eye health in regions where cataract is highly prevalent such as in South India. The most frequently consumed 5 uncultivated and 5 commercially grown South Andhra Pradesh leafy vegetables were selected based on interviews with 100 local women. The lutein and β-carotene contents of fresh and cooked samples were determined using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Lutein values ranged from 53 to 143
mg/g and 58 to 175 mg/g in fresh and cooked samples, respectively. β-carotene contents were found to range from 45 to 119 mg/g in fresh samples and from 40 to 159 mg/g in cooked samples. No significant difference was observed between the carotenoid contents of wild and commercially grown species. According to their reported frequency of consumption, the 10 species considered in this study contribute 40% of the daily recommended intake of β-carotene. This is the first report of lutein content in fresh samples of Celosia argentea L., Rumex vesicarius L., Digera muricata (L.) Mart., and Amaranthus cruentus L. as well as in cooked samples of all species included in this study.
Key Words: lutein, β-carotene, India, wild vegetables, cataract
 

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印度南部野生及栽種的多葉蔬菜對葉黃素及β-胡蘿蔔素攝取的貢獻
類胡蘿蔔素,尤其是葉黃素及β-胡蘿蔔素,對人體健康有益,並特別有助於眼睛健康。然而,在白內障高盛行率的地區,例如印度南部,為了促進眼睛健康而發展的策略中,有關植物性食物對類胡蔔素攝取的貢獻之資料是非常重要的。在印度南安得拉邦(South Andhra Pradesh)地區,透過與100名當地婦女的面談,選出最常攝取的5種野生及5種商業栽種的多葉蔬菜。使用逆相高效液相層析儀定量新鮮及烹煮蔬菜中的葉黃素及β-胡蘿蔔素。在新鮮及烹煮後的樣本之葉黃素含量,範圍分別是53-143 mg/g及58-175 mg/g。β-胡蘿蔔素含量在新鮮樣本是45-119 mg/g,在烹煮樣本是40-159 mg/g。比較野生與商業栽種的品種,胡蘿蔔素含量沒有顯著的差異。依據攝取頻率的報告,本研究選出的這10種蔬菜佔每日β-胡蘿蔔素建議攝取量的40%。本文是第一個報告Celosia argentea L.、Rumex vesicarius L.、Digera muricata (L.) Mart.、和Amaranthus cruentus L.之新鮮樣本的葉黃素含量,也是首篇報告所有10種蔬菜的烹煮樣本之葉黃素含量。
關鍵字:葉黃素、β-胡蘿蔔素、印度、野生蔬菜、白內障
 

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Relationships between body size and percent body fat among Melanesians in Vanuatu
KELSEY NEEDHAM DANCAUSE, MIGUEL VILAR, CHRISTA DEHUFF, MICHELLE WILSON, LAURA E SOLOWAY, CHIM CHAN, J KOJI LUM AND RALPH M GARRUTO

Obesity is a global epidemic, and measures to define it must be appropriate for diverse populations for accurate assessment of worldwide risk. Obesity refers to excess body fatness, but is more commonly defined by body mass index (BMI). Body composition varies among populations: Asians have higher percent body fat (%BF), and Pacific Islanders lower %BF at a given BMI compared to Europeans. Many researchers thus propose higher BMI cut-off points for obesity among Pacific Islanders and lower cut-offs for Asians. Because of the great ge-netic diversity in the Asia-Pacific region, more studies analyzing associations between BMI and %BF among di-verse populations remain necessary. We measured height; weight; tricep, subscapular, and suprailiac skinfolds; waist and hip circumference; and %BF by bioelectrical impedance among 546 adult Melanesians from Vanuatu in the South Pacific. We analyzed relationships among anthropometric measurements and compared them to measurements from other populations in the Asia-Pacific region. BMI was a relatively good predictor of %BF among our sample. Based on regression analyses, the BMI value associated with obesity defined by %BF (>25% for men, >35% for women) at age 40 was 27.9 for men and 27.8 for women. This indicates a need for a more nuanced definition of obesity than provided by the common BMI cut-off value of 30. Rather than using popula-tion-specific cut-offs for Pacific Islanders, we suggest the World Health Organization’s public health action cut-off points (23, 27.5, 32.5, 37.5), which enhance the precision of assessments of population-wide obesity burdens while still allowing for international comparison.
Key Words: obesity, body weights and measures, body mass index (BMI), adiposity, chronic disease
 

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瓦努阿圖的美拉尼西亞族人的體型與體脂肪百分率之關係
肥胖屬於全球流行病,但對於不同的族群,應各有合適的測量定義,以作為全球風險的正確評估。肥胖是指過量的體脂肪,但較常以身體質量指數(BMI)作為其定義標準。各族群間身體組成各異。在相同的BMI下,與歐洲人相比,亞洲族裔有較高的體脂肪比例,而太平洋群島族裔則有較低的體脂肪百分率。許多研究學者因此提議對於太平洋群島族裔,應以較高的BMI切點來定義肥胖,而對於亞洲族裔,則應用較低的BMI切點。由於在亞太地區有較高的遺傳多樣性,因此需要更多對於不同族群的BMI與體脂肪百分率之相關性的研究。測量南太平洋瓦努阿圖的546位美拉尼西亞族人的身高、體重及三頭肌、肩胛骨下、髂骨上方的皮脂厚度,還量度腰圍及臀圍,且利用生物電阻抗法來估量體脂肪百分率。統計分析體位測量指標之間的相關性,並與亞太地區其他族群的資料進行比較。在本研究樣本中,BMI對體脂肪百分率的預測相當良好。以體脂肪百分率(男性高於25%,女性高於35%)定義肥胖,並依據迴歸分析找出相對應的BMI值,結果顯示對40歲者而言,男性為27.9,女性為27.8。這結果指出,需要一個更精細的肥胖定義,而不是通用切點BMI=30。為提高全民肥胖負擔評估之精確度,並考慮到國際間的比較,我們建議採用世界衛生組織的公共衛生行動增加的切點(23、27.5、32.5及37.5),而非使用特定族群的切點來評估太平洋群島族裔。
關鍵字:肥胖、體重與度量、身體質量指數、脂肪過多、慢性疾病
 

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Intake of dairy products and bone ultrasound measurement in late adolescents: a nationwide crosssectional study in Japan
KAZUHIRO UENISHI AND KAZUTOSHI NAKAMURA

Introduction: There is little evidence regarding the effects of dairy product intake on bone mineralization among late adolescents, especially in Asians. The aim of this study was to determine the association between dairy product intake and bone strength as measured by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) in a large Japanese population. Methods: Subjects were 38,719 high school students (14,996 males and 23,723 females) across 33 prefectures in Japan. Bone stiffness of the calcaneus was measured by QUS densitometry (AOS-100, Aloka). Subjects were given a self-administered questionnaire, which included questions on gender, age, height, weight, consumption of dairy products, and levels of physical activity. Intake of milk and yogurt were classified as none, 1-99, 100-199, 200-399, and 400 ml/day. Results: The proportion of subjects who consumed milk 400 ml/day or more was 21% in males and 7.3% in females, while 24% of males and 41.1% of females did not consume milk. After adjusting for physical activity, weight, gender, age, and area of residence, milk intake (R2=2.8%, p<0.001) and yogurt intake (R2=0.1%, p<0.001) were independently associated with the QUS measurement. Similar associa-tions were found in males and females when a gender-stratified analysis was conducted. Conclusion: We found a positive dose-effect relationship between milk intake and bone strength in late adolescents, to whom we recom-mend milk intake of 400 ml/day or more to obtain greater bone mass.
Key Words: adolescent, bone density, calcium, dairy products, quantitative ultrasound measurement
 

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乳製品攝取與青少年晚期骨骼超音波測量:日本全國橫斷性研究
前言:目前很少,特別是對亞洲人,關於乳製品的攝取與青少年晚期骨骼礦化影響的實證資料。本篇研究之目的在於評估日本大型族群乳製品的攝取與定量超音波儀(QUS)測量之骨骼強度間的關係。方法:共有遍及33縣的38,719位高級中學的學生為個案(14,996位男生及23,723位女生)。跟骨硬度以定量超音波儀(AOS-100,Aloka)測量。給予個案一份自評問卷,包含性別、年齡、身高、體重、乳製品攝取及體能活動情形。鮮奶及酸奶的攝取被分類為無攝取、每天攝取1-99、100-199、200-399及≥400 mL。結果:鮮奶每天攝取≥400 mL的比例在男生為21%,女生為7.3%;另外有24%的男生及41.1%的女生無攝取鮮奶。在校正體能活動、體重、性別、年齡及居住區域後,QUS測量值與鮮奶攝取(R2=2.8%,p<0.001)及酸奶攝取(R2=0.1%,p<0.001)分別有相關。將男生與女生按性別分層後,仍有類似的結果。結論:青少年晚期的鮮奶攝取量與骨骼強度之間呈現正向的劑量效應,因此我們建議,此段年齡的青少年每天至少攝取鮮奶400 mL,以獲得較好的骨質。
關鍵字:青少年、骨密度、鈣、乳製品、定量超音波測量
 

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Nutritional screening in community-dwelling older adults: a systematic literature review
MEGAN B PHILLIPS, AMANDA L FOLEY, ROBERT BARNARD, ELISABETH A ISENRING AND MICHELLE D MILLER

Nutrition screening is a process used to quickly identify those who may be at risk of malnutrition so that a full nutrition assessment and appropriate nutrition intervention can be provided. While many nutrition screening tools have been developed, few have been evaluated for use in older adults in the community setting. The aim of this paper is to determine the most appropriate nutrition screening tool/s, in terms of validity and reliability, for identifying malnutrition risk in older adults living in the community. Electronic databases MEDLINE, PUBMED, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library were searched for nutrition screening tools to identify malnutrition or under-nutrition for adults greater than 65 years living in the community. Ten screening tools were found for use in community-dwelling older adults and subjected to validity and/or reliability testing: Mini Nutritional Assess-ment-Short Form (MNA-SF), Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), Nutrition Screening Initiative (NSI), which includes the DETERMINE Checklist and Level I and II Screen, Australian Nutritional Screening Initiative (ANSI), Seniors in the Community: Risk Evaluation for Eating and Nutrition (SCREEN I and SCREEN II), Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire (SNAQ©), Simplified Nutritional Appetite Question-naire (SNAQ), and two unnamed tools. MNA-SF appears to be the most appropriate nutrition screening tool for use in community-dwelling older adults although MUST and SCREEN II also have evidence to support their use. Further research into the acceptability of screening tools focusing on the outcomes of nutrition screening and ap-propriate nutrition intervention are required.
Key Words: malnutrition, under-nutrition, screening tools, validity, reliability
 

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社區老人之營養篩檢:一個系統性文獻回顧
營養篩檢是用來快速確認那些可能有營養不良風險的個體的一個步驟,進而提供完整的營養評估及適當的營養介入。雖然很多營養篩檢工具已經被發展出來,於社區老人的使用卻很少被評估。這篇文章的目的,是由信效度的角度來決定最適當的營養篩檢工具,以確認社區老人的營養不良風險。從電子資料庫MEDLINE、PUBMED、CINAHL及Cochrane Library搜尋,曾使用在65歲以上的社區老人,以確認營養不良或營養不足的營養篩檢工具。有10種篩檢工具被應用在社區老人,並有信效度測試,包括:簡易的營養評估-短版(MNA-SF)、營養不良通用篩檢工具(MUST)、營養篩檢方案(NSI),包含評估清單及第一、二級篩檢、澳洲營養篩檢方案(ANSI)、社區老人:飲食及營養危險性評估(SCREEN I和SCREEN II)、短版營養評估問卷(SNAQ)、簡化營養食慾問卷(SNAQ)及兩種未命名的工具。MNA-SF顯示為最適合使用在社區老人的營養篩檢工具,另外也有證據支持MUST和SCREEN II的使用適合性。更進一步的研究必須探究篩檢工具在營養篩檢結果及適合的營養介入的可接受性。
關鍵字:營養不良、營養不足、篩檢工具、效度、信度
 

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Last Updated: September 2010