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1 Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
       Volume 18, 4

         (September 2009)


Abstracts

Contents

Abstract Papers

Overview of Food and Health Security

 

Securing health through food systems: an initiative of the nutrition consortium of the National Health Research Institutes in Taiwan and Asia Pacific regional partners as a network
MARK L WAHLQVIST AND KEN N KUO
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(4):472-479.

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Why food in health security (FIHS)?
MARK L WAHLQVIST
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(4):480-485.

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Food in health security in North East Asia
HYUN-KYUNG MOON
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(4):486-492.

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Food in health security in South East Asia
LE DANH TUYEN
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(4):493-497.

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Sustainable agricultural practices: energy inputs and outputs, pesticide, fertilizer and greenhouse gas management
YUE-WEN WANG
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(4):
498-500.

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Water and its role in food and health security – the importance of water to food production
ÅSA K WAHLQUIST
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(4):
501-506.

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Food  

Food crisis in the Asia-Pacific region
KATINKA M WEINBERGER, WARWICK J EASDOWN, RAY-YU YANG AND JOHN DONOUGH H KEATINGE
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(4):507-515.

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Soil science in the understanding of the security of food systems for health
YONG-GUAN ZHU
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(4):516-519.

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Crops and food security- experiences and perspectives from Taiwan
CHEN-TE HUANG, TZU-YU RICHARD FU AND SU-SAN CHANG
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(4):520-526.

 

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Marine biodiversity and fishery sustainability
KWANG-TSAO SHAO
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(4):
527-531.

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Food safety and food labeling from the viewpoint of the consumers
SHAW WATANABE, MELISSA MELBY AND NAOMI AIBA

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(4):532-537.

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Waste management to improve food safety and security for health advancement
ANGELA YU-CHEN LIN, SUSANA TZY-YING HUANG AND MARK L WAHLQVIST
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(4):
538-545.

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New technology for food systems and security
NJ NEWTON YAU
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(4):546-548.

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Threats from farm animals to food and human security
BAO-JI CHEN, CHUNG-PING HO AND NAI-YUN HUANG
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(4):549-552.

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Fish and its multiple human health effects in times of threat to sustainability and affordability: are there alternatives?
DUO LI AND XIAOJIE HU
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(4):553-563.

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Aquaculture and food crisis: opportunities and constraints
I CHIU LIAO AND NAI-HSIEN CHAO
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(4):564-569.

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Health 

The value of Asian - Africa collaboration in food and health security
MICHAEL B KRAWINKEL
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(4):570-576.

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Food security in the Asia-Pacific: Malthus, limits and environmental challenges
COLIN D BUTLER
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(4):577-584.

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The demography of food in health security: current experience with dairy consumption in Taiwan
MEEI-SHYUAN LEE, LIN-YUAN HUANG, MEI-CHUN CHEN AND MARK L WAHLQVIST
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(4):585-589.

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Food security in the Asia-Pacific: climate change, phosphorus, ozone and other environmental challenges
COLIN D BUTLER
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(4):590-597.

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Health and nutrition economics: diet costs are associated with diet quality
YUAN-TING LO, YU-HUNG CHANG, MEEI-SHYUAN LEE AND MARK L WAHLQVIST
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(4):598-604.

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Imputed food insecurity as a predictor of disease and mental health in Taiwanese elementary school children
LIKWANG CHEN, MARK L WAHLQVIST, NAI-CHI TENG AND HSIN-MING LU
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(4):605-619.

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Ethics and Equity 

Equity, food security and health equity in the Asia Pacific region
SHARON FRIEL AND PHILLIP I BAKER
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(4):620-632.

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Improved food availability for food security in Asia-Pacific Region
RAY-YU YANG AND PETER M HANSON
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(4):633-637.

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Information system equality for food security-implementation of the food safety control system in Taiwan
SHAUN C CHEN, GUOO-SHYNG WANG HSU AND CHIHWEI P CHIU
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(4):638-641.

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Gender-specific roles and needs in food-health security
WEN-HARN PAN, YAO-TE HSIEH AMD MARK L WAHLQVIST
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(4):642-646.

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Ethical management of food systems: plant based diet as a holistic approach
TINA HT CHIU AND CHIN-LON LIN
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(4):647-653.

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Security

Food and health considerations in Asia-Pacific regional security
JOHN MCKAY

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(4):654-663.

 

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The global food crisis: an Australian dairy industry perspective
GREG WALSH
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(4):664-668.

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Human security in the Asia Pacific: perspective of food and health security
FU-KUO LIU
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(4):669-673.

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Climate change and food security in East Asia
YI-YUAN SU, YI-HAO WENG AND YA-WEN CHIU
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(4):674-678.

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The nature of international health security
YA-WEN CHIU, YI-HAO WENG, YI-YUAN SU, CHING-YI HUANG, YA-CHEN CHANG AND KEN N KUO
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(4):679-683.

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Food security and population health and well being
DOV JARON AND OSMAN GALAL
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(4):684-687.

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Platform Paper 

A Food in Health Security (FIHS) platform in the Asia-Pacific Region: the way forward
MARK L WAHLQVIST, JOHN DONOUGH H KEATINGE, COLIN D BUTLER, SHARON FRIEL, JOHN MCKAY, WARWICK EASDOWN, KEN N KUO, CHING-JANG HUANG, WEN-HARN PAN, RAY-YU YANG, MEEI-SHYUAN LEE, HSING-YI CHANG, YA-WEN CHIU, DOV JARON, MICHAEL KRAWINKEL, SNOW BARLOW, GREG WALSH, TUNG-LIANG CHIANG, PO-CHAO HUANG AND DUO LI TOGETHER WITH FIHS ROUNDTABLE PARTICIPANTS
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(4):688-702.

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Book Review and Future Events

MARK L WAHLQVIST

Land Reform in Developing Countries: Property rights and Property wrongs By Michael Lipton

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(4):703-704.

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Securing health through food systems: an initiative of the nutrition consortium of the National Health Research Institutes in Taiwan and Asia Pacific regional partners as a network
MARK L WAHLQVIST AND KEN N KUO

There are growing concerns about the health impacts of climate change with ecosystem degradation and global warming, finite reserves of non-renewable energy, water shortages in food-producing regions, limits to contem-porary agriculture with its dependence on exhaustible petrochemical nitrogen and rock phosphate fertilizers, and failure of the global financial system. To date, health security has meant attention to safe environments espe-cially water, sanitation and waste disposal; and access to health care and its affordability. Its dependency on food security (safety, sufficiency, sustainability, and satisfactoriness which requires diversity and quality) has been under-estimated because the current and imminent risks have increased and extended to more populations, be-cause these may be less tractable and because the nature, extent and dynamics of nutritionally-related health are better appreciated. As a step towards more collaborative food and health systems, the National Health Research Institutes in Taiwan has created an interdisciplinary Nutrition Consortium (NC) with research and policy agen-das. The NC held a food in Health Security (FIHS) in the Asia Pacific region roundtable in conjunction with the World Vegetable Center based in Tainan, supported by the National Science Council and Academia Sinica in Taiwan and the Australian Academies of Science and of Science Technology and Engineering, August 2-5th 2009 in Taiwan. A FIHS Network is being established to further the initiative. It should form part of the broader Human Security agenda.
Key Words: food crisis, NRD (Nutritionally-Related Disorder and Disease), energy, water, fertiliser, natural and anthropogenic disaster

 

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由糧食體系確保健康:倡議台灣國衛院的營養聯盟與亞太地區相關團體建構互助網絡
隨著氣候變遷導致生態系統崩解以及溫室效應、非再生能源的受限、糧食生產地帶水資源的短缺、現代農業依賴有限可耗盡的石化氮和磷礦肥,以及全球金融體制的潰敗,這些對人類健康上的衝擊,已被投注越來越多的關注。今日所謂「衛生安全」意指對環境安全的注意,特別是水、環境衛生、下水道及廢棄物的處置,也包括醫療照護的可近性及負擔力。因為目前和近期風險的增加,以及此風險將延伸影響更多的族群,也因為這些風險的不易處理及健康上營養相關的性質、廣度和變動開始被重視,顯示一直以來低估了衛生安全對糧食安全的依賴(在安全性、足量性、永續性以及需求多樣化和高品質的滿意度上)。國家衛生研究院因此成立各學科界組成的營養聯盟小組,發展針對這些議題深入研究及衛生政策建言的議程,並於2009年8月2日至5日與亞洲蔬菜中心共同舉辦「亞太地區糧食、食品與健康安全國際研討會暨專家會議(FIHS)」,由國家科學委員會、中央研究院、以及澳洲Australian Academy of Technologi-cal, Sciences & Engineering(ATSE)協同贊助。會中倡議建置的FIHS網絡,將對更廣泛的人類安全議題有部分貢獻。
關鍵字:糧食危機、營養相關的失調和疾病、能源、水、肥料、自然及人為的災變
 

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Why food in health security (FIHS)?
MARK L WAHLQVIST

Health is intrinsic to human security (HumS) although it is somewhat anthropocentric and about our own psy-chosocial and biomedical status more than various external threats. The 1994 United Nations Development Pro-gram definition of HumS includes economic, food, environmental, personal, community and political security with freedom from fear and want. Environmental factors are critical for health security (HealS), especially with widespread socio-economic difficulty, and health systems less affordable or accessible. The nexus between nu-tritionally-related disorders and infectious disease is the most pervasive world health problem. Most if not all of the Millennium Development Goals are food-linked. Maternal nutrition has life-long health effects on the yet-to-be born child. The mix of essential nutrient deprivation and energy imbalance is rife across many societies. Food systems require deeper understanding and governance to overcome these food-related health risks which are matters of food security (FoodS). Nutritionally-related Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYS) are improving markedly in many parts of the world, along with poverty and hunger reduction and health system advances. But recent economic, energy, food, water, climate change and health crises along with conflict are limiting. It is time for international and regional understanding of how households and communities can collectively manage these threats in affordable and sustainable ways. There is untapped problem-solving capacity at the internationalisable local level if supported by combined food - health systems expertise, innovation, infrastructure and governance. Principles of equity and ethics must apply. The Food in Health Security (FIHS) roundtable aims to develop a Network to facilitate this process.
Key Words: human security, CCH-FBS, FBDGs, MDGs, Asia Pacific Region, epigenetics

 

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為什麼討論糧食、食品與健康安全?
健康是人類安全的本質,雖然它是比較自我的,且與個體自身在社會心理及生物醫學上的狀態攸關,甚於其他的各種外在威脅。1994年聯合國發展計畫署之《人類發展報告》,定義人類安全在免於恐懼及匱乏的自由,包括獲取經濟、糧食、環境、個人、社群及政治的安全。環境的因素對衛生安全具關鍵性,特別是對處於社經困境的廣大群眾,及負擔沈重或利用上困難的衛生體制。營養相關的疾病與傳染病之間的錯綜關連是最普遍的世界衛生問題。大多數的聯合國千禧年發展目標都是跟糧食有關。母親的營養對還未出生的嬰孩有著終生的健康影響。在很多社會中充斥著必需營養素的缺乏和熱量不平衡的混雜情況。需要更深入地了解及管理糧食體系以克服那些與食物相關的健康風險,而這些都是糧食安全的議題。隨著貧窮、饑餓問題的減少和醫療體制的進步,「營養相關之失能調整生命年」在世界許多國家顯著的提升中。然而近年來的經濟、能源、糧食、水、氣候變遷跟衛生危機帶來的衝突卻讓這些進步受限。目前應是國際和區域的層級去了解如何讓家戶跟社區以負擔得起及永續的方法來共同應付這些威脅的時候了。如果聯合糧食與衛生體系的專業知識、創新力、公共設施及管理上的支持,就有國際化的地方性尚未開發的解決問題的能力。同時必須遵循平等與倫理的原則。「亞太地區糧食、食品與健康安全國際研討會暨專家會議」就是以發展促進這樣進程的一個網絡為目標。
關鍵字: 人類安全、結合家戶和社區以食物為基礎的策略、食物為基礎的飲食指南、千禧年發展目標、亞太地區、表觀遺傳學

 

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Food in health security in North East Asia
HYUN-KYUNG MOON

Food and health security in North East Asia including South Korea, North Korea, China and Japan was com-pared. Because this region contains countries with many complex problems, it is worthwhile to study the current situation. With about 24% of the world’s population, all North East Asian countries supply between 2400 and 3000 Kcal of energy. Regarding health status, two extreme problems exist. One is malnutrition in North Korea and China and the other is chronic degenerative disease in Japan, South Korea and China. Because quality, quan-tity and safety of the food supply have to be secured for health security, some topics are selected and discussed. 1) World food price can have an effect on food security for countries with a low food self sufficiency rate such as Japan and Korea; specially, for the urban poor. 2) Population aging can increase the number of aged people without food security. An aged population with less income and no support from their off-spring, because of dis-appearing traditional values, may have food insecurity. 3) Population growth and economic growth in this region may worsen food problems. Since a quarter of the world’s population resides in this region, populations will continue to increase. With economic growth, people will consume more animal products. 4) Climate change generates food production problems. As the progress of industry continues, there will be less land for food and more pollutants in the environment. 5) Political instability will cause food insecurity and conflict will cause problems with regard to food aid.
Key Words: food security, health security, North East Asia
 


 
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東北亞的衛生安全中的糧食議題
本篇文章比較東北亞的糧食及衛生安全,包括南韓、北韓、中國及日本。因為這個區域的國家有很多複雜的問題,所以值得去探討目前的狀況。佔世界人口的24%,東北亞的國家平均每天提供2400至3000大卡的熱量給每個人。至於健康狀況,則存在著兩個極端的問題。其中之一是中國及北韓的營養不足,另一方面是日本、南韓及中國的慢性退化疾病。為了保障健康,必須確保糧食供應的品質、量及安全性。選出幾個議題在此討論:1)對於糧食自足率低的國家,如日本和韓國,全球的食品價格會影響其糧食安全性,尤其對於城市中貧窮的居民。2)人口老化,使得缺乏糧食安全的的老人數目亦增加。由於傳統價值觀的日益消失,老化的人口伴隨著較低的收入及沒有後代的供養,可能會產生糧食安全不良的問題。3)在東北亞這個區域,人口及經濟的成長可能使糧食問題更加惡化。四分之ㄧ的全球人口居住在這個地區,且人口仍持續地增加。經濟愈發展,人們消費愈多的動物性產品。4)氣候的改變使糧食生產發生問題。當工業持續進展,將使耕種糧食的土地變少,而環境中的污染則增多。 5)政治不穩定會導致糧食的不安全性,鬥爭也會使食物援助產生問題。
關鍵字:糧食安全、衛生安全、東北亞

 

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Food in health security in South East Asia
LE DANH TUYEN
With a global economic crisis, undernourished peoples in South East Asia, as elsewhere, face even greater food insecurity. Future challenges to food availability include increasing food prices, increasing population size and climate change. National policies are required which emphasise improved intersectoral coordination, enhanced government credibility and accountability, as well as a shift in food aid to investment in agriculture and the em-powerment of independent institutions.
Key Words: Southeast Asia, food insecurity, undernourishment, health, economic crisis
 


 

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東南亞糧食在衛生安全之角色
隨著世界經濟危機以及營養不足人口的上升,東南亞國家面臨更大的糧食安全問題。未來在糧食供給上的挑戰,包括糧食價格上揚、人口的增加和氣候變遷的影響。這些國家急需著重政策上改善各部門間的合作,加強政府信用與責任,擴大農業投資以取代糧食援助,及賦予獨立機構甚至個人更多的自主性和權力以因應世界未來的趨勢。
關鍵字: 東南亞、糧食不安全性、營養不足、健康、經濟危機

 

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Sustainable agricultural practices: energy inputs and outputs, pesticide, fertilizer and greenhouse gas management
YUE-WEN WANG
The food security issue was addressed by the development of “modern agriculture” in the last century. But food safety issues and environment degradation were the consequences suffered as a result. Climate change has been recognized as the result of release of stored energy in fossil fuel into the atmosphere. Homogeneous crop varie-ties, machinery, pesticides and fertilizers are the foundation of uniform commodities in modern agriculture. Fos-sil fuels are used to manufacture fertilizers and pesticides as well as the energy source for agricultural machinery, thus characterizes modern agriculture. Bio-fuel production and the possibility of the agriculture system as a form of energy input are discussed.
Key Words: fossil fuels, solar energy, biofuels, climate change, sustainable
 

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永續的農業實施:能量輸入與輸出、農藥、肥料及溫室氣體管理
二十世紀透過"現代農業"技術的發展,回應了糧食安全的考量。但同時,食品的安全與環境劣化兩大議題卻被犧牲了。近年來的氣候變遷已被認定是肇因於將儲存在化石燃料中的能量釋放到大氣中。現代農業產生的均一產品築基於同質性作物品種、機械化、農藥與肥料的使用等。農業機械直接使用化石燃料為能源,而化石燃料也用於生產農藥與肥料,因此化石燃料是現代農業的主要推手也是造成氣候變遷的重要殺手。本文對利用農業系統作為生質燃料生產與能源供應的可能性進行討論。
關鍵字:化石燃料、太陽能、生質燃料、氣候變遷、永續的
 

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Water and its role in food and health security – the importance of water to food production
ÅSA K WAHLQUIST
Water is vital to food production: every calorie of plant food requires at least one litre of water, while one calorie of meat or dairy product can require up to 10 litres of water. Water is supplied either through rainfall or through irrigation. Irrigated agriculture uses 18 per cent of agricultural land, and produces 40 per cent of agricultural products. But urbanisation, agricultural land degradation, the mandating of biofuels, drought and climate change are reducing the amount of water available to agriculture. The green revolution of last century doubled cereal production with only a very small increase in land. This century we need a blue revolution, a dramatic increase in the amount of food produced from irrigation or blue water. The blue revolution must be based on knowledge, with that knowledge accessible, and useful, to farmers in both the developed and developing world.
Key Words: water, food, drought, irrigation, climate change
 

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水在糧食與衛生安全的角色- 水對糧食生產的重要性
水對糧食的生產是很重要的:生產每一卡路里的植物性食品需要至少1公升的水,而生產一卡路里的肉類或乳製品則需要多達10公升的水。水的來源可經由降雨或灌溉。農耕土地的18%屬於灌溉農業,而產生了40%的農業產品。但由於都市化、農耕土地劣化、生物燃料的強勢需求、乾旱及氣候的變遷,減少了農耕水源的可獲量。在上世紀的綠色革命中,只藉由增加少量的農耕土地,就使穀類的產量加倍。在這個世紀,我們需要一個藍色革命,藉由灌溉或乾淨的水源,來大量的增加糧食生產。藍色革命必須建立在知識上,而這些知識對於已開發及開發中國家的農夫而言,應是易得知且是有用的。
關鍵字:水、糧食、乾旱、灌溉、氣候變遷

 

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Food crisis in the Asia-Pacific region
KATINKA M WEINBERGER, WARWICK J EASDOWN, RAY-YU YANG AND JOHN DONOUGH H KEATINGE
The Asia-Pacific region was on track to achieve the Millennium Development Goal of halving the prevalence of extreme poverty by 2015, but recent dramatic rises in the price of rice and other staples have pushed millions of people back into hunger and poverty. This indicates that the region’s food supply system is more fragile and im-balanced than what was previously believed. Proximate causes of the rise in staple prices can be found in market forces such as export restrictions and rising energy prices but the ultimate causes are policies that have led to un-der-investment in agricultural research and emergency mitigation. Large numbers of people in the Asia-Pacific were already undernourished prior to the recent price rises, relying on monotonous diets dominated by a few sta-ples. Pushed into reducing their dietary diversity even further, many more millions are now suffering from hun-ger and deteriorating health. The most fundamental food crisis in the Asia-Pacific is one of poor diets, and this affects the obese just as much as the undernourished. The solution lies in a food system that focuses on produc-ing balanced diets, developing safe production practices, increasing food supplies by reducing losses, and invest-ing in the research that make it all happen. Improving food systems is a fundamental community expectation and can be a matter of government survival, but if the urgency to improve food supplies overrides improving diets, the long-term impact on national health will be severe. Proactive policies, regional responses, and more inte-grated scientific approaches are needed.
Key Words: food prices, malnutrition, research investment, food systems, Asia-Pacific
 

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亞太地區的糧食危機
根據聯合國千禧年的發展目標,亞太地區要在2015年之前減少一半的赤貧人口;但近年來稻米和其他糧食價格飆漲,使得上百萬已脫離赤貧的人口再度陷入飢餓困境。這顯示亞太地區的糧食供應系統比之前認定的更加脆弱及失衡。近期糧食價格飛漲主要歸究於經濟市場因素,例如糧食出口限制及石油價格攀升;但根本的原因是因為不適當的農業政策導致農業研究投資下滑及糧食緊急應變措施的投入不足。早在糧食價格上漲之前,亞太地區已有大量人口處於營養不足的狀態,僅依賴貧乏的主食種類和單調飲食維生。價格上升迫使飲食的選擇性更受限,有更多的人口正遭受飢餓和健康的惡化。亞太地區最基本的糧食危機是膳食品質低劣,這會導致人們營養不良,包括肥胖及過瘦。有效的改善糧食體系的根本方針在於開發均衡膳食、發展糧食安全生產體系、降低農業損失以增加糧食供應,並致力投資於上述方針的研究。改善糧食體系是社會的重大期待,並且攸關著政府的存亡,但是如果只著重提高糧食供應而無視於膳食的改善,長期將會嚴重影響國民的健康。因此結合國家前瞻政策、區域的反應及綜整的科學方法是必要的。
關鍵字:糧食價格、營養不良、研究投資、糧食體系、亞太地區

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Soil science in the understanding of the security of food systems for health
YONG-GUAN ZHUSoil is a basic natural resource for food production, the vast majority of food we consume is either directly or in-directly derived from soil. Soil quality determines the quantity (calories) and quality (nutritional value and safety) of the foods grown. Protecting the soil’s physical, chemical and biological integrity is therefore of vital impor-tance in safeguarding global food security. Soil science, as a discipline, will contribute to new knowledge related to soil quality and its sustainable management. However, soil scientists are not alone in securing the global food production system, instead they shall work with environmental engineers, agronomists, nutritionists, animal sci-entists and social scientists in developing integrative approaches to soil conservation, material cycling and envi-ronmental protection.
Key Words: biodiversity, contamination, food security, nutrition, soil quality
 

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土壤科學在糧食体系與衛生安全的角色
土壤是生產糧食的天然資源,我們所消耗的絕大多數食物都是直接或間接來自於土壤。土壤的品質決定了糧食的量(卡路里)和質(營養品質和食品安全)。因此,保護土壤的物理性、化學性和生物性的完整對於保護全球的糧食安全是很重要的。土壤科學,提供了土壤品質和其永續的管理相關的新知。然而,土壤科學家並非獨自來保護全球的糧食生產系統,而是和環境工程師、農學家、營養學家、動物學家、社會學家一起合作,發展針對土壤保育、物資循環及環境保護的綜合性方法。
關鍵字:生物多樣性、污染、糧食安全、營養、土壤品質

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Crops and food security- experiences and perspectives from Taiwan
CHEN-TE HUANG, TZU-YU RICHARD FU AND SU-SAN CHANG
Food security is an important issue that is of concern for all countries around the world. There are many factors which may cause food insecurity including increasing demand, shortage of supply, trade condition, another countries’ food policy, lack of money, high food- and oil prices, decelerating productivity, speculation, etc. The food self-sufficiency ratio of Taiwan is only 30.6% weighted by energy in 2007. Total agriculture imports and cereals have increased significantly due to the expansion of livestock and fishery industries and improve living standard. The agriculture sector of Taiwan is facing many challenges, such as: low level of food self-sufficiency, aging farmers, large acreage of set-aside farmlands, small scale farming, soaring price of fertilizers, natural dis-asters accelerated by climate change, and rapid changes in the world food economy. To cope with these chal-lenges, the present agricultural policy is based on three guidelines: “Healthfulness, Efficiency, and Sustainabil-ity.” A program entitled “Turning Small Landlords into Large Tenants” was launched to make effective use of idle lands. Facing globalization and the food crisis, Taiwan will secure stable food supply through revitalization of its set-aside farmlands and international markets, and provide technical assistance to developing countries, in particular for staple food crops.
Key Words: crop production, food security, food system, self-sufficiency ratio, food policy
 

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作物與糧食安全–台灣經驗及觀點
世界各國對於糧食安全的議題都相當的重視。許多因素可能造成糧食匱乏,包括需求的增加、供應短缺、貿易條件限制、其他國家的糧食政策、資金短缺、糧食價格高漲、生產力的降低和投機等。在台灣,2007年糧食自給率以熱量為權數計算僅有30.6%。由於漁牧業的擴張和生活水準的提高,農產品及穀類總進口有顯著的增加。台灣的農產業面臨了許多挑戰,例如糧食自給率低、農民老化、大量農地的休耕、耕地規模小、肥料價格高漲、氣候變遷造成自然災害的增加和世界糧食經濟的快速轉變。為了要因應這些挑戰,目前的農業政策是根據下面三個基本方針:「健康」、「效率」和「永續經營」;另外亦推動「小地主、大佃農」計畫,讓土地利用更有效率。面對全球化和糧食危機,台灣將透過國際市場及活化利用休耕農地以穩定主要糧食供應,並對開發中國家提供農業技術、特別是主要糧食生產方面的協助。
關鍵字:作物生產、糧食安全、糧食體系、自給率、糧食政策
 

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Marine biodiversity and fishery sustainability
KWANG-TSAO SHAO
Marine fish is one of the most important sources of animal protein for human use, especially in developing coun-tries with coastlines. Marine fishery is also an important industry in many countries. Fifty years ago, many peo-ple believed that the ocean was so vast and so resilient that there was no way the marine environment could be changed, nor could marine fishery resources be depleted. Half a century later, we all agree that the depletion of fishery resources is happening mainly due to anthropogenic factors such as overfishing, habitat destruction, pol-lution, invasive species introduction, and climate change. Since overfishing can cause chain reactions that de-crease marine biodiversity drastically, there will be no seafood left after 40 years if we take no action. The most effective ways to reverse this downward trend and restore fishery resources are to promote fishery conservation, establish marine-protected areas, adopt ecosystem-based management, and implement a “precautionary princi-ple.” Additionally, enhancing public awareness of marine conservation, which includes eco-labeling, fishery ban or enclosure, slow fishing, and MPA (marine protected areas) enforcement is important and effective. In this pa-per, we use Taiwan as an example to discuss the problems facing marine biodiversity and sustainable fisheries.
Key Words: marine conservation, marine fisheries, Taiwan, seafood, sustainability
 

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海洋生物多樣性與漁業永續
海洋魚類是人類最重要的蛋白質來源之一,特別是具有海岸的開發中國家。海洋漁業也是許多國家的重要產業。五十年前,人們仍認為浩瀚的海洋,其恢復力強,人類不可能去改變她,漁業資源亦不會枯竭。半世紀後,大家都同意由於過漁、棲地破壞、污染、外來入侵種及全球氣候變遷等人為因素的破壞,已使得漁業資源匱乏。因過漁所引起的連鎖反應也使得海洋生物多樣性大幅衰退。如果我們再不積極採取行動,四十年後,人類將無海鮮可以享用。最有效的保育措施應是建立海洋保護區、生態系漁業管理、及採取預防原則等。此外,加強宣導教育,包括生態標章、限漁、慢漁、和落實海洋保護區的管理等最為廹切有效。本文乃以台灣為例,討論海洋生物多樣性及永續漁業所面臨的問題。
關鍵字:海洋保育、海洋漁業、台灣、海鮮、永續性
 

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Food safety and food labeling from the viewpoint of the consumers
SHAW WATANABE, MELISSA MELBY AND NAOMI AIBA
Distrust of food safety has grown among the Japanese people after the occurrence of bovine spongiform en-cephalitis (BSE) in 2001. The Food Safety Commission was formed under the Cabinet Office and made a net-work among the ministries. The newly-established Consumer Agency may strengthen the quick response to emergencies. Shoku-iku (food and dietary education) Law is being implemented by the Cabinet Office with co-operation from relevant ministries and NGOs. Food Sanitation Law and Health Promotion Law are briefly ex-plained, and the necessity of functional nutriology for non-nutrient biologically active substances is described. With regard to public health nutrition, a new food label showing energy balance and antioxidant unit (AOU) as a surrogate marker of fruit and vegetables has been developed for tailor-made nutrition which makes it easy to for individuals to control energy intake.
Key Words: food safety, food for specified use (FOSHU), functional nutriology, functional food factor (FFF), food labelling
 

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由消費者的觀點來看食品安全與食品標示
在2001年發生狂牛症事件之後,日本民衆漸漸開始質疑食品的安全性。於是日本在內閣府下成立食品安全委員會並且在各部會之間組成一個連繫網路。新成立的消費者服務處加強對緊急事件的快速回應。內閣府與相關部會及非政府組織合作執行食品教育(食品及膳食教育)法。本文對日本食品衛生法及健康促進法做簡短的說明,並敘述功能性營養學的必要性,以研究非營養但具生物活性的物質。關於公共衛生營養,依個體需要而設計的營養已發展出一種新的食品標示,可以顯示熱量平衡及用抗氧化單位(AOU)作為水果及蔬菜的替代指標,這可使每個人更容易控制熱量攝取。
關鍵字:食品安全、特定保健食品(FOSHU)、功能性營養學、功能性食品因子(FFF)、食品標示
 

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Waste management to improve food safety and security for health advancement
ANGELA YU-CHEN LIN, SUSANA TZY-YING HUANG AND MARK L WAHLQVIST
Economic growth inevitably influences the food chain. Growing demand with changes in lifestyle and health consciousness encourage use of packaged and pre-prepared foods. The needs of environmental protection from waste generated are largely overlooked, and a lack of knowledge about the impact on the environment and its health effects constitute food security/safety problems. Food production and waste generation directly affect re-source (i.e., energy and water) consumption and often contaminate the environment. More pressure on food pro-duction has inculcated the use of pesticides, herbicides, antibiotics and chemical fertilizers which add to current global pollution. At least half of food grown is discarded before and after it reaches consumers. It is estimated that one third to half of landfill waste comes from the food sector. This landfill releases green house gases (GHG) as well as leachate which worsen soil and water quality and safety. Pharmaceutical and chemical contaminations from residential, industrial and agricultural sources make their way into nearby water and soil and can eventually affect our food systems. Phthalates, PFOA, BPA, commonly used in plastics and personal care products, are found in unacceptable concentrations in Taiwanese waters. They, too, contribute to food contamination and long-term health risk. Existing waste management strategies warrant more stringent norms for waste reduction at source. Awareness through education could reduce food waste and its consequences. This review encompasses impacts of food production systems on the environment, pollution which results from food waste, costs and eco-nomic advantages in food waste management, and health consequences of waste.
Key Words: food waste, human health, environmental contamination, food safety, waste management
 

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以廢棄物管理角度探討食品安全與人體健康
隨著人類經濟成長、交通運輸的便利與生活型態和健康意識的改變,使得食物供需鏈產生了無可避免的變化,亦使得人們對已處理包裝食物(真空包裝食材及冷凍微波食品)之需求日益增加。而在目前的研究裡,我們對這些新增需求所產生之相關廢棄物(包裝、運輸、處理等不同過程所產生廢棄物)對於環境負荷、食品安全及其所引發之人體健康衝擊之關連性與相關知識都相當缺乏。繁瑣的食物處理過程與其廢棄物的產生都會直接造成資源的消耗與環境的負荷。現今食物農業與畜牧業的生成過程中常會大量的使用殺蟲劑、除草劑、抗生素和化學肥料等,而這些化學物質的過量使用常連帶污染了我們周遭生活的水與土壤環境,並最終反撲進入到我們的食物供需鏈裡。根據研究指出,鄰苯二甲酸化鹽類、全氟辛酸、雙酚A等食材包裝與食品運輸中常用塑膠製品之化合物已於台灣水域中出現無法接受之濃度,而這些被檢測出的化合物同樣會污染我們的食物與造成人體健康上的慢性危害。現今廢棄物管理政策僅著重於降低包裝、運輸、處理等步驟之廢棄物產生量,卻忽略了教育民眾可從一開始就選擇低污染性、低廢棄物產生量之食物。如本土食材相對於進口食材之低運輸污染、新鮮食材相對於真空包裝食材之低包裝污染、多食用蔬菜相對於食用肉類之低生產污染。本文重點包含食物生產過程中所產生相關廢棄物之污染及其對食物生產之衝擊、相關廢棄物管理之成本經濟分析及該廢棄物污染對人體健康之影響。
關鍵字: 食品廢棄物、人體健康、環境污染、食品安全、廢棄物管理
 

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New technology for food systems and security
NJ NEWTON YAU
In addition to product trade, technology trade has become one of the alternatives for globalization action around the world. Although not all technologies employed on the technology trade platform are innovative technologies, the data base of international technology trade still is a good indicator for observing innovative technologies around world. The technology trade data base from Sinew Consulting Group (SCG) Ltd. was employed as an example to lead the discussion on security or safety issues that may be caused by these innovative technologies. More technologies related to processing, functional ingredients and quality control technology of food were found in the data base of international technology trade platform. The review was conducted by categorizing technologies into the following subcategories in terms of safety and security issues: (1) agricultural materi-als/ingredients, (2) processing/engineering, (3) additives, (4) packaging/logistics, (5) functional ingredients, (6) miscellaneous (include detection technology). The author discusses examples listed for each subcategory, includ-ing GMO technology, nano technology, Chinese medicine based functional ingredients, as well as several inno-vative technologies. Currently, generation of innovative technology advance at a greater pace due to cross-area research and development activities. At the same time, more attention needs to be placed on the employment of these innovative technologies.
Key Words: technology trade, innovative technology, technology appraisal, food technologies, food safety
 

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食品領域新技術及其安全
在全球化的過程中,除了商品交易之外,技術交易已成為另一選項。雖然技術交易平台上的技術未必都是新技術,但國際技術交易資料庫仍是一個觀察全球新技術的途徑之一。樞紐科技顧問(股)公司之國際技術交易平台的技術資料庫為此篇引導食品安全討論的案源。在資料庫中,食品製程、功效成分及品管相關技術項目較多。本討論將技術分類為 1)農業原料/成分 2)食品製程/工程 3)食品添加物 4)食品包裝/後勤 5)功效成分 6)雜項等6項分類。每一次分類都有技術案例進行討論,包括基因改造技術、奈米技術、中草藥技術等議題。現今,由於跨領域的研究發展,新技術的開發速度愈來愈快。同時,我們對於這些新技術的引用也需要更多的注意。
關鍵字:技術交易、新技術、技術評估、食品技術、食品安全
 

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Threats from farm animals to food and human security
BAO-JI CHEN, CHUNG-PING HO AND NAI-YUN HUANG
This paper discussed the threats from farm animals to food and human security. In response to these threats, a radical reform plan was adapted by several countries and the plan includes restructure of the organization of governing agencies, implementation of a traceability system from the farm sector to end users, application of hazard control measures, as well as tightening the food import control system.
Key Words: food security, government organization, traceability, GAP, import control
 

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從家畜禽飼育至糧食及人類安全的威脅
本文討論家畜禽飼養及屠宰過程,對糧食及人類安全所造成的威脅。對於此威脅,先進國家採取許多改革措施,例如重組政府組織,設立主管食品安全機構,執行確保由農場到消費者之食品安全措施,建構產銷履歷制度,應用重點危害控管措施,並強化進口糧食管制系統。
關鍵字:糧食安全、政府組織、產銷履歷、良好農業規範、進口管制
 

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Fish and its multiple human health effects in times of threat to sustainability and affordability: are there alternatives?
DUO LI AND XIAOJIE HU
Fish (finfish or shellfish) has been classified as healthy by health professionals despite containing contaminants, since fish is high in long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids which have multiple beneficial health effects such as decreased risk of stroke via anti-thrombotic and vasodilative effects, increased heart rate variability, reducing serum triacylglycerol and blood pressure, anti-inflammatory activities, improving visual function, improving at-tention-deficit conditions/ hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenic and dementia; and may be effective in managing depression in adults. All these beneficial effects are thought to be mediated through altering cell membrane composition, fluidity, receptors and membrane-bound enzymes, gene expression and eicosanoid production. However, natural marine and freshwater fish populations are declining as a result of over-fishing, temperature and climate changes etc. To re-establish and maintain the fish population in China, fishing has been banned for 2-3 months during specified periods of the year, which differs depending on the area, since 1995. The fish popu-lation has recovered since implementation of these banned fishing periods, and thereby maintaining the sustain-ability and affordability of fish. Aquaculture products have had a significant contribution to China’s food system, with significant increase in output over the past few decades, from one million tons in 1978 to 32 million tons in 2007. Aquaculture fish represents a higher portion of total aquatic products compared with natural marine and freshwater fish, which has only been achieved in China, and this has contributed greatly to food and health secu-rity. China’s success in this area is a good model for other developing countries.
Key Words: aquatic products, aquaculture, fishing moratorium, sustainability, contaminant
 

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鱼对人体健康有诸多有益影响,但在这威胁漁獲永续性和人们支付能力的时代,有替代方案吗?
虽然鱼类受到各种污染,但鱼类仍然是一种健康食品,因为鱼富含长链n-3不饱和脂肪酸,这些脂肪酸对人体有诸多方面的有益影响,比如通过抗血栓形成和血管扩张作用降低脑卒中的风险,增强心率变异性,降低血压和血清中甘油三酯水平以及抗炎活性,改善视觉功能,改善多动症或活动过度症、精神分裂症和痴呆症状,在缓解成人抑郁症方面可能也有一定的作用。所有这些功能是通过改变细胞膜成分、流动性、受体和膜结合酶活性,基因表达以及类二十烷酸产物而实现的。然而,天然海洋和淡水鱼的数量正由于过度捕捞、温度和环境变化等而不断减少。为了恢复和维持鱼类数量,中国从1995开始,根据地域差异,在每年的特定时期都实行两三个月的禁渔期措施。禁渔期实施以后,鱼类数量得到了恢复,同时也保证了鱼类的永续性和價格穩定。水产养殖对中国的糧食体系做出了重大贡献,在过去的三十年里养殖产量从1978年的100万吨增长到2007年的3200万吨。與天然海洋和淡水漁獲相比,养殖鱼类在总水产品产量中占有较大的比重,目前只有中国实现了这一目标,这对中国的糧食和健康安全意义重大。对其他发展中国家来说,中国是在这一领域的一个成功典范。
关键词:水产品、水产养殖、禁渔期、永续性、污染物
 

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Aquaculture and food crisis: opportunities and constraints
I CHIU LIAO AND NAI-HSIEN CHAO
Fish farming, now well known as aquaculture, has been well recognized since the ancient era. The first written document on fish culture was published in China in 475 BC, and the first koi pond was constructed at the Japanese Imperial Palace grounds during 71-130 AD. In recent years, aquaculture has progressively played an important role in the provision of: animal protein and gourmet cuisines, job opportunities, and foreign currency for developing countries. Asian countries produce around 91 percent of the world’s total aquaculture production. Among the top ten aquaculture-producing countries, nine are from Asia. The current global population consist of more than 6.5 bil-lion individuals; over one billion of which face hunger problem. In the highly populated Asia-Pacific region with moderately high-productivity, 642 million people are still facing hunger. Being a proficient and potential source of animal protein, aquaculture will play an increasing and important role in solving the world food problem in the fu-ture. This paper discusses both the opportunities and constraints in the aquaculture industry, specifically in the Asia-Pacific region, and its possible role in solving the current global food crisis. Strategies including promotion and adoption of traceability and HACCP systems for food safety, and marketing management for aquaculture products are also suggested. It is hoped that traditional administration of aquaculture management for survival, profit, as well as food safety will successfully match sustainability management to meet the urgent global need for food.
Key Words: aquaculture, Asia-Pacific region, food crisis, opportunities, constraints
 

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水產養殖與糧食危機:機會與限制
水產養殖被稱為Aquaculture是近40年來之事。不過在西元前475年,中國的范蠡已著有「養魚經」,在西元71-130年間,日本皇宮內興建錦鯉池,可見它的重要性。近年來,尤其亞洲國家的水產養殖佔全世界總養殖產量的91%左右,排行世界前10名國家中有9名位於亞洲。世界人口已超過六十五億,其中約十億人口面臨飢餓挑戰;而生活在生產力頗高的亞太地區的眾多人口中也有六億四千二百萬人屬於飢餓人口。因此提供重要的蛋白質來源的水產養殖,其今後扮演的角色勢必越來越吃重。本篇就亞太地區之水產養殖作為解決糧食危機問題的機會與限制加以敘述討論。文中倡導養殖履歷制度、採用HACCP管控、執行水產養殖產品網路之市場管理,以及落實全面食物安全。至盼水產養殖所追求的生存、利潤、安全,能成功地因應世界急迫的糧食危機,並達永續經營的目標。
關鍵字:水產養殖、亞太地區、糧食危機、機會、限制
 

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The value of Asian - Africa collaboration in food and health security
MICHAEL B KRAWINKEL
Challenges for food and health security encompass food production and distribution, smallholder income genera-tion, access to health care, harmful child care practices and epidemics (e.g. HIV), and tackling of the coexistence of undernutrition and caloric over-nutrition. The recently re-defined primary health care approach addresses the whole field of nutrition and health security. In general, Asia has more experience with technologies in various fields than Africa. But Africa has more experience in humanitarian approaches to emerging food and health cri-ses. Objectives of the Asian-African collaboration need to be differentiated into one area where the public sector is developing and strengthened, and another area where the private sector can promote food and health security with its specific advantages and constraints. In the field of hunger and disease prevention, both sides can benefit from the exchange of knowledge and concepts. Whereas in the Western world drugs and technologies became major factors in health care and food production, the potential of Asia and Africa lies in optimizing the utiliza-tion of indigenous plants and protecting the biodiversity of the natural resources. As an example, the vegetable bitter gourd is presented: it can be grown almost everywhere and it exerts anti-obese and anti-diabetic effects. This is of extreme importance for those who do not have access to modern drug treatment for diabetes mellitus. Asian-African collaboration in food and health security provides a great opportunity as both sides can benefit from different experiences and opportunities in order to meet the challenges in food and health security.
Key Words: nutrition security, primary health care, caloric overnutrition, natural biodiversity
 

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亞洲─非洲合作同盟在糧食及衛生安全的價值
糧食及衛生安全的挑戰包括:糧食生產與分配、小農的營收、健康照護的使用、有害的兒童照護施為及流行病(例如:人體免疫缺陷病毒),以及應付營養不良和熱量營養過剩共存的情況。對初級健康照護的最新定義是涵蓋全方位的營養及衛生安全範圍。一般而言,亞洲比起非洲在多種領域的科技擁有較多的經驗,但是非洲對於緊急的糧食和衛生危機的人道救援則有較多的經驗。亞洲─非洲合作同盟的目標需要區分成兩方面,一方面由公共部門開展及增強合作,另一方面民間團體用它們獨特的優勢及制約來促進糧食及衛生安全。在飢荒及疾病預防的領域中,知識及觀念的交流有益於兩方。當西方世界的藥物和科技成為健康照護及糧食生產的主要因素之際,亞洲及非洲的潛能則在於適當地利用原生種植物及保護自然資源的多樣性。例如:苦瓜即是一個代表,它幾乎可生長於任何地方,而且它被運用於減肥及降糖尿。這對於那些無法得到現代醫藥治療的糖尿病患而言,是相當重要的。為了面對糧食及衛生安全性的挑戰,亞非合作同盟提供一個良好的機會,使雙方皆可由不同的經驗及機會中獲得益處。
關鍵字:營養安全性、初級健康照護、熱量營養過剩、自然生物多樣性
 

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Food security in the Asia-Pacific: Malthus, limits and environmental challenges
COLIN D BUTLERThis is the first of two articles on the steepening challenges which confront global agriculture, food security and hence nutrition and population health. The recent deterioration in global food security has caught most experts by surprise. While the Asia Pacific region as a whole has so far fared reasonably well, there should be no complacency about medium to long term food security in the region, whether or not food security improves in the near future. The first paper places this debate in the context of the long-standing arguments between Malthusianists and optimists. The apparent reversal of position in the last decade of two leading agricultural experts is discussed. Their recent writings reflect intensified Malthusian concerns curbed in their writings from the 1990s. The paper concludes that far more credence needs to be given to the pessimistic position in order to avoid it becoming reality. The second paper focusses on five interrelated challenges to future food security in the Asia Pacific. These may be conceptualised as pathways by which pessimistic Malthusian scenarios become manifest. The mechanisms are (1) climate change, (2) water scarcity, (3) tropospheric ozone pollution, (4) impending scarcity of phosphorus and conventional oil and (5) the possible interaction between future population displacement, conflict and poor governance. The article concludes that a sustainable improvement in food security requires a radical transformation in society’s approach to the environment, population growth, agricultural research and the distribution of rights, opportunities and entitlements.
Key Words: global food security, Malthus, FAO, CAFOs, limits to growth
 

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亞太地區糧食安全性:馬爾薩斯理論、限制及環境挑戰
此篇文章是討論全球農業、糧食安全性及伴隨的營養與人口健康面對的日益高漲的挑戰之兩篇文章中的第一篇。近來全球糧食安全性的惡化情況已讓每個專家都感到訝異。雖然整體來看,亞太地區於目前的糧食供應不差,但無論糧食安全在近期內是否變得更好,對於中長期的糧食安全性不該自滿。這篇文章從馬爾薩斯主義者及樂觀主義者的長期辯爭間探究這個議題。敘述兩位領先的農業專家在過去十年明顯的立場改變。他們近年來的著作反映了強化馬爾薩斯理論,而1990年代的著作卻遏制馬爾薩斯理論。本文的結論是,需要更多的信任給予悲觀的立場,以避免它成為真實的。第二篇文章則是將重點放在未來亞太地區糧食安全性的五個相互關聯的挑戰。這些挑戰可被概念化為途徑,引導出顯著的馬爾薩斯悲觀情境。這些機制為(1)氣候的改變 (2)水資源的缺乏 (3)對流層中臭氧的污染 (4)磷及常規石油的急迫短缺 (5)未來的人口流離、衝突及管理不善間的可能交互作用。文章的結論是,要使糧食安全性永續地改善,需要從社會對環境的施為、人口成長、農業研究及分配的權利、機會與配額來做徹底的改變。
關鍵字:全球糧食安全性、馬爾薩斯、聯合國糧農組織、集中餵養動物作業、成長限制
 

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The demography of food in health security: current experience with dairy consumption in Taiwan
MEEI-SHYUAN LEE, LIN-YUAN HUANG, MEI-CHUN CHEN AND MARK L WAHLQVIST
To establish a food guide, the ‘total diet’ needs to be considered, based on prevailing patterns of food and nutri-ent intake; these will be culturally acceptable and recognize the prevailing social and economic conditions that affect food availability. Dairy produce is a good source of high quality protein, and provides significant amounts of vitamins and minerals. People who consume more dairy have higher intakes of calcium and vitamin B2 with less chance of deficiency. We used four National Nutrition Surveys in Taiwan (NAHSITs) to establish the cur-rent demographic predictors of dairy intakes, an indicator of food security in an affluent society. There was a U shape relationship between dairy consumption practices (whether or not) and age. In Taiwanese, the practice is higher in school children (49.3%), adolescents (32.1%) and elderly (43.6%) than it is in middle age (22.2-25.9%). Average daily dairy intake decreases with age; in the elderly, the intake is less than half a serving. Forty seven percent of first grade children consumed a serving or more of dairy while the 6th graders dropped to 37%. Less than 20% adults consume one serving or more a day. The rate increases to 40% for elderly. Physiologic limita-tion and dietary habit account for 25% and 50% of dairy avoidance, respectively. Education, financial status, ethnicity, regionality and health seeking behaviors are determinants of dairy consumption in all age groups. There is a need for alternative Food Guides for non-dairy consumers. Attention to dairy intake for socio-economically disadvantaged groups is required.
Key Words: dairy, demographics, dietary quality, health, NAHSITs
 

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糧食與健康安全之人口學:目前乳製品攝取之台灣經驗
飲食指南的制訂必須考慮「整體飲食」,以當代的飲食型態及營養素攝取為準。更重要的是能夠與影響食物可獲性的族群文化、社會經濟條件吻合。乳製品是高品質蛋白質良好來源,並且提供相當量的維生素與礦物質。攝取較多乳製品的人,會獲得較高的鈣質與維生素B2,發生缺乏症的機會較低。因此,攝取乳製品是一個富裕社會糧食安全的指標。我們利用台灣四次國民營養健康狀況變遷調查的資料,找出目前乳製品攝取之人口學預測因子。結果發現乳製品攝取率(是或否)與年齡呈現U形曲線。台灣的乳製品攝取比率,學童(49.3%)、青少年(32.1%)及老人(43.6%)較青壯年成人(22.2-25.9%)高。每日平均攝取量隨年齡上升而下降,老人不及半份。攝取乳製品一份或以上的一年級學童有47%,到六年級學童則降至37%;少於20%的成人每日攝取一份或以上,老人則上升至40%。生理因素及飲食習慣,分別占台灣人不攝取奶類食品原因之25%及50%以上。教育程度、經濟狀況、氏族、區域性及健康追求行為是所有年齡層的乳製品攝取的決定因素。對非乳品攝取者而言,需要一套替代的飲食指南。並有必要關注社會經濟弱勢族群之乳製品攝取。
關鍵字:乳製品、人口學、飲食品質、健康、台灣國民營養健康狀況變遷調查
 

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Food security in the Asia-Pacific: climate change, phosphorus, ozone and other environmental challenges
COLIN D BUTLERThis is the second of two articles on challenges to future food security in the Asia Pacific region. It focuses on five mechanisms, which can be conceptualised as pathways by which pessimistic Malthu-sian scenarios, described in the first paper, may become manifest. The mechanisms are (1) climate change, (2) water scarcity, (3) tropospheric ozone pollution, (4) impending scarcity of phosphorus and conventional oil and (5) the possible interaction between future population displacement, conflict and poor governance. This article concludes that a sustainable improvement in food security requires a radical transformation in society’s approach to the environment, population growth, agricultural re-search and the distribution of rights, opportunities and entitlements.
Key Words: climate change, food security, phosphorus, peak oil, sustainability transition
 

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亞太地區糧食安全性:氣候變遷、磷、臭氧層及其他環境的挑戰
這是兩篇討論亞太地區未來糧食安全性挑戰的第二篇文章。討論重點放在五個機制,藉由它們被概念化為途徑,使得第一篇文章中提到的馬爾薩斯悲觀的情境,變得明顯。這些機制為 (1)氣候的改變 (2)水資源的缺乏 (3)對流層中臭氧的污染 (4)磷及常規石油的急迫短缺 (5)未來的人口流離、衝突及管理不善間的可能交互作用。本篇文章的結論是,要使糧食安全性永續地改善,需要從社會對環境的施為、人口成長、農業研究及分配的權利、機會與配額來做徹底的改變。
關鍵字:氣候變化、糧食安全性、磷、石油峰值、永續性、變遷

 

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Health and nutrition economics: diet costs are associated with diet quality
YUAN-TING LO, YU-HUNG CHANG, MEEI-SHYUAN LEE AND MARK L WAHLQVIST
The WHO asserts that the global food price crisis threatens public health and jeopardizes the health of the most disadvantaged groups such as women, children, the elderly and low-income families. Economic factors play a crucial role and could affect personal nutrition status and health. Economic decision factors such as food price and income do influence people’s food choices. Moreover, food costs are a barrier for low income-families to healthier food choices. Several studies indicate that diet costs are associated with dietary quality and also food safety. Food prices have surged over the past couple of years (2007-9) and raised serious concerns about food security around the world. Rising food prices are having severe impacts on population health and nutritional status. Therefore, people who change their diet pattern for economic reasons may develop a range of nutrition-ally-related disorders and diseases, from so-called over-nutrition to or with under-nutrition even within the one household. This is likely to increase with growing food insecurity. Presently, economics is not integrated with mainstream nutrition science or practice, other than in ‘home economics’, but it can enable greater understanding of how socioeconomic status may interplay with human nutritional status and health and how these situations might be resolved. Collaborative, cross-disciplinary nutritional economics research should play a greater role in the prevention and management of food crises.
Key Words: food prices, food choices, diet costs, nutritional economics, food security
 

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健康與營養經濟學:飲食花費與飲食品質之相關性
世界衛生組織聲稱,全球糧食價格危機已經影響到大眾的健康,危及弱勢族群如:婦女、小孩、老人與低收入戶家庭的健康。經濟因素扮演一個重要的角色,並且影響個人營養狀態和健康。經濟上的因素,如食物的價格和收入,皆會影響到人們對於食物的選擇。再者,食物的花費是低收入家庭選擇較健康的食物的一個障礙。研究指出飲食的花費與飲食的品質和安全有關。食物的價格在近幾年(2007-9)劇烈的上升,已經引起全世界對於糧食安全的高度重視。持續不斷攀升的食物價格,對大眾的健康和營養狀態造成嚴重的衝擊。因此,家戶內個人可能會因為經濟因素的考量,而改變其飲食型態,進而產生一些營養過剩或營養不良之相關症狀和疾病,這可能更加重糧食不安全之情勢。目前除了家政學以外,經濟學並未整合於主流的營養學之科學與實務的研究領域。然而,經濟學讓我們瞭解社經狀況如何與營養和健康狀態交錯影響,並且尋求其解決方案。我們期許透過經濟學與營養學跨領域的合作,可以預防和管理現今的糧食危機。
關鍵字:糧食價格、食物選擇、飲食花費、營養經濟學、糧食安全
 

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Imputed food insecurity as a predictor of disease and mental health in Taiwanese elementary school children
LIKWANG CHEN, MARK L WAHLQVIST, NAI-CHI TENG AND HSIN-MING LU
This study investigated the association between food insecurity and Taiwanese children’s ambulatory medical care use for treating eighteen disease types linked to endocrine and metabolic disorders, nutrition, immunity, in-fections, asthma, mental health, injury, and poisoning. We used longitudinal data in the Taiwan National Health Insurance scheme (NHI) for 764,526 elementary children, and employed approximate NHI data to construct three indicators imputed to food insecurity: low birth weight status, economic status (poverty versus non-poverty), and time of year (summer break time versus semester time). We compared ambulatory care for these diseases between children with low birth weight and those not, and between children living in poverty and those not. A difference-in-differences method was adopted to examine the potential for a publicly- funded lunch pro-gram to reduce the harmful health effects of food insecurity on poor children. We found that children in poverty were significantly more likely to have ambulatory visits linked with diabetes, inherited disorders of metabolism, iron deficiency anemias, ill-defined symptoms concerning nutrition, metabolism and development, as well as mental disorders. Children with low birth weight also had a significantly higher likelihood of using care for other endocrine disorders and nutritional deficiencies, in addition to the above diseases. The study failed to find any significant effect of the semester school lunch program on alleviating the harmful health effects of food insecu-rity for poor children, suggesting that a more intensive food program or other program approaches might be re-quired to help poor children overcome food insecurity and its related health outcomes.
Key Words: food insecurity, disease, mental health, health expenditure, children
 

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食物來源不穩定性在台灣小學兒童疾病與精神健康方面的預測因子角色
本研究檢視食物來源不穩定性與台灣兒童十八類疾病相關門診服務利用的關聯性;這些疾病類型有關內分泌和新陳代謝失調、營養、免疫、感染、氣喘、精神健康、事故傷害、中毒。我們使用764,526位小學兒童的全民健保長期追蹤資料,並採用健保資料中之相關訊息來建構三種食物來源不穩定性的替代測量指標:低出生體重狀態、經濟狀況(貧窮相對於非貧窮)以及時間點(暑假時間相對於學期時間)。我們比較低出生體重之兒童和其他兒童的前述十八類疾病相關門診服務利用,也比較家境處貧窮線以下和以上之兒童的相關醫療服務利用。此研究利用「差異中之差異」分析法檢驗公共午餐計畫改善食物來源不穩定性對貧窮孩童健康傷害之能力。研究發現家境處貧窮線以下之兒童明顯使用較多有關下述疾病之門診服務:糖尿病、遺傳性代謝失調、缺鐵性貧血,以及營養、新陳代謝、發育相關之不明確徵候,還有精神狀況失調。低出生體重兒童相關醫療服務的利用除了前述疾病外,也較可能使用有關其他內分泌異常與營養不足的服務。本研究並未發現學期中提供之學校營養午餐計畫有減輕食物來源不穩定性對貧窮孩童之健康傷害,顯示可能需要更密集的食物計畫或其他方案來幫助貧窮孩童克服食物來源不穩定性和相關之健康後果。
關鍵字:食物來源不穩定性、疾病、精神健康狀況、醫療花費、兒童
 

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Equity, food security and health equity in the Asia Pacific region
SHARON FRIEL AND PHILLIP I BAKER
What, and how much, people eat is a response to their socio-political, socio-economic, socio-environmental and socio-cultural environments. Good nutrition is central to good health. Globally, health has improved for many but not for everyone equally. That food and nutrition-related health is unequally distributed is a marker of socie-tal failure. For some individuals, communities and even nations, it is a matter of not having enough food, of be-ing unable to afford food and there being little nutritious food readily available. For others there is an over abun-dance of food but its nutritional quality is compromised, access to healthy food is poor and cost of food is high relative to other commodities. Human development and poverty reduction in the Asia Pacific region cannot be achieved without improving nutrition in an equitable way. There is no biological reason for the scale of differ-ence in health, including diet-related health that is observed in the Asia Pacific region. That it exists is unethical and inequitable. Asymmetric economic growth, unequal improvements in daily living conditions, unequal distri-bution of technical developments and suppression of human rights have seen health inequities perpetuate and worsen, particularly over the last three decades. Addressing diet-related health inequities requires attention to the underlying structural drivers and inequities in conditions of daily living that disempower individuals, social groups and even nations from the pursuit of good nutrition and health. These are matters of economic and social policy at the global, regional and national level.
Key Words: health inequity, social determinants, food security
 

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亞太地區的平等、糧食安全以及健康平等
人們吃什麼以及吃多少,反應出他們的社會政治、社會經濟、社會環境及社會文化等因素。良好的營養是良好健康的首要條件。全球許多人的健康情形雖然已獲得改善,但並非人人皆平等。食物及與營養相關的健康的不平等分配是社會失敗的指標。對於某些個體、社區、甚至國家而言,問題在於沒有足夠的糧食,或買不起糧食,或缺乏高營養價值的食物;而對於其他地區,則是糧食過於豐足,但是營養品質卻未達標準,欠缺健康的食物,而且食物的價格高於其他生活必需品。若營養狀況沒有平等地改善,則亞太地區的人類發展及貧困縮減是無法達成的。健康的差異等級並無生物學上的理由,包括在亞太地區觀察到的與飲食相關的健康差異。它的存在是不道德及不公平的。不均衡的經濟成長、不平等的日常生活條件改善、科技發展的不平等分佈及人權受壓制,使得健康不平等在過去三十年延續且惡化。解決與飲食攸關的健康不平等應關切潛在的結構性因素以及日常生活條件的不平等,這些才是導致個體、社會團體、甚至國家無力追求良好的營養及健康的根源。在全球、地區及國家層次,這些都是經濟與社會政策的課題。
關鍵字:健康不平等、社會決定因素、糧食安全
 

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Improved food availability for food security in Asia-Pacific Region
RAY-YU YANG AND PETER M HANSONFood security requires that all people can access sufficient food for a healthy life. Enough food is produced to feed the global population, but more than 1.02 billion people are malnourished. Malnutrition and chronic food insecurity are widespread in some countries of the Asia-Pacific region; as much as 20 to 60 percent of the region’s population lacks sufficient food to meet their minimum energy requirement. Food security greatly depends on food availability, although this alone is not sufficient to secure satisfactory nutritional status. Food security at the national level re-quires an effective framework of food, health, and economic systems coupled with awareness and consideration of environmental conditions. To improve food availability and security in the short term, lower income countries should focus on increasing productivity in the food system to generate higher incomes for workers on-farm and off-farm in the food chain. Over the long term, sustainable and small-scale farming based on ecologically viable sys-tems should be the emphasis for agricultural development. Nutrition and health sectors should help promote food-based approaches that lead to diversification of crops, balanced diets, and ultimately better health.
Key Words: food-based nutrition, food system, food security framework, sustainable agriculture, malnutrition
 

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提升糧食可利用性以促進亞太地區的糧食安全
糧食安全意指所有人皆能獲得充足的食物而達到健康的生活。目前雖然有充足的糧食生產可供應全球人口,但仍有十億兩千萬的人口營養不良。在很多亞太地區的國家營養不良與長期食物缺乏的問題仍普遍存在,嚴重者甚至多達百分之二十到六十的國家人口無法滿足最低生理熱量需求。糧食安全主要取決於糧食供應,但是只靠糧食供應不見得能滿足所需的營養。有效的糧食安全,需要結合有效的食品、衛生及經濟體系,並充分考慮環境條件及因子。在短期內,欲改善亞太地區糧食安全的問題,低收入國家應著重於糧食生產體系之生產力提升以增加農戶及作物食品產銷人員的收入。從長遠來看,以生態導向的小型永續農業則為未來發展的重點。營養與衛生單位應重視並結合農政單位,推廣以糧食生產體系與膳食多樣化為基礎的營養策略,如此將有助於食品、作物多樣化,促進飲食均衡,最終改善大眾健康並永續發展。
關鍵字:營養不良,糧食生產系統,糧食安全體系,永續農業
 

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Information system equality for food security-implementation of the food safety control system in Taiwan
SHAUN C CHEN, GUOO-SHYNG WANG HSU AND CHIHWEI P CHIUFood security plays a central role in governing agricultural policies in Taiwan. In addition to overuse or the ille-gal use of pesticide, meat leanness promoters, animal drugs and melamine in the food supply; as well as food-borne illness draws the greatest public concern due to incidents that occur every year in Taiwan. The present re-port demonstrates the implementation of a food safety control system in Taiwan. In order to control foodborne outbreaks effectively, the central government of the Department of Health of Taiwan launched the food safety control system which includes both the good hygienic practice (GHP) and the HACCP plan, in the last decade. From 1998 to the present, 302 food affiliations that implemented the system have been validated and accredited by a well-established audit system. The implementation of a food safety control system in compliance with in-ternational standards is of crucial importance to ensure complete safety and the high quality of foods, not only for domestic markets, but also for international trade.
Key Words: food security, food safety, foodborne illness, good hygienic practice (GHP), HACCP
 

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糧食安全資訊系統的一致性-以台灣實施食品安全管制系統為例
糧食安全在台灣政府制訂農業政策方面扮演重要的角色。除了農藥、瘦肉精、動物用藥及三聚氰胺等過度或不法使用案例外,食物中毒由於每年都會發生,而引起大眾的高度關切。本篇報告介紹台灣實施食品安全管制系統的方式。為達到有效控制食物中毒,台灣的衛生署於過去10年推行包含良好衛生規範(GHP)及危害分析關鍵管制點(HACCP)計畫的食品安全管制系統。從1998年至目前,已有302家食品業者遵循本系統且通過稽核獲得驗證。實施國際標準同步的食品安全管制系統,是確保國內外市場食品的安全及高品質的關鍵。
關鍵字:糧食安全、食品安全、食源性疾病、良好衛生規範(GHP)、危害分析關鍵管制點(HACCP)

 

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Gender-specific roles and needs in food-health security
WEN-HARN PAN, YAO-TE HSIEH AMD MARK L WAHLQVISTPeople rely on foods to provide energy and nutrients to sustain life and to ensure health. In the entire chain from acquiring foods to ingesting them, women contribute in unique ways to the food system. Although foods or nu-trients requirements for both sexes are biologically similar in many aspects, women go through more complex life-cycles than men and may experience greater risk of nutrient deprivation due to their role to bear and to rear off-spring. Therefore, women and their offspring are particularly vulnerable to food scarcity and to poor dietary quality. On the other hand, the female genome, partly through sex hormones delays the development of many chronic diseases which result from the modern affluent lifestyle. The inherent biological roles of men and women and their socially constructed roles may interact with one another, affecting the health security of each gender, their families, and the well-being of the societies in which they live. Historically and contemporarily, women in general are socially and politically more underprivileged than men. The inequality which women have faced has jeopardized not only their health and that of their female children, but the well-being of all. In devel-oped countries and in more and more developing countries, equal opportunities for education are promoted. Re-cent research indicates that women have a greater tendency than men to engage in healthy behaviours when em-powered with health knowledge. Risky health-related behaviours, including poor food choices, are more often practiced by men and warrant more public health attention.
Key Words: gender, inequality, food, health, security
 

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糧食與衛生安全中不同性別的角色與需要
人類依賴糧食提供能量及營養素來維持生命並確保健康。女性在整個糧食體系,從取得食物至食用的環節中,都扮演獨特的角色。雖然男女性的食物和營養素需求在多方面都很相似,但女性因為其孕育與扶養下一代的角色,會經歷較複雜的生命期,以及較大的營養素缺乏風險。因此女性和她們的下一代特別容易受到食物短缺和飲食品質不佳的危害;另一方面,女性基因體藉由女性賀爾蒙和一些可能體質因素延緩了許多現代富裕生活形態造成的慢性病的發展。男女性傳承的生物功能和他們在社會上所扮演的角色可能相互作用,影響各自性別及家庭的衛生安全與社會福祉。不論在史上或現代,女性一般而言居於社會和政治的弱勢。女性面對的不平等不僅不利她們自身以及後代女性的健康,也危害了全人類的福祉。現今已開發國家以及許多開發中國家,都不斷在提倡教育平權。近年來研究顯示,女性當具備有健康知識後,比男性更傾向於遵循健康行為。男性比較經常做危及健康的行為,包括不好的食物選擇,這一點值得公共衛生上較多的關注。
關鍵字:性別、不平等、糧食、健康、安全
 

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Ethical management of food systems: plant based diet as a holistic approach
TINA HT CHIU AND CHIN-LON LINWhile improvement in agricultural technology had enabled the production of abundant food, it has thus far failed to eliminate hunger. Malnutrition is expected to reach an all time high. Evidences have suggested that animal based diet has put immense pressure on the already fragile food system, contributing to problems in terms of global food security, health security, and environmental sustainability. Plant based dietary approaches may there-fore, target some of these problems from the roots, and may be a solution to improving ethical issues and equity in the current food system. This paper examines how meat production and consumption contributed to the cur-rent crises in the food system through the lens of ethics – the moral compass – to find directions on how the pre-sent generation should eat, and how the food system could be maintained for a better future.
Key Words: vegetarian diet, ethics, food supply, ecosystem, meat
 

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以倫理經營糧食體系: 植物性飲食為全方位之道
雖然農業科技已促成大量食物增產,但至今卻無法全面解決飢荒問題。營養不足已達前所未有的高數量。證據顯示,動物性飲食對早已脆弱的糧食體系添增更多壓力、加速全球糧食與衛生危機及危害環境永續性。選擇植物性飲食是可能的治本方法,促使目前的糧食體系運作更符合倫理,更加強公平性。本文以倫理之觀點探討肉類的生產與食用對於現今糧食體系危機的影響,並找尋更理想的解決之道。
關鍵字: 素食飲食、倫理、糧食供應、生態系統、肉類
 

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Food and health considerations in Asia-Pacific regional security
JOHN MCKAY
Recent dramatic increases in food prices in much of the world have caused much concern, and have even re-sulted in some public protests and riots. This is easy to understand given the large percentages of incomes that the poor devote to food purchases. Many commentators have predicted that food supplies in the Asia-Pacific re-gion will become much more limited in the future as the result of population growth, the rapid growth of cities, new food demands by a growing middle class, the impacts of climate change, and the growth of a global food industry. But will these possible shortages of food result in pressures that will destabilise the security situation in the region? Recent work of the whole concept of security has resulted in some redefinition of the term to include issues of human security, but it could also be argued that severe strains on the human security situation could even result in increased instability in the more traditional kind of security regime. The extreme case of North Korea is used as an example of how this might happen. But we really do not know if such dangers are real ones for the region as a whole, and it is suggested that much more research is needed in this area. The whole concept of resilience has been used in some studies elsewhere and this may be useful starting point for new work in this area.
Key Words: Asia-Pacific security, food security, development in Asia-Pacific, regional resilience, food prices
 

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亞太地區安全性中的糧食及健康的考量
最近許多國家糧食價格的劇烈增加已造成許多憂慮,甚至導致某些民眾的抗議及暴動。這種情況容易理解,因為窮人大部分所得花費在購買食物上。許多評論者已預測在亞太地區,由於人口成長、城市快速發展、新中產階級對食物需求增加、氣候變遷的衝擊以及全球食品工業的成長,使得食物供應在未來將會更加受限。但這些可能的糧食短缺的壓力將會導致區域安全態勢不穩嗎?對安全性整體概念的一些研究已使得安全性被重新定義,涵蓋人類安全的議題。但可議的是,對於人類安全態勢的嚴厲壓力,也可能導致較傳統的安全體制的不穩定性增加,北韓即是一個可能發生的實例。但我們無法確知對整體區域而言,這樣的危險性是否真實,因此建議需要更多對於這個地區的研究。復原力的整體概念已被用於其他地區的某些研究,這可能是這個地區新研究的有用出發點。
關鍵字:亞太地區安全性、糧食安全、亞太地區的發展、區域復原力、糧食價格
 

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The global food crisis: an Australian dairy industry perspective
GREG WALSH
This paper seeks to shed further light on the factors contributing to the emerging global food crisis by examining the reasons for an unusual downturn in dairy food production in Australia, from where 11% of the world trade in dairy foods originates.
Key Words: food, dairy, farming, drought, Australia

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全球糧食危機:澳洲乳品產業的觀點
本文藉由檢視澳洲乳製品產量不尋常降低之原因,來探討導致日益嚴重的全球糧食危機的因素。而乳製品的全球貿易有11%來自於澳洲。
關鍵字:糧食、乳品、農場經營、乾旱、澳洲

 

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Human security in the Asia Pacific: perspective of food and health security
FU-KUO LIU
As combined new factors could further complicate the food supply and health security for regional countries, new perspective on human security should be prioritized on securitizing health security in the region. In recent years, food production and supply has been affected by unpredictable climate change and unaccountable man-made factors in the region. With increased pressure from food security issues, personal health and human secu-rity is badly affected. It poses a threat to human security and becomes a concern of all states. In the new era, the pressing reality for all countries is that there is no exception for anyone before a pandemic. Threats to human se-curity become not only a national security issue but also a transnational challenge.
Key Words: human security, food security, health security, climate change, food supply

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亞太區域的人類安全:糧食與衛生安全的觀點
由於複雜的新因素出現,對區域國家糧食供應和衛生安全進一步產生衝擊,因此人類安全的新觀點應以確保區域衛生安全為優先目標。近年來,亞太區域糧食生產和供應已經受到難以預測的氣候變遷和人為的不負責因素影響。糧食安全問題的壓力升高後,個人健康和人類安全也嚴重受到影響;這已經對人類安全形成威脅,也成為所有國家的顧慮。在新世紀中,所有國家迫切的現實問題是:面對世界性流行疾病時,沒有任何人得以倖免。因此對於人類安全的威脅不僅是國家安全的議題,也是跨國性的挑戰。
關鍵字:人類安全、糧食安全、衛生安全、氣候變遷、糧食供應

 

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Climate change and food security in East Asia
YI-YUAN SU, YI-HAO WENG AND YA-WEN CHIU
Climate change causes serious food security risk for East Asian countries. The United Nations Framework Con-vention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has recognized that the climate change will impact agriculture and all nations should prepare adaptations to the impacts on food security. This article reviews the context of adaptation rules and current policy development in East Asian region. The UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol have established specific rules for countries to develop national or regional adaptation policies and measurements. The current development of the ASEAN Strategic Plan on food security is inspiring, but the commitments to implementation by its members remain an issue of concern. We suggest that the UNFCCC enhances co-operation with the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and other international organizations to further develop methodologies and technologies for all parties. Our findings suggest that agriculture is one of the most vulnerable sectors in terms of risks associated with climate change and distinct programmatic initiatives are necessary. It’s imperative to pro-mote co-operation among multilateral organizations, including the UNFCCC, FAO, World Health Organization, and others.
Key Words: climate change, food security, adaptation, East Asia, UNFCCC

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東亞之氣候變遷與糧食安全
氣候變遷對東亞國家的糧食安全有嚴重的影響。聯合國氣候變化綱要公約(以下簡稱公約)已經認定氣候變遷將對農業造成侵害,並要求各國應準備各種調適方法以因應侵害。本文檢視公約中關於調適的條文以及現今東亞地區各國的調適政策發展,發現公約以及京都議定書已經有特定的法條要求各國發展國內或區域的調適政策與措施。而東南亞國協最近所發佈之糧食安全的策略計畫正是呼應公約的要求所做的區域調適計畫,儘管在執行部份或因各國能力與遵約的意願不同,可能在整體執行效果上有所差距,卻證明了東協國家已經開始正視並對氣候變遷與糧食安全議題有所行動。本文建議既然氣候變遷對農業的影響最大,最需要開發更多各種不同的方法與發展更多計畫以利各國相關部門應用。所以公約應該加強與聯合國糧農組織、世界衛生組織與其他國際機構的共同合作,以開發出更多的調適方法與技術供各國參考。
關鍵字:氣候變遷、糧食安全、調適、東亞、 聯合國氣候變化綱要公約
 

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The nature of international health security
YA-WEN CHIU, YI-HAO WENG, YI-YUAN SU, CHING-YI HUANG, YA-CHEN CHANG AND KEN N KUO
Health issues occasionally intersect security issues. Health security has been viewed as an essential part of hu-man security. Policymakers and health professionals, however, do not share a common definition of health secu-rity. This article aims to characterize the notions of health security in order to clarify what constitutes the nexus of health and security. The concept of health security has evolved over time so that it encompasses many entities. Analyzing the health reports of four multilateral organizations (the United Nations, World Health Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, and the European Union) produced eight categories of most significant relevance to contemporary health security, allowing comparison of the definitions. The four categories are: emerging diseases; global infectious disease; deliberate release of chemical and biological materials; violence, conflict, and humanitarian emergencies. Two other categories of common concern are natural disasters and environmental change, as well as chemical and radioactive accidents. The final two categories, food insecurity and poverty, are discussed less frequently. Nevertheless, food security is emerging as an increasingly important issue in public health. Health security is the first line of defence against health emergencies. As globalization brings more complexities, dealing with the increased scale and extent of health security will require greater in-ternational effort and political support.
Key Words: security, health security, globalization, emerging disease, infectious disease

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國際衛生安全的本質
衛生議題有時與安全有著不可分之關係。衛生安全雖已被認為是人類安全概念中不可或缺之ㄧ環,然而政策制定者與衛生工作者對其定義尚未達成一致的共識。本文之目的為綜整衛生安全的概念與範疇以釐清衛生與安全關連性的因素。衛生安全的概念與時俱進,現已包含多重面向與意涵。在分析四大國際多邊組織(聯合國、世界衛生組織、亞太經濟合作會議、歐盟)的衛生相關報告後,可歸納出八大項目,並依此進行四大多邊組織定義的比對。其中咸認與當前衛生安全範疇最顯著相關的四大項分別為新興疾病、全球性的傳染病、生化物質的人為蓄意釋放、以及暴力、衝突與人道緊急事件。次兩項共同關注的重點為自然災害與環境變遷、及化學與輻射意外。最後兩項較少被討論的為糧食不安全性及貧窮。然而糧食安全已逐漸成為公共衛生安全的重要議題。維護衛生安全為抵禦衛生緊急事件的第一道防線。而全球化導致事件的發生日漸複雜,因此處理愈益嚴重與牽連廣泛的衛生安全議題時,亟需國際社會的共同努力與政治支持。
關鍵字:安全、衛生安全、全球化、新興疾病、傳染性疾病
 

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Food security and population health and well being
DOV JARON AND OSMAN GALAL
Food security is an important element in the multi-factorial systems analysis of health and well being. The inter-action between food supply and other important factors making up the system can shed light on individual and population health. A critical analysis of the health system must also include consideration of disparity in food se-curity since it represents one of the most dramatic indicators of economic and health inequality. A large fraction of the world’s population -- particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa and in South East Asia -- is chronically hungry. Distributing food commodities alone does not appear to significantly reduce global food insecurity. In addition, promoting agricultural development, economic growth, and education assistance is needed in order to mitigate the underlying causes of chronic hunger, and in turn improve health and well being.
Key Words: diet, food supply, food insecurity, health, well being


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糧食安全性與人口健康及安樂
糧食安全性是健康和安樂的多因素系統分析中的重要因子。糧食供應及其他構成系統重要因素間的交互作用闡明了個體與人口的健康。一個衛生系統的重要分析應包含糧食安全性差異的考量,因為它代表經濟及健康不平等的顯要指標。世界人口中的一大部分─特別是在非洲下撒哈拉地區及東南亞─是處於長期飢餓的狀況。僅賴食物必需品的配給無法顯著地降低全球糧食不安全性。此外,為了減少長期飢荒的根本致因,促進農業發展、經濟成長及教育支援是必要的,進而以此提昇健康及安樂。
關鍵字:飲食、 糧食供應、糧食安全性、健康、安樂
 

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A Food in Health Security (FIHS) platform in the Asia-Pacific Region: the way forward
MARK L WAHLQVIST, JOHN DONOUGH H KEATINGE, COLIN D BUTLER, SHARON FRIEL, JOHN MCKAY, WARWICK EASDOWN, KEN N KUO, CHING-JANG HUANG, WEN-HARN PAN, RAY-YU YANG, MEEI-SHYUAN LEE, HSING-YI CHANG, YA-WEN CHIU, DOV JARON, MICHAEL KRAWINKEL, SNOW BARLOW, GREG WALSH, TUNG-LIANG CHIANG, PO-CHAO HUANG AND DUO LI TOGETHER WITH FIHS ROUNDTABLE PARTICIPANTS
The advent of multiple global crises, especially those of climate change, economics, energy, water, food and health evident in 2008, is of considerable moment to those who are suffering their consequences and for those with responsibility and interest in the systems affected. A coalition of parties in the Asia Pacific Region who work in the food and health systems met in August, 2009 in Taiwan and instigated a Food in Health Security (FIHS) Network which might join with other like-minded networks in and beyond the region. Sustainable health has many dimensions, among which food and nutrition is often neglected; there is a wide spectrum of nutrition-ally-related disorders. Malnutrition remains the global concern for agricultural research and development scien-tists and linkage with the health sector is key to progress. The disconnect between agricultural and health sectors negatively impacts consumer nutrition and health. Ethical and equity affect food and health systems. Food and health security is attainable only when the underlying social inequities are addressed; it is an ethical issue as re-flected in the UN Universal declaration of Human Rights which includes the right to food for health and well-being. Food and health security are part of the larger security agenda and merit corresponding attention. Policy recommendations with immediacy are greater investment in combined food and health research; an Asia Pacific security agenda which emphasizes planetary, human, health and food security as relevant to traditional defence security; and community and household security measures which include maternal literacy, communication tech-nology and entrepreneurial opportunity.
Key words: human security, planetary health, agriculture, social determinants, ethics, systems, network

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一個亞太區域糧食與衛生安全平台:向前發展之道
多重全球危機的來臨,特別是2008年的氣候變遷、經濟、能源、水源、糧食及衛生等危機發生,對於那些飽嚐此類事件不良影響、應擔負相關責任或利益遭受影響的群體而言,已達應變之關鍵時刻。有鑑於此,亞太區域內致力於糧食與衛生體系工作、來自多個單位之專家學者群,於2009年8月齊聚台灣,力促建構「糧食與衛生安全網絡」,以連結該區域或區域外其他有志一同的網絡。永續健康發展包含許多面向,其中糧食與營養問題經常被忽略,然而營養失調卻可引致多種相關疾病。營養不良持續受到全球的農業研究與發展科學家的關注,並與衛生部門連結是進展之關鍵,因為農業與衛生部門的分離會對消費者的營養與健康造成負面衝擊。此外,倫理與平等亦對糧食與衛生體系造成影響。惟有當潛藏的社會不平等獲得解決,才能確保糧食與衛生安全;此倫理議題正反映出聯合國世界人權宣言之概念,亦即人權需包括可獲取足夠糧食以保障健康與福祉。糧食與衛生安全為廣泛安全議題的一環,且值得更加重視。急迫的政策建議為投入更多資源於結合糧食與衛生相關之研究,同時擬定亞太安全進程,強調全球性、人性化、衛生及糧食安全,並與傳統安全防禦系統相連結,另外加強社區及家戶之安全方案,包括提高婦女識字能力、通訊科技及創業機會。
關鍵字:人類安全、全球衛生、農業、社會決定因素、倫理、系統、網絡

 

 

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Last Updated: December 2009