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1 Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
       Volume 19, 2

         (May 2010)


Abstracts

Contents

Abstract Papers

Original Research Communications

 

Adolescent Nutrition

Calcium supplementation for 2 years improves bone mineral accretion and lean body mass in Chinese adolescents
JING YIN, QIAN ZHANG, AILING LIU, WEIJING DU, XIAOYAN WANG, XIAOQI HU AND GUANSHENG MA
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(2):152-160.

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Dairy intake and cognitive health in middle-aged South Australians
GEORGINA E CRICHTON, KAREN J MURPHY AND JANET BRYAN
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(2):161-171.

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Correlates of body dissatisfaction among Taiwanese adolescents
LI-JUNG CHEN, KENNETH R FOX, ANNE M HAASE AND PO-WEN KU
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(2):172-179.

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Health ratings for underweight, overweight and obese adolescents: disparities between adolescent’s own report and the parent’s report
CHRISTY PU AND YIING-JENQ CHOU
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(2):180-187.

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Clinical Nutrition Trials or Feeding Studies

Rising methods and leavening agents used in the production of bread do not impact the glycaemic index
MONICA HARDMAN FREDENSBORG, TRACY PERRY, JIM MANN, ALEX CHISHOLM AND MEREDITH ROSE
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(2):188-194.

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Milk fortified with the current adequate intake for vitamin D (5 mg) increases serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D compared to control milk but is not sufficient to prevent a seasonal decline in young women
TIM J GREEN, C MURRAY SKEAFF AND JENNIFER E ROCKELLAsia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(2):195-199.

 

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Effect of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate on protein metabolism in bed-ridden elderly receiving tube feeding
LAN-CHI HSIEH, CHAU-JEN CHOW, WEN-CHOU CHANG, TSUNG-HAN LIU AND CHEN-KANG CHANG
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(2):200-208.

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Growth and child nutrition

Initiating BMI prevalence studies in Vietnamese children: changes in a transitional economy
CHINH VAN DANG, R SUE DAY, BEATRICE SELWYN, YOLANDA MUNOZ MALDONADO, KHAN CONG NGUYEN, TUYEN DANH LE AND MAI BACH LE
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(2):209-216.

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Whole blood citrulline concentrations in newborns with non-syndromic oral clefts – a preliminary report
KAMIL K HOZYASZ, MARIUSZ OLTARZEWSKI AND IWONA LUGOWSKA
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(2):217-222.

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Nutritional status of the Iranian children with physical disability: a cross-sectional study
TIRANG R NEYESTANI, MONIREH DADKHAH-PIRAGHAJ, HOMA HAYDARI, TELMA ZOWGHI, BAHAREH NIKOOYEH, ANAHITA HOUSHYAR-RAD, MOHSEN NEMATY AND MOHSEN MADDAH
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(2):223-230.

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Macro- Micro- and Phyto-nutrients

Is the current iodine content in edible salt appropriate for eliminating iodine deficiency in China
SUMEI LI, YIBING FAN, HAIYING CHEN, XIUWEI LI, JIANQIANG WANG, YUNYOU GU, SHUHUA LI, MING LI, JING WANG AND ZHENHUA SHU
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(2):231-235.

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Maternal and Women's Nutrition

Dietary intakes and behaviours in pregnant women of Li ethnicity: a comparison of mountainous and coastal populations in southern China
FAN ZHANG, CONG YI, GUIHONG FANG AND DONDOREBARWE N J P SAKUTOMBO
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(2):236-242.

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Calcium absorption in Australian osteopenic post-menopausal women: an acute comparative study of fortified soymilk to cows’ milk
A
NNE LISE TANG, KAREN Z WALKER, GISELA WILCOX, BOYD J STRAUSS, JOHN F ASHTON AND LILY STOJANOVSKA

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(2):243-249.

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Nutritional Epidemiology and Public Health

Poor iodine status and knowledge related to iodine on the eve of mandatory iodine fortification in Australia
KAREN E CHARLTON, HEATHER R YEATMAN AND FIONA HOUWELING
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(2):250-255.

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The use of table and cooking salt in a sample of Australian adults
CARLEY A GRIMES, LYNN J RIDDELL AND CARYL A NOWSON
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(2):256-260.

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Cardiovascular risk prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control from 1998 to 2007 in Koreans
KAYOUNG LEE
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(2):261-265.

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Effect of lifestyle on the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among farmers, migrants with Yi ethnicity and the Han population in Sichuan province of China
CHUNXIU WANG, DAYING WEI, BIN WANG, JIANHUA ZHANG, KONGLAI ZHANG, MINGJU MA, LI PAN, TAO YU, FANG XUE AND GUANGLIANG SHAN
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(2):266-273.

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Nutritional status, Dietary Intake, and Body Composition

 Sources and intake of resistant starch in the Chinese diet
LIYONG CHEN, RUIPING LIU, CHENGYONG QIN, YAN MENG, JIE ZHANG, YUN WANG AND GUIFA XU
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(2):274-282.

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Cross-sectional reference values of upper arm anthropometry of the Khasi tribal adolescents of Meghalaya, India
DEBASHIS BASU, DEIMAPHISHISHA SUN, INDRANEEL BANERJEE,Y MOMO SINGH, JENNIFER G KALITA AND VADLAMUDI RAGHAVENDRA RAO
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(2):283-288.

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Obesity screening for young Japanese males and females using skin fold measurements: the classification revisited
MASAHARU KAGAWA, KAZUHIRO UENISHI, MIKI MORI, HAYATO UCHIDA, DEBORAH A KERR, COLIN W BINNS AND ANDREW P HILLS

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(2):289-293.

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Future Events

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(2):294.

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Calcium supplementation for 2 years improves bone mineral accretion and lean body mass in Chinese adolescents
JING YIN, QIAN ZHANG, AILING LIU, WEIJING DU, XIAOYAN WANG, XIAOQI HU AND GUANSHENG MA
Objective: to study the effects of different doses of calcium intake on bone health and body composition in Chi-nese adolescents. Methods: a double-blind randomized controlled trial of calcium carbonate supplementation in 257 healthy adolescents aged 12-15 years old for 24 months. Subjects were randomly assigned to four groups re-ceiving chewable calcium carbonate tablets providing elemental calcium at 63 mg/d, 354 mg/d, 660 mg/d, 966 mg/d, respectively. At the end of intervention, we reclassified 197 adolescents into 3 groups who had received actual doses of elemental calcium of 85 mg/d (Low dose), 230 mg/d (Medium dose) and 500 mg/d (High dose). We measured bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: BMC and BMD of total body and lumbar spine were increased significantly in both males and females after intervention at all doses (p<0.05). In males, after supplementation, total body BMC in the medium and high dose groups (2464 g and 2437 g, respectively) was significantly higher than that in the low dose group (2321 g) after adjusting for age, pubertal development, BMI, physical activity and energy intake; in addition, lean body mass in the medium and high dose groups (49.1 kg and 48.8 kg, respectively) was signifi-cantly higher than that in the low dose group (46.7 kg) (p<0.05). There was no significant effect of calcium sup-plementation on bone mass or body composition in females. Conclusions: calcium supplementation more than 230 mg/d for two years can improve bone mineral accretion and lean body mass in Chinese male adolescents.

Key Words: adolescents, bone mineral accretion, calcium supplementation, body composition, China
 

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钙剂补充兩年改善中国青少年骨量沉积和瘦体重
目的:观察不同剂量钙剂补充对中国青少年骨量和体成分的影响。方法:采用双盲随机对照研究,对257名12-15岁健康青少年补充24个月的碳酸钙咀嚼片。研究对象随机分为4个组,分别补充元素钙每日63 mg、354 mg、660 mg、及966 mg。干预結束后,按照197名完成干预研究者的实际钙补充量分为3组,各组钙补充量为每日85 mg (低钙组)、230 mg (中钙组) 和500 mg (高钙组)。采用双能X线吸收仪测定骨矿物含量(BMC)、骨矿物密度(BMD)和体成分。结果:干预期间各组男女生全身和腰椎BMC和BMD显著增加 (p<0.05)。干预后,在调整年龄、青春发育、BMI、身体活动和能量摄入后,中钙组和高钙组男生的全身骨矿物含量(2464 g和2437 g)显著高于低钙组(2321 g),而且这两组瘦体重(49.1 kg和48.8 kg)也显著高于低钙组(46.7 kg) (p<0.05)。钙补充對女生骨量和体成分没有显著影响。结论:为期两年,每日高于230 mg钙补充能改善中国男性青少年的骨量沉积和瘦体重增长。
關鍵字:青少年、骨量沉积、钙剂补充、体成分、中国
 

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Dairy intake and cognitive health in middle-aged South Australians
GEORGINA E CRICHTON, KAREN J MURPHY AND JANET BRYAN
Background: Consumption of low fat dairy foods may decrease the risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and all cardiovascular risk factors linked with increased probability of cognitive impairment. Aim: To examine associations between dairy intake and self-reported cognitive function and psychological well-being, and to test the novel hypothesis that dairy consumption may benefit cognitive health via its positive effects on cardiome-tabolic health. Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional analyses were undertaken on data from food frequency questionnaires and self-reported health of 432 men and 751 women, aged 39 to 65 years. Health measures in-cluded cardiometabolic health indicators, cognitive and memory functioning, mental health, anxiety, stress, de-pression and self-esteem; assessed by standardised questionnaires. Results: Regression analyses, adjusted for to-tal energy intake and other health confounders, showed that consumption of low fat yogurt was associated with increased quality of memory recall (p=0.029) and greater social functioning (p=0.045) in men. Consumption of low fat cheese was associated with greater social functioning (p=0.021) and decreased stress (p=0.042) in women. Intakes of whole fat dairy products, including ice-cream and cream, were associated with increased de-pression, anxiety, stress, cognitive failures, poorer memory functioning and general health (all p<0.05). There was no association between cardiometabolic health indicators and dairy consumption. Conclusions: Low fat dairy may have beneficial effects on social functioning, stress and memory, while whole fat dairy may be associ-ated with poorer psychological well-being. Dietary intervention trials are needed to establish whether there is a direct effect of dairy consumption on cognitive and psychological health.
Key Words: dairy products, milk, cognition, mental health, metabolic syndrome


 

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澳洲南澳省中年人的乳製品攝取與認知功能健康
背景:攝取低脂乳製品可能會降低肥胖、第二型糖尿病、高血壓以及所有與增加認知功能受損機會相關的心血管危險因子。目的:檢測乳製品的攝取與自述認知功能及心理安適之間的相關,並且檢定新的假說:乳製品的攝取經由它對於心血管代謝健康的正向效應可能會對認知功能有助益。方法:藉由年齡為39至65歲的432位男性與751位女性的飲食頻率問卷及自述健康狀況的資料進行回溯性橫斷分析。健康狀況的測量包括:心血管代謝健康狀況指標、認知及記憶功能、心理健康、焦慮、壓力、沮喪及自尊心等,藉由標準化的問卷來進行評估。結果:調整總熱量的攝取及其他健康干擾因子的迴歸分析結果顯示,在男性方面,攝取低脂優格與提昇記憶回想(p=0.029)以及較佳的社會功能(p=0.045)有關。在女性方面,攝取低脂乳酪與較佳的社會功能(p=0.021)及降低壓力(p=0.042)有相關。全脂乳製品的攝取,包括:冰淇淋以及鮮奶油,與增加沮喪、焦慮、壓力、認知功能受損、較差的記憶功能及整體健康有關(所有的p值皆小於0.05)。但心血管代謝健康狀況指標與乳製品的攝取則無關。結論:雖然全脂乳製品可能與較差的心理安適有關,但是低脂乳製品可能對社會功能、抗壓及記憶力是有助益的。需要飲食介入試驗來探討乳製品的攝取是否對認知功能與心理健康有直接的效應。
關鍵字:乳製品、牛奶、認知功能、心理健康、代謝症候群
 

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Correlates of body dissatisfaction among Taiwanese adolescents
LI-JUNG CHEN, KENNETH R FOX, ANNE M HAASE AND PO-WEN KU Purpose: This study was designed to explore factors associated with body dissatisfaction among Taiwanese ado-lescents. Methods: Participants were randomly selected from five high schools in Taipei County, Taiwan. A total sample of 883 adolescents aged 12-16 was included. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using self-reported weight and height. The Contour Drawing Rating Scale was used to assess body dissatisfaction. Other measure-ments included the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire-Appearance Evaluation (MBSRQ-AE), the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, the Eating Disorder Inventory-Perfectionism, the Socio-cultural Attitudes To-wards Appearance Questionnaire (SATAQ–Internalization and SATAQ–Awareness), and physical activity. Mul-tiple linear regression analyses were performed separately by gender to examine predictors of body dissatisfac-tion. Results: girls reported significantly higher body dissatisfaction, awareness of the socio-cultural ideals (SA-TAQ-Awareness), as well as the internalization of those ideals (SATAQ-Internalization) and lower satisfaction with their physical appearance (MBSRQ-AE). This indicated that girls felt less positive with their overall ap-pearance and had a higher level of recognition and endorsement of the social standards of appearance than boys. Satisfaction with physical appearance (MBSRQ-AE), BMI and internalization of socio-cultural ideals (SATAQ-Internalization) were unique predictors of body dissatisfaction for both genders. Conclusions: this study en-hanced the understanding about body dissatisfaction in Eastern populations. Perceived physical appearance, BMI and internalization of the socio-cultural ideals predicted body dissatisfaction, which are evident in Taiwan, as well as in Western based research. However, these factors only explained a small variance in body dissatisfac-tion for boys, suggesting a need in identifying more factors related to body dissatisfaction among boys.
Key Words: body dissatisfaction, body image, obesity, adolescent, Taiwan
 
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臺灣青少年體型不滿意之相關因素
目的:本研究目的為探討臺灣青少年體型不滿意之相關因子。方法:研究參與者係來自臺灣臺北縣五所國民中學,共計883位學生,年齡介於12-16歲之間。透過自塡體重與身高計算身體質量指數(BMI),並使用外型描繪評分尺度 (The Contour Drawing Rating Scale)以評估體型不滿意程度。其它測量工具尚包含多向度身體意象評價量表-外表評價分量表(The Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire-Appearance Evaluation),Rosenberg自尊量表(The Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale),社會文化外表評價量表-內化及知覺分量表(Socio-cultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire, [SATAQ]–Internalization and SATAQ–Awareness) 以及身體活動測量。以性別分層方式,運用多元線性迴歸分析體型不滿意之相關因子。結果:女生在體型不滿意、社會文化理想外表之知覺及內化程度顯著高於男生,在多向度身體意象之外表評價得分顯著低於男生。該結果表示,相較於男生,女生對於自己的外表持較負面的態度,對於社會理想外表的認同度較高。男女生預測體型不滿意的顯著因子均為外表評價的滿意度、身體質量指數以及社會理想外表的內化程度。結論:本研究增加有關東方人體型不滿意程度的了解。在台灣及西方國家,外表評價的認知,身體質量指數以及社會理想外表的內化程度為預測體型不滿意的相關因子。然而,這些因子所能解釋男生體型不滿意的變異量並不高,有必要再深入探究男生體型不滿意的其他因子。
關鍵字:體型不滿意、身體意象、肥胖、青少年、臺灣
 

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Health ratings for underweight, overweight and obese adolescents: disparities between adolescent’s own report and the parent’s report
CHRISTY PU AND YIING-JENQ CHOU
In many Asian countries, overweight and obese children are sometimes considered healthier than their under-weight or normal weight counterparts. Using Taiwan as an example, this research aims to examine the relation-ship between inappropriate weight and self-rated health (SRH) for adolescents, and inappropriate weight and the parent’s impression of their adolescent’s general health. We analyzed data from 1,879 adolescents (933 boys and 946 girls) from the third year (2003) of a panel survey conducted by the Academia Sinica of Taiwan. Adoles-cents were identified as underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese using body mass index (BMI). Kappa statistic was used to determine agreements between adolescent’s own report and their health as reported by their parent. Logistic regression was used to determine odds of reporting reduced health by adolescents with inappropriate weight. A separate regression was carried out using the parent’s reports for these adolescents. We found that underweight boys were more likely to report reduced health (OR=2.15, p<0.01). Overweight girls had lower odds of reporting reduced health compared with normal weight girls (OR=0.42, p<0.01). Parents were more likely to report reduced health for underweight girls (OR=2.10, p<0.01). For boys, parents were less likely to report reduced health for overweight boys compared with reports for normal weight subjects (OR=0.51, p<0.01). Being underweight is associated with poor perceived health by both the adolescents and their parents. This contrasts with overweight and obesity, which are not. Health educational programs could help in adjusting perceptions concerning the health consequences associated with overweight and obesity.
Key Words: adolescent, thinness, obesity, parent, health
 

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青少年過輕、過重與肥胖之健康評級:自評與父母評估之差異
在許多亞洲國家,肥胖或過重之孩童會比過輕或正常體重之孩童更被認為健康。本文以台灣為例,探討體重與青少年自評,及父母對青少年子女健康評級之關聯。研究樣本為1,879位青少年(933位男生及946位女生)。資料來源為2003年台灣中央研究院社會學研究所之青少年追蹤研究。以身體質量指數(BMI)區分樣本為肥胖、過重、正常或過輕。以kappa統計檢定青少年自評健康層級及父母對青少年健康評級之一致性。使用羅吉斯迴歸(logistic regression)探討青少年及父母對健康評估與不同體重之關聯。研究結果顯示,體重過輕之男生比較會自評健康不佳(OR=2.15, p<0.01),而體重過重女生較正常體重同儕不易自評健康不佳(OR=0.42, p<0.01)。父母對於過輕之女性青少年較易評級為健康不佳(OR=2.10,p<0.01)。但父母對於過重之男生較不會有不佳之健康評估(OR=0.51, p<0.01)。體重過輕,不論青少年本身或父母均認定是較不健康,而過重和肥胖則無此現象。因此應加強父母及青少年對於體重過重及肥胖之健康認知。
關鍵字:青少年、纖瘦、肥胖、父母、健康
 

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Rising methods and leavening agents used in the production of bread do not impact the glycaemic index
MONICA HARDMAN FREDENSBORG, TRACY PERRY, JIM MANN, ALEX CHISHOLM AND MEREDITH ROSE
The aim of this study was to compare the glycaemic index of breads produced using different rising methods and leavening agents. Eleven bread varieties were selected based on method of production, and divided between three groups of ten participants (mean SD age 30.0 10.7 years and BMI 22.9 2.8). Standard glycaemic in-dex testing protocol was implemented after an overnight fast, using glucose as the reference food, and collecting blood samples over a two-hour period. Glycemic index was calculated using the usual method. Additionally, in-cremental area under the curve data were log transformed and glycaemic index was calculated using regression analysis. Mean glycaemic index values of the breads in ascending order were as follows: Swiss Rye™; 60, Long oat; 68, Sourdough+oats; 71, Long rye; 76, Short oat; 77, Short whole meal; 78, Long whole meal; 80, Sour-dough; 82, Short rye; 82, Yeast; 88, and Desem; 92. There were significant differences in mean glycaemic index values between Swiss Rye™ and Yeast (p = 0.010), Swiss Rye™ and Desem (p = 0.007) and Sourdough+oats and Desem (p = 0.043). The rising method and leavening agents used in this study did not impact on the glycae-mic index of the breads tested. Other factors, such as increased bread density, and the addition of whole grains may be required to produce bread with a low glycaemic index.
Key Words: bread, glycaemic index, yeast, flour, fermentation
 

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做麵包的發酵方法及發酵劑對升糖指數並無影響
本篇研究的目的是比較使用不同發酵方法及不同發酵劑所做出的麵包其升糖指數。依照不同生產方法選出11種麵包,並分配給3個試驗組,每組各10人;平均年齡為30.010.7歲,平均BMI為22.9 2.8。執行標準升糖指數的試驗,即隔夜禁食,以葡萄糖為參考食物,蒐集給食後兩個小時內的血液樣本。升糖指數的計算使用的是一般慣用的方法。此外,增加的曲線下面積以對數轉換,而升糖指數使用回歸分析來計算。各式麵包的平均升糖指數,以遞增方式的排序如下:瑞士黑麥™ 60、長燕麥68、酸麵糰加燕麥71、長黑麥76、短燕麥77、短全麥78、長全麥80、酸麵糰82、短黑麥82、酵母88、全麥發酵92。平均升糖指數有顯著差異的麵包如下:瑞士黑麥與酵母(p = 0.010)、瑞士黑麥與全麥發酵(p = 0.007)及酸麵糰加燕麥與全麥發酵(p = 0.043)。本篇研究所使用的發酵方法和發酵劑對於測試用麵包的升糖指數並沒有影響。 其他的因素,如增加麵包的密度、添加全穀類,可能對於要生產低升糖指數的麵包來說是必需的。
關鍵字:麵包、升糖指數、酵母、麵粉、發酵

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Milk fortified with the current adequate intake for vitamin D (5 mg) increases serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D compared to control milk but is not sufficient to prevent a seasonal decline in young women
TIM J GREEN, C MURRAY SKEAFF AND JENNIFER E ROCKELL
Low vitamin D status in women of childbearing age may have implications for health. Vitamin D status of New Zealanders (NZ), based on low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) is suboptimal. Vitamin D status may be improved with supplements and/or fortified foods. Recently an Adequate Intake (AI) for Australia and NZ was set at 5 g/d vitamin D. We aimed to determine the effect of daily consumption of milk powder fortified with 5 g vitamin D3 on serum 25OHD concentration over 12 wks. 73 non-pregnant women (18 - 47 y) living in Dune-din, NZ (46S) were randomised to receive either unfortified (control) or fortified (5 g vitamin D3) milk for 12 wks from January to April. Mean 25OHD was similar between groups at week 0 (control 74 vs 76 nmol/L) and fell significantly in both groups over the 12 weeks (control 53 nmol/L, fortified 65 nmol/L; p < 0.001). After 12 wks the fortified milk group had a serum 25OHD 19% (95% CI; 7, 32%) higher (10 nmol/L) than the control group after adjusting for baseline levels (p < 0.001). Daily consumption of fortified milk providing the current AI of 5 g per day vitamin D3 for 12 weeks resulted in higher 25OHD concentrations than control milk. This dose was not sufficient to prevent the seasonal decline in 25OHD. This study suggests an AI of 5 g may be in-adequate for New Zealanders to allow for seasonal changes in sunlight exposure, and is unlikely sufficient for other populations with low sunlight exposure.
Key Words: 25-hydroxyvitamin D, milk, vitamin D, New Zealand, women
 

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維生素D (5 μg) 強化的牛奶提高了血清25-羥維生素D水平但不足以預防年輕女性維生素D水平的季節性下降
維生素D不足會對育齡婦女的健康產生影響。由分析血清25-羥維生素D (25OHD)得知,紐西蘭人的維生素D營養狀態並不理想。攝取補充劑與/或者食品強化都可以提高維生素D水平。目前澳洲和紐西蘭的維生素D適宜攝入量(AI)訂為每日5mg。本研究檢測,每日食用添加5mg維生素D3的奶粉12周後,對血清25OHD水平的影響。居住在紐西蘭但尼丁(46S)的73名未懷孕婦女(18-47歲),隨機分配食用未強化奶粉(對照組)或者強化奶粉(5mg維生素D3),從1月到4月連續12周。在第0周,兩組婦女的平均血清25OHD值相似(74對照76nmol/L)。12周後,平均血清值均明顯下降(對照組53nmol/L,強化奶粉組65nmol/L,p<0.001)。調整血清25OHD基礎值之後,食用強化奶粉12周的婦女血清25OHD值比對照組高19% (95% CI;7,32%),即10 nmol/L (p<0.001)。與對照組相比,連續12周每天食用添加5mg維生素D3的牛奶可以提高血清25OHD水平。但該劑量不足以預防25OHD的季節性下降。該研究顯示,對於紐西蘭人而言,5mg的適宜攝入量(AI)也許不足以彌補陽光照射的季節性差異。這個攝入量對於其他陽光照射較少地區的族群也很可能是不足的。
關鍵字:25-羥維生素D、牛奶、維生素D、紐西蘭、婦女

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Effect of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate on protein metabolism in bed-ridden elderly receiving tube feeding
LAN-CHI HSIEH, CHAU-JEN CHOW, WEN-CHOU CHANG, TSUNG-HAN LIU AND CHEN-KANG CHANG
Malnutrition and muscle loss are common in bed-ridden elderly nursing home residents. Supplementation of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) has been shown to prevent muscle loss in several catabolic conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of HMB supplementation on body composition and protein me-tabolism in bed-ridden elderly nursing home residents receiving tube feeding. The subjects were randomly as-signed to HMB (n=39, 2 g/d) or control group (n=40). Anthropometry measurements, blood sampling, and 24-hr urine collection were performed on the day before and 14 days after the start of the study. A subgroup of sub-jects (HMB: n=19, control: n=20) continued the study for another 14 days. Changes in body weight and BMI were not significantly different between the groups after 14 or 28 days after controlling for baseline BMI. Blood urea nitrogen significantly decreased in the HMB group, while it remained unchanged in the control group after 14 days. Urinary urea nitrogen excretion significantly decreased in the HMB group, while it showed a trend of increase in the control group after 14 and 28 days, respectively. Changes in blood urea nitrogen and urinary urea nitrogen excretion were significantly different between the groups after controlling for baseline BMI. This study suggested that HMB supplementation for 2-4 weeks could reduce muscle breakdown in bed-ridden elderly nursing home residents receiving tube feeding.
Key Words: muscle wasting, proteolysis, nursing home, malnutrition, urinary urea nitrogen excretion
 

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充羥基甲基丁酸鹽影響管灌臥床老人之蛋白質代謝
營養不良與肌肉流失是護理之家老年臥床住民常見的情況。過去研究顯示,補充β-羥基-β-甲基丁酸鹽(HMB)可以避免數種代謝分解狀態下的肌肉流失。本研究目的為探討補充HMB對接受管灌飲食的護理之家老年臥床住民,身體組成與蛋白質代謝的影響。受試者隨機分為HMB組(39位,每天補充2 g)或控制組(40位),於補充14天前後進行人體測量,並收集血液與24小時尿液樣本;其中部分受試者(HMB組19位,控制組20位)繼續補充14天。控制身體質量指數(BMI)基準值後,14天或28天後體重與BMI改變量,在兩組間並無顯著差異;HMB組血液尿素氮14天後顯著降低,在控制組則無顯著改變;HMB組尿液尿素氮在14與28天後顯著降低,控制組則呈現增加的趨勢。控制BMI基準值後,血液尿素氮與尿液尿素氮的變化量在兩組間有顯著差異。本研究顯示,補充HMB 2至4週,可以減緩接受管灌飲食的護理之家老年臥床住民的肌肉損耗。
關鍵字:肌肉流失、蛋白質分解、護理之家、營養不良、尿液尿素氮排泄
 

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Initiating BMI prevalence studies in Vietnamese children: changes in a transitional economy
CHINH VAN DANG, R SUE DAY, BEATRICE SELWYN, YOLANDA MUNOZ MALDONADO, KHAN CONG NGUYEN, TUYEN DANH LE AND MAI BACH LE
Background: Rapid changes in dietary patterns and lifestyles in Vietnam warrant monitoring trends of weight, height and body mass index (BMI) among children. Objective: To determine the trends of weight, height and BMI classification of Vietnamese children, 6-15 years of age, from 1992 to 2000 with reference to socioeco-nomic, urban and rural differences. Methods: Data in the Vietnam Living Standard Survey (1992-1993) and the General Nutrition Survey (2000) were collected from representative samples of children. Body mass index clas-sification was determined using the International Obesity Task Force criteria to calculate the prevalence and trends in each survey, and in a pooled survey analysis. Results: Statistically significant increases were seen in children’s mean weight, height and BMI between the two surveys: 2.1 kg for weight, 4 cm for height, and 0.28 kg/m2 for BMI. Increases in height were greater in rural than urban areas, and BMI increases were smaller in ru-ral than urban areas. Conclusions: The rising prevalence of children at risk of overweight in urban Vietnam is a concern that must be monitored to guide policy changes. The unchanging prevalence of rural underweight boys requires attention. A national nutrition program to address under- and overweight for children throughout pri-mary school is needed.
Key Words: weight, height, BMI, Vietnamese children, overweight
 

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越南孩童身體質量指數趨勢的研究:經濟變遷下的改變
背景:越南飲食型態與生活型態的快速改變,使得有必要注意越南孩童的體重、身高、身體質量指數的變化趨勢。目的:測定1992-2000年間的越南6-15歲學童的體重、身高及身體質量指數分層趨勢,參照其社經水平及城鄉差異。方法:使用越南居住標準調查(1992-1993)及全面營養調查(2000)的資料,為越南孩童的代表性樣本。身體質量指數的分層是使用國際肥胖特別工作組的準則,計算各資料庫及兩個資料庫匯總分析的孩童肥胖盛行率及趨勢。結果:在兩個調查間,孩童的平均體重、身高、身體質量指數有顯著的增加(各為2.1 kg、4 cm及0.28 kg/m2)。身高增加的程度,鄉村的孩童大於都市的孩童;且身體質量指數的增加程度,鄉村的孩童小於都市孩童。結論:越南都市孩童過重的盛行率上升是個需要關注的問題,並需要經由政策上的改變來監控;而鄉村男孩體重過低的盛行率未改變也值得關注。需要一個整體國家的小學營養計畫來處理孩童的體重過低及過重的問題。
關鍵字:體重、身高、身體質量指數、越南孩童、體重過重
 

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Whole blood citrulline concentrations in newborns with non-syndromic oral clefts – a preliminary report
KAMIL K HOZYASZ, MARIUSZ OLTARZEWSKI AND IWONA LUGOWSKA
The amino acid citrulline is poorly represented in food, except for the Cucurbitaceae family of fruits (watermel-ons, etc.) and sap from birch trees, which have both been used in the treatment of reproductive disorders for cen-turies. Recently, an interesting observation was published regarding citrulline as a promising candidate bio-marker of abnormal embryogenesis. Our study was undertaken to investigate the involvement of newborn citrul-line concentrations as potential risk factors for orofacial clefting. We performed a retrospective analysis of citrul-line concentrations obtained from the results of a newborn screening program. The study group consists of 52 children with isolated cleft lip with or without cleft palate. One hundred and seven healthy children without con-genital anomalies serve as controls. Whole blood citrulline levels were measured using tandem mass spectrome-try. Two cut-off points of citrulline concentrations were accepted and three groups of participants were analysed: those with (1) low concentrations (<8 μmol/L), (2) medium concentrations (8 - 16 μmol/L), and (3) high concen-trations (>16 μmol/L). Low citrulline levels were significantly more frequent in patients with clefts than in chil-dren without congenital anomalies. In the control group, a high level of citrulline was observed nearly two times more often than in affected children (p=0.03). The presented findings, confirming a possible association between newborn citrulline status and the risk of an orofacial cleft, call for further studies in this area and consideration of increased consumption of foods rich in citrulline (or supplements) by women of childbearing age.
Key Words: cleft palate, citrulline, neonate, metabolomics, tandem mass spectrometry
 

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非症候型唇顎裂的新生兒之全血瓜胺酸濃度─初步報告
瓜胺酸是食物中少量存在的胺基酸,只有葫蘆科的水果(例如西瓜等)以及樺樹的樹液除外,而這些都已被用來治療生殖系統失調數個世紀了。最近發表了一項關於瓜胺酸可能做為胚胎發育異常的生物標記的觀察,受到注意。我們的研究是調查新生兒的瓜胺酸濃度是否為顏面唇顎裂的潛在風險因子。由一項新生兒篩檢計劃中取得瓜胺酸濃度來進行回溯性分析。研究族群中包括52位有單純性唇裂伴隨有或無顎裂的小孩,107位無先天性異常的健康小孩作為對照組。全血瓜胺酸濃度是利用串聯式質譜儀進行測量。以瓜胺酸濃度的兩個切點,分成下列三個組別進行分析:(1)低濃度(小於8 μmol/L) (2)中等濃度(8–16 μmol/L) (3)高濃度(大於16 μmol/L)。低瓜胺酸濃度在先天性唇顎裂的小孩,比無異常的小孩更常見。對照組小孩具有高瓜胺酸濃度的比例為病例組的兩倍。本文研究結果,證實新生兒瓜胺酸濃度的狀態與先天性唇顎裂的危險性之間的可能關聯。呼籲需要此領域的進一步研究以及育齡婦女增加富含瓜胺酸的食物(或補充劑)攝取。
關鍵字:唇顎裂、瓜胺酸、新生兒、代謝組學、串聯式質譜儀
 

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Nutritional status of the Iranian children with physical disability: a cross-sectional study
TIRANG R NEYESTANI, MONIREH DADKHAH-PIRAGHAJ, HOMA HAYDARI, TELMA ZOWGHI, BAHAREH NIKOOYEH, ANAHITA HOUSHYAR-RAD, MOHSEN NEMATY AND MOHSEN MADDAH
Background: Malnutrition can potentially prone a disabled child to further morbidities thus imposing further suf-fering to the affected child and his/her family. This is the first report on the nutritional status of physically dis-abled children from Iran. Methods: A total of 290 physically disabled children aged 6-12 yeas old, of both sexes, and from all specialized schools in Tehran, Meshed and Rasht were enrolled in a descriptive cross-sectional study. Dietary assessment was performed for disabled children using 24hr and food-frequency questionnaires. Weight and height were assessed and body mass index (BMI) was calculated for all subjects. Results: In disabled children, while the mean energy intake was more than 90% of the amount required, mean calcium and iron in-takes were 75.8% and 58.7% of the corresponding required amounts. Despite absence of significant difference in energy and fat intake, the intakes of protein, calcium and riboflavin were significantly lower in girls than in boys. Z score of weight showed that over 40% of disabled girls and boys were underweight. Comparison with anthro-pometric data from other studies showed that low weight was more prevalent in disabled than in non-disabled children (p<0.001). Moreover, both disabled boys and girls had significantly shorter statures than their non-disabled counterparts. Conclusions: Malnutrition (low weight and stunting) is quite prevalent among Iranian children with motor disabilities and it is more prevalent in girls than in boys. It seems that poor food composition is a more important contributing factor than total low calorie intake. These data warrants further studies.
Key Words: nutritional assessment, disabled child, anthropometry, malnutrition, diet
 

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伊朗肢體障礙兒童的營養評估:橫斷性研究
背景:營養不良可能使肢障兒童更易於患病,因此對孩童本身與其家人更造成痛苦。這是第一篇有關於伊朗肢體障礙兒童之營養狀況的報告。方法:共有290名6-12歲的男生與女生,來自於德黑蘭、麥什得、雷什特的所有特殊學校的肢障兒童,參與這個描述性的橫斷性研究。飲食的評估是使用24小時飲食回憶及飲食頻率問卷。對所有對象評量其身高及體重,並計算出身體質量指數。結果:這些肢障兒童,雖然攝取的平均能量大於90%的需要量,然而鈣及鐵的攝取只符合需要量的75.8%和58.7%。儘管能量及脂肪攝取在男女生之間沒有顯著性差異,但蛋白質、鈣及核黃素的攝取,則是女生顯著低於男生。體重的Z分數顯示,超過40%的男生和女生是體重過輕的。和其他研究的體位測量資料比較,顯示肢體障礙兒童其低體重的情形,比起無障礙兒童更普遍(p<0.001)。此外,有肢體障礙的男生及女生比起無障礙同儕,其身高顯著較矮。結論:營養不足(低體重及矮小)在伊朗肢體障礙兒童是相當普遍的,並且女生比男生更嚴重。造成這個情形,比起低能量攝取,不佳的飲食組成似乎是個更重要的因子。這個數據顯示有需要更進一步的研究。
關鍵字:營養評估、肢體障礙兒童、體位測量、營養不足、飲食
 

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Is the current iodine content in edible salt appropriate for eliminating iodine deficiency in China
SUMEI LI, YIBING FAN, HAIYING CHEN, XIUWEI LI, JIANQIANG WANG, YUNYOU GU, SHUHUA LI, MING LI, JING WANG AND ZHENHUA SHU
Objective: This study was designed to measure the urinary iodine excretion of volunteers who daily consumed iodized salt and to evaluate whether the current iodine content in salt is appropriate. A field trial study was then conducted to determine how the salt iodization content should be adjusted, either to prevent iodine deficiency or to avoid excess consumption. Methods: A total of 1,099 volunteers from 399 households from urban and rural regions were selected. The levels of salt iodine and urinary iodine were measured prior to the field trial. All the households were randomly divided into four groups according to different salt iodine concentrations: group A, 62 mg/kg; group B, 152 mg/kg, group C, 242 mg/kg; and group D, 342 mg/kg. The urinary iodine levels of households were determined over five consecutive days, starting on the 27th day after the intervention. Results: Before the intervention, the median urinary iodine excretions for urban and rural residents are 294 μg/L and 509 μg/L, respectively. By contrast, urinary iodine excretion in all groups significantly declined after the intervention. The median excretions of urinary iodine on the 28th day after the intervention for all groups were 97.2 μg/L, 199 μg/L, 249 μg/L and 331 μg/L for urban residents, and 101 μg/L, 193 μg/L, 246 μg/L and 308 μg/L for their rural counterparts, respectively. Conclusions: The trial exhibits a tendency of slightly excessive iodine intake among the households under the currently recommended standard.
Key Words: iodine deficiency disorder (IDD), universal salt iodization (USI), salt iodization, urinary iodine, field trial
 

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中国消除碘缺乏病现行食用盐加碘量是否适宜?
目的:本文采用现场干预实验设计,研究食用不同浓度碘盐的志愿者的尿碘水平,评价目前的食盐加碘量是否适宜,以及如何调整加碘量以达到既控制碘缺乏病又避免碘过量。方法:399户城市和农村志愿者家庭,共1,099人参加了该现场实验。现场实验前检测食盐含碘量及参加者的尿碘含量。将参加家户随机分成四个组,分别提供含碘量为62 mg/kg、152 mg/kg、242 mg/kg及342 mg/kg的碘盐。干预后第27天开始,连续5天采集所有参加者尿样,检测尿碘含量。结果:干预前,城市组和农村组居民尿碘中位数分别为294 μg/L與509 μg/L;干预后,各組参加者的尿碘均显著下降。干预后第28天,城市4个组的尿碘中位数分别为97.2 g/L、199 g/L、249 g/L與331 g/L;农村4组的尿碘中位数分别为101 g/L、193 g/L、246 g/L與308 g/L。结论:本研究显示按照目前的食盐加碘量,居民碘摄入量呈轻度偏高趋势。
关键词:碘缺乏病、普遍食用盐碘化、碘盐、尿碘、现场试验
 

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Dietary intakes and behaviours in pregnant women of Li ethnicity: a comparison of mountainous and coastal populations in southern China
FAN ZHANG, CONG YI, GUIHONG FANG AND DONDOREBARWE N J P SAKUTOMBO
The aim of our study was to describe and compare nutritional status and food related behaviours in rural preg-nant women of Li ethnicity as they had been divided into mountainous and costal groups by residential area. One hundred and ninety-six randomly selected healthy rural pregnant women of Li ethnicity for the mountainous group (MG), and eighty-two for the coastal group (CG) were recruited. Data were collected via demographic questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, food related behaviour questionnaires, five day dietary diaries and plasma folate tests. The mean (SD) age, years of education, and height of all participants were respectively 25.7 (3.99) years, 7.57 (2.45) years and 155 (5.04) cm, without significant group differences (p>0.05). Significant dif-ferences were shown in dietary intakes of protein, fat, carbohydrate, dietary fibre, thiamine, vitamin C, folate, potassium, sodium and magnesium between MG and CG (p<0.05). The prevalence of plasma folate deficiency differed significantly between groups (3.08% in MG vs 37.8% in CG, p<0.001). High prevalence of active or passive smoking (65.1% in MG vs 68.4% in CG), alcohol consumption (13.8% in MG vs 2.6% in CG), and betel quid chewing (19.6% in MG vs 53.9% in CG) were found in all participants. Differences in alcohol consumption and betel quid chewing rates between groups were also significant (p<0.05). In general, coastal Li pregnant women have a poorer plane of nutrition than their mountainous counterparts. Therefore, healthy diet and lifestyle education are urgently required and should be emphasised during routine prenatal care.
Key Words: food intake, dietary habits, behaviour, pregnant women, southern China
 

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中國南方黎族孕妇的膳食摄入和饮食行为:山區和沿海住民的比較
本课题研究了黎族农村孕妇的营养状况和饮食相关行为。为着重研究其居住地区间的差异,随机抽取278名健康黎族农村孕妇为调查对象,其中196名来自山区(MG),82名来自沿海(CG)。对调查结果进行了描述性研究和组间对比分析。调查内容包括收集人口学资料、进行人体测量、饮食相关行为问卷调查、5日膳食摄入記錄和血清叶酸水平测定。全体调查对象的平均年龄为25.7 (3.99)岁,平均受教育年限为7.57 (2.45)年,平均身高为155 (5.04)厘米,两组间差异无统计学意义(p>0.05)。但是山区组和沿海组的蛋白质、脂肪、碳水化合物、膳食纤维、维生素B1、维生素C、叶酸、钾、钠和镁的膳食摄入量差异有统计学意义(p<0.05)。山区组的血清叶酸缺乏率为3.08%,而沿海组为37.8%,两组间有顯著差异(p<0.001)。两组调查对象中,不良饮食相关行为发生率均高,山区组的主动或被动吸烟率为65.1%,沿海组为68.4%;山区组的饮酒率为13.8%,沿海组为2.6%,两组间差异有统计学意义(p<0.05);19.6%的山区组调查对象有嚼槟榔习惯,而53.9% 的沿海组调查对象有此习惯,两组间差异有统计学意义(p<0.05)。总之,本研究发现居住在沿海地区的黎族农村孕妇总体营养状况较山区孕妇差。建议加强黎族农村孕妇的孕期保健工作,应对其开展有关合理膳食、健康生活方式等内容的宣教活动。
關鍵字:食物攝取、膳食習慣、行为、孕妇、中國南方
 

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Calcium absorption in Australian osteopenic post-menopausal women: an acute comparative study of fortified soymilk to cows’ milk
A
NNE LISE TANG, KAREN Z WALKER, GISELA WILCOX, BOYD J STRAUSS, JOHN F ASHTON AND LILY STOJANOVSKA
Calcium loss after menopause increases the risk of osteoporosis in aging women. Soymilk is often consumed to reduce menopausal symptoms, although in its native form, it contains significantly less calcium than cow’s milk. Moreover, when calcium is added as a fortificant, it may not be absorbed efficiently. This study compares cal-cium absorption from soymilk fortified with a proprietary phosphate of calcium versus absorption from cow’s milk. Preliminary studies compared methods for labelling the calcium fortificant either before or after its addi-tion to soymilk. It was established that fortificant labelled after it was added to soymilk had a tracer distribution pattern very similar to that shown by fortificant labelled before adding to soymilk, provided a heat treatment (90˚C for 30 min) was applied. This method was therefore used for further bioavailability studies. Calcium ab-sorption from fortified soy milk compared to cow’s milk was examined using a randomised single-blind acute cross-over design study in 12 osteopenic post-menopausal women aged (mean SD) 56.75.3 years, with a body mass index of 26.55.6 kg/m2. Participants consumed 20 mL of test milk labelled after addition of fortifi-cant with 185 kBq of 45Ca in 44 mg of calcium carrier, allowing the determination of the hourly fractional cal-cium absorption rate (α) using a single isotope radiocalcium test. The mean hourly fractional calcium absorption from fortified soymilk was found to be comparable to that of cows’ milk: α = 0.650.19 and α =0.660.22, p>0.05, respectively.
Key Words: calcium, soymilk, osteopenia, labelling, bioavailability
 

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澳洲骨質減少的停經婦女之鈣吸收: 比較強化豆漿與牛奶的極短期試驗
停經後的鈣流失,增加老年女性罹患骨鬆的危險。雖然比起牛奶含有較少的鈣,食用豆漿通常被用來減緩更年期症狀。此外,當在豆漿內添加鈣,也許不會被有效率的吸收。本篇研究比較豆漿中添加的鈣(以專利磷酸鈣形式)與牛奶中鈣的吸收率。初步的研究先比較鈣的標記方法(加入豆漿前與加入豆漿後)。初步確定,磷酸鈣在加入豆漿前就先標記鈣的方法,與磷酸鈣加入豆漿之後才標記鈣,再經90˚C加熱30分鐘的方法,有非常相似的追蹤劑分布型態。因此後一方法就被用於之後的生物利用率研究中。強化豆漿與牛奶的鈣吸收比較,是利用一個隨機、單盲的極短期交叉實驗設計,對象為12位骨質減少的停經後婦女,平均年齡為56.7 5.3歲,身體質量指數平均為26.5 5.6 kg/m2。參與者攝取20 mL標記過的牛奶或強化鈣豆漿(44 mg的鈣載體內含有185 kBq的45Ca),使用單一同位素放射性鈣以測定每小時的鈣吸收分率(α)。鈣強化豆漿其平均每小時的鈣吸收分率與牛奶的相似:分別為α = 0.65 0.19與α =0.66 0.22,p>0.05。
關鍵字:鈣、豆漿、骨質减少、標記、生物利用率

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Poor iodine status and knowledge related to iodine on the eve of mandatory iodine fortification in Australia
KAREN E CHARLTON, HEATHER R YEATMAN AND FIONA HOUWELING

Background: Mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt is proposed to address the re-emergence of iodine deficiency in Australia and New Zealand. The impacts of fortification require baseline data of iodine status among vulnerable sectors of the population. Objective: To assess the iodine status of healthy women and to in-vestigate consumer understanding and attitudes related to the proposed mandatory iodine fortification pro-gramme. Design: Cross-sectional sample of 78 non-pregnant women aged 20-55 y was conveniently sampled in Wollongong, NSW. A single 24-hr urine sample was collected for urinary iodine concentration (UIC). A self-administered questionnaire assessed consumer understanding, perceptions and attitudes related to iodine fortifi-cation. Outcomes: Median UIC = 56 g/L (IQR = 41-68), indicating mild iodine deficiency. Knowledge about iodine was poor with less than half associating low iodine status with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Health edu-cation and supplementation, particularly at the medical practitioner interface, was considered the best strategy for improving low iodine levels. Conclusions: The iodine status of women in one region of New South Wales was low. These data add support to the need for a national approach to address iodine intake which includes an accompanying consumer education campaign.
Key Words: iodine, salt, fortification, consumer perceptions, women
 

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澳洲強制加碘政策前不良的碘營養狀況及碘相關知識
背景:在澳洲及紐西蘭,建議在麵包中強制添加碘鹽,以解決重新浮現的碘缺乏情況。欲瞭解強化政策的影響,首先需要那些易缺乏族群的碘狀況之基本資料。目的:評估健康婦女的碘營養狀況以及調查消費者對強制加碘計畫的認知及態度。研究設計:在新南威爾士州的臥龍岡市,藉由便利性取樣,共取得78位20-55歲的非懷孕婦女為橫斷性的樣本。搜集ㄧ次24小時尿液樣本以檢測尿液中碘的濃度。利用自填式問卷來評估消費者對加碘強化的認知、觀念及態度。結果:尿液中碘濃度的中位數為56 g/L (四分位數間距為41-68),表示有輕微的碘缺乏。少於一半的人明瞭碘營養缺乏與不良懷孕有關,顯示對碘的知識不足。健康教育及補充碘,特別是經由醫療工作者的介入,被認為是改善低碘濃度的最佳策略。結論:新南威爾士州的一個地區,婦女的碘營養狀況是不良的。這些資料更佳支持需要全國性的政策,以解決碘的攝取問題,這其中也包括消費者教育活動。
關鍵字:碘、鹽、強化、消費觀念、婦女
 

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The use of table and cooking salt in a sample of Australian adults
CARLEY A GRIMES, LYNN J RIDDELL AND CARYL A NOWSON
Background: Dietary sodium, the major source being salt, is associated with hypertension. Australian adults con-sume more than the recommended amount of salt and approximately 15% of dietary sodium comes from salt added at the table and during cooking. Objective: To determine the frequency of and the demographic character-istics associated with discretionary salt use. Design: A cross sectional survey conducted in shopping centres within Metropolitan Melbourne. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing discretionary salt use and atti-tudes to salt intake. Outcomes: Four hundred and seventy four surveys were collected (65% female, 77% Cauca-sian, 64% holding a university qualification). Eighty nine percent of respondents were classified as salt users and 11% as non-salt users. Of the salt users 52% reported that they always or sometimes add salt during cooking and at the table. Those of Asian descent and younger respondents aged 18-24 years were more likely to be salt users (χ2=12.3, df=2, p<0.001; χ2=19.2, df=5, p<0.01). Conclusion: Discretionary salt use remains high. To success-fully reduce population dietary salt intake public health campaigns are urgently required and need to include consumer advice to reduce discretionary salt use, whilst reducing the salt added to processed foods. Such cam-paigns should include younger age groups and should be appropriate for all ethnic backgrounds to raise the awareness of the risks of a high salt diet on health.
Key Words: sodium, dietary, table salt, Australia, public health
 

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澳洲成人對餐桌用鹽與烹調用鹽的使用
背景:飲食中的鈉主要來源為食鹽,而其攝取被認為與高血壓有關。澳洲成人鹽的攝取量高於建議量,而且約15%的飲食中鈉是來自於用餐及烹調時添加的食鹽。目的:調查自主性用鹽的頻率及相關的人口學特性。研究設計:在墨爾本市區購物中心進行橫斷性調查。利用問卷評估參與者對食鹽的使用以及對鹽攝取的態度。結果:此調查共有474位參與者(65%為女性,高加索白人佔77%,有大學學歷者佔64%),其中89%的參與者被歸類為鹽使用者,11%為非鹽使用者。鹽使用者當中有52%自述在烹調時及用餐時總是或有時候會添加鹽。亞洲裔或年齡為18至24歲者較有可能為鹽使用者。結論:自主性用鹽者的比例仍是高的。為了有效降低國民食鹽的攝取,相關的公共衛生活動是迫切需要的,包括建議消費者減少自主性用鹽,同時減低加工食品中鹽的添加。這些活動應涵蓋較年輕的族群及應適合所有種族背景者,以提升對於高鹽飲食危害健康的風險之體認。
關鍵字:鈉、飲食、食鹽、澳洲、公共衛生
 

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Cardiovascular risk prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control from 1998 to 2007 in Koreans
KAYOUNG LEE
This study estimated prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rates of cardiovascular risk (CV) defined as hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and diabetes from 1998 to 2007 among Koreans. Data using self-report or screening examination were obtained from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) conducted in 1998, 2001, 2005, and 2007, for the 30-79 year age range. The age-adjusted preva-lence of hypercholesterolemia slightly increased across the surveys, while those values of hypertension and dia-betes revealed decreasing trends. Awareness and control rates among participants with diabetes and hypertension improved over the period of surveys in both genders, but treatment rate varied among risk factors (24-39% for those with prior diagnosis of hypercholesterolemia, 59-90% for hypertension, and 52-99% for diabetes). In the survey of 2007, participants who achieved target levels made up 67-90% of those who received hypercholes-terolemia treatment, 55-73% of those who received hypertension treatment, and 62-74% of those who received diabetes treatment. Although awareness and control rate of CV risk factors improved across survey periods, strategies for reducing disparity from the assessment and control between CV risk factors will be required.
Key Words: cardiovascular disease, risk factor, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, hypertension
 

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1998年至2007年韓國的心血管疾病風險之盛行率、自覺、治療及控制
本研究評估1998至2007年韓國國民心血管疾病風險的盛行率、自覺、治療及控制率,而心血管疾病風險者的定義為有高膽固醇血症、高血壓及糖尿病患者。資料來源為1998年、2001年、2005年及2007年韓國國民健康及營養調查(KNHANES),30至79歲國民的自述或篩檢資料。調查結果顯示,年齡調整後的高膽固醇血症盛行率有些微的上升,而高血壓及糖尿病則有下降的趨勢。對於糖尿病及高血壓盛行率的自覺與控制率,不論是男性或女性,在這幾年調查期間皆有改善的情形。但是治療率則依危險因子而有不同(診斷為高膽固醇血症者是24-39%,高血壓者是59-90%,糖尿病者是52-99%)。在2007年的調查中,達到治療標準者的比率分別為:接受高血壓膽固醇血症治療者為67-69%,接受高血壓治療者55-73%,而接受糖尿病治療者62-74%。雖然對於心血管疾病危險因子的自覺及控制率隨著調查期間有改善,但是需要策略以減少心血管疾病危險因子的評估與控制不一致的情形。
關鍵字:心血管疾病、危險因子、高膽固醇血症、糖尿病、高血壓
 

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Effect of lifestyle on the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among farmers, migrants with Yi ethnicity and the Han population in Sichuan province of China
CHUNXIU WANG, DAYING WEI, BIN WANG, JIANHUA ZHANG, KONGLAI ZHANG, MINGJU MA, LI PAN, TAO YU, FANG XUE AND GUANGLIANG SHAN
Yi people are the most primitive society in China. Little information on the metabolic syndrome (MS) is avail-able in Yi people. We explored whether differing lifestyle affected the prevalence of MS among farmers and mi-grants of Yi ethnicity and Han population in one of the Southwestern parts of China. The prevalence of MS among the three populations was described under the same International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. The study populations comprised of 1,535 Yi farmers, 1,306 Yi migrants and 2,130 Han people. The effects of physi-cal activity, obesity and other risk factor on MS were evaluated. Results showed that the age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of MS was 9.9 times higher in Yi migrants (23.8%) and 6.3 times higher in Han people (15.2%) than in Yi farmers (2.4%). In addition, the prevalence of MS increased significantly with age in both sexes, except for a slight increase in Yi farmers. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was much lower in Yi farmers (9.3% in men and 16.5% in women) than that in Yi migrants (46.2% in men and 34.8% in women) and Han people (40.6% in men and 31.9% in women). Levels of physical activity were much greater in Yi farmers than in Yi migrants and Han people. These results indicated that lifestyle had strongly influenced the development of MS in Han and Yi Chinese and our study provided one more piece of evidence imputing that high prevalence of MS might be related to a change in lifestyle associated with urbanization.
Key Words: the metabolic syndrome, prevalence, obesity, lifestyle, ethnicity
 

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中国四川省彝族农民、彝族移民和汉族居民的生活方式对代谢综合征的影响
彝族是中国保持最原始生活方式的少数民族之一,目前仍少见关于彝族代谢综合征患病率的研究报道。本文探讨中国西南地区彝族农民、彝族移民和汉族居民的不同生活方式等环境因素对代谢综合征患病的影响。共调查彝族农民1,535人,彝族移民1,306人與汉族居民2,130人。代谢综合征诊断标准采用2005年国际糖尿病联合会(IDF)的定义。評估体力劳动、肥胖、及其他代谢综合征的危險因子。研究结果显示彝族农民代谢综合征年龄-性别标化患病率為2.4%,而彝族移民标化患病率(23.8%)為其9.9倍,汉族居民标化患病率(15.2%)則為其6.3倍。彝族移民和汉族居民代谢综合征患病率均随年龄的增加而显著增高,而彝族农民代谢综合征患病率随年龄增加仅有轻微的上昇。彝族农民超重和肥胖盛行率(男性:9.3%;女性:16.5%)明显低于彝族移民(男性:46.2%;女性:34.8%)和汉族居民(男性:40.6%;女性:31.9%)。彝族农民从事重体力劳动者所占比例显著高于彝族移民和汉族居民。研究结果表明,生活方式等环境因素是造成彝族农民、彝族移民和汉族居民代谢综合征患病率差异的主要因素。本研究为农村生活方式城镇化对代谢综合征的发生、发展的影响提供了一定的科学依据。
關鍵字:代谢综合征、盛行率、肥胖、生活方式、種族
 

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Sources and intake of resistant starch in the Chinese diet
LIYONG CHEN, RUIPING LIU, CHENGYONG QIN, YAN MENG, JIE ZHANG, YUN WANG AND GUIFA XU

Resistant starch (RS) escapes digestion in the small intestine and may ferment in the large intestine. The purpose of this study was to determine the resistant starch content in typical starchy foods and to estimate the daily resis-tant starch intake and identify key sources of dietary resistant starch in the Chinese diets. The resistant starch contents of 121 foods were determined using a method that mimicked gastrointestinal conditions. Tubers and legumes had high resistant starch contents. Rough food processing retained large amounts of resistant starch. In general, the content of RS decreased when foods were cooked. Deep fried and roasted foods had higher levels of resistant starch than braised foods. The average resistant starch intake in the Chinese population was estimated to be 14.9 g per day based on a dietary survey. The main resistant starch sources in the Chinese diet were cereal and tuber products. Based on dietary habits, however, the resistant starch intake varies considerably among indi-viduals.
Key Words: content, dietary survey, intake, resistant starch, source
 

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中国居民膳食中抗性淀粉摄入量及食物来源
抗性淀粉在小肠中不能被消化,而在大肠中可能被酵解。本研究的目的是测定特定食物中的抗性淀粉的含量,并估计中国居民每人每日抗性淀粉摄入量,以及提供抗性淀粉的主要食物来源。用体外模拟胃肠道酶解法对121种常用食物中的抗性淀粉含量进行测定。根茎类和豆荚类食物中抗性淀粉含量较高。粗加工食物中保留较多抗性淀粉。食物经过烹调加工后,抗性淀粉含量普遍降低。油炸和烘烤的食物较蒸煮的食物抗性淀粉含量较高。根據膳食调查來估计,中国居民抗性淀粉的平均摄入量为每日14.9 g。中国居民膳食抗性淀粉的主要来源为面制品、米制品和淀粉产品类。居民的抗性淀粉摄入量因为饮食习惯的差异个体差异较大。
关键词:含量、膳食调查、摄入量、抗性淀粉、来源
 

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Cross-sectional reference values of upper arm anthropometry of the Khasi tribal adolescents of Meghalaya, India
DEBASHIS BASU, DEIMAPHISHISHA SUN, INDRANEEL BANERJEE,Y MOMO SINGH, JENNIFER G KALITA AND VADLAMUDI RAGHAVENDRA RAO
The Khasi tribal people in India with their distinct ethnic identity have relative geographic isolation from the rest of the country. Although chronic energy deficiency has been documented in this population, their nutritional status has not been re-evaluated following a decade of economic growth in India. In this study, the nutritional status of an ethno-homogenous sample of contemporary Khasi tribal adolescent cohort of age 11+ to 17+ years in the state of Meghalaya, India has been assessed by cross sectional analysis. This was achieved through the use of the following derived anthropometric measurements - total upper arm area (TUA), upper arm muscle area (UMA), upper arm fat area (UFA), and arm fat index (AFI). A total of 670 adolescents (335 boys; 335 girls) par-ticipated in this study. In comparison with North American NHANES 1999-2002 standards, UMA, a measure of upper arm muscle mass, was lower at all age groups in Khasi girls. Conversely, in Khasi boys, AFI, a marker of upper arm fat mass was lower at all age groups, thereby showing a gender dimorphic difference in upper limb muscle and fat proportions. We conclude that in upper arm indirect anthropometry, contemporary Khasi adoles-cent children remain nutritionally deficient with gender dimorphic muscle and fat proportions.
Key Words: nutritional status, upper limb indirect anthropometry, Khasi, adolescents, India
 

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印度梅加拉亞邦的卡西部族青少年的上臂測量之橫斷性參考值
位於印度的卡西部族有獨特的種族身分,其地理位置亦較印度的其他地區孤立。雖然這個族群已被證實有長期熱量缺乏現象,但是他們的營養狀況並沒有隨著印度近十年經濟的成長而再次被評估。因此,本研究是藉由橫斷性分析來評估梅加拉亞邦11至17歲卡西部族青少年世代之同一種族樣本的營養狀況。透過下列人體測量來評估:總上臂面積、上臂肌肉面積、上臂脂肪面積以及手臂脂肪指數。本研究總共有670位青少年參與(包括335位男生,335位女生)。與美國的1999-2002年NHANES的標準來比較,所有年齡層的卡西族女性青少年的上臂肌肉面積皆較低,而上臂肌肉面積是用以測量上臂肌肉的質量。相反地,所有年齡層的卡西族男性青少年的手臂脂肪指數則是較NHANES的標準低,而手臂脂肪指數是上臂脂肪質量的指標,這顯示上臂肌肉以及脂肪組成有性別上的差異。因此,我們根據上臂間接體組成測量的結果推斷,當代的卡西族青少年仍然有營養缺乏現象,而其肌肉及脂肪比例則兩性互異。
關鍵字:營養狀況、上臂間接人體測量、卡西族、青少年、印度
 

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Obesity screening for young Japanese males and females using skin fold measurements: the classification revisited
MASAHARU KAGAWA, KAZUHIRO UENISHI, MIKI MORI, HAYATO UCHIDA, DEBORAH A KERR, COLIN W BINNS AND ANDREW P HILLS
Anthropometric assessment is a simple, safe, and cost-efficient method to examine the health status of individu-als. The Japanese obesity classification based on the sum of two skin folds (Σ2SF) was proposed nearly 40 years ago therefore its applicability to Japanese living today is unknown. The current study aimed to determine Σ2SF cut-off values that correspond to percent body fat (%BF) and BMI values using two datasets from young Japa-nese adults (233 males and 139 females). Using regression analysis, Σ2SF and height-corrected Σ2SF (HtΣ2SF) values that correspond to %BF of 20, 25, and 30% for males and 30, 35, and 40% for females were determined. In addition, cut-off values of both Σ2SF and HtΣ2SF that correspond to BMI values of 23 kg/m2, 25 kg/m2 and 30 kg/m2 were determined. In comparison with the original Σ2SF values, the proposed values are smaller by about 10 mm at maximum. The proposed values show an improvement in sensitivity from about 25% to above 90% to identify individuals with ≥20% body fat in males and ≥30% body fat in females with high specificity of about 95% in both genders. The results indicate that the original Σ2SF cut-off values to screen obese individuals cannot be applied to young Japanese adults living today and modification is required. Application of the pro-posed values may assist screening in the clinical setting.
Key Words: anthropometry, Japanese, sum of skin folds, obesity, classification
 

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皮脂厚度測量用於日本年輕成人之肥胖篩檢:分級的重新檢視
體位測量是一個簡單、安全與經濟的檢測個人健康狀況的方法。日本以兩項皮脂厚度總和來做肥胖分級的方法,是在約40年前所提出,因此是否適用於現今的日本人是未知的。本篇研究的目的是使用兩個日本年輕成人資料庫(233位男性及139位女性),根據其體脂肪百分比及身體質量指數來檢視兩項皮脂厚度總和的肥胖切點。使用回歸分析,計算出了符合體脂肪百分比切點 (男性20%、25%、30%;女性30%、35%、40%)的兩項皮脂厚度總和及經身高校正的兩項皮脂厚度總和的切點值;此外,也計算出了符合身體質量指數切點 (23、25、30 kg/m2)的皮脂厚度總和及經身高校正的皮脂厚度總和的切點值。與原始的兩項皮脂厚度總和切點值比較,本文建議值都較小,差距最多達10 mm。建議值對於分辨男性≧20%體脂肪及女性≧30%體脂肪有較好的靈敏度(從25%提昇至90%),在兩個性別都有較高的特異度(95%)。結果指出,以原始的兩項皮脂厚度總和切點來評估肥胖,並不適用於現今的日本年輕成人,修正是必要的。應用本文建議值可以幫助臨床上的評估。
關鍵字:體位測量、日本、皮脂厚度總和、肥胖、分級
 

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Last Updated: May 2010