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1 Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
       Volume 18, 3

         (September 2009)


Abstracts

Contents

Abstract 摘要

Review

 

The development of a national salt reduction strategy for Australia
JACQUI WEBSTER, ELIZABETH DUNFORD, RACHEL HUXLEY, NICOLE LI, CARYL A NOWSON AND BRUCE NEAL
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(3):303-309.

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Original Research Communications

 

Clinical Nutrition Trials or Feeding Studies

Combined nattokinase with red yeast rice but not nattokinase alone has potent effects on blood lipids in human subjects with hyperlipidemia
NAE-CHERNG YANG, CHIEN-WEN CHOU, CHUNG-YIN CHEN, KAI-LIN HWANG AND YI -CHUEH YANG
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(3):310-317.

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Serum lutein and its dynamic changes during supplementation with lutein in Chinese subjects
LE MA, XIAO-MING LIN, XIAN-RONG XU, ZHI-YONG ZOU, ZI-XIN WANG, YANG-MU HUANG AND YING LI
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(3):318-325.

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Growth and Child Nutrition   

Impact of milk consumption on performance and health of primary school children in rural Vietnam
DO THI KIM LIEN, BUI THI NHUNG, NGUYEN CONG KHAN, LE THI HOP, NGUYEN THI QUYNH NGA, NGUYEN TRI HUNG, JEROEN KIERS, YAMAMOTO SHIGERU AND ROB TE BIESEBEKE
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(3):326-334.

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Average daily intake of phosphorus in 3- to 5-year-old Japanese children as assessed by the duplicate–diet technique
TOMOKO SUGIYAMA, TAEKO MURAKAMI, TOMIKO SHIBATA, MIHO GOSHIMA, NAOKI NARITA, HARUO NAKAGAKI AND MAMORU NISHIMUTA
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(3):335-343.

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Macro- Micro- and Phyto-nutrients 

Nutrient intake and blood iron status of male collegiate soccer players
YUKA NODA, KAZUHIDE IIDE, REIKA MASUDA, REINA KISHIDA, ATSUMI NAGATA, FUMIKO HIRAKAWA, YOSHITAKA YOSHIMURA AND HIROYUKI IMAMURA
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(3):344-350.

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A good response to oil with medium- and long-chain fatty acids in body fat and blood lipid profiles of male hypertriglyceridemic subjects
YINGHUA LIU, JIN WANG, RONGXIN ZHANG, YUEHONG ZHANG, QING XU, JIEYING ZHANG, YONG ZHANG, ZIXIN ZHENG, XIAOMING YU, HONGJIANG JING, NAOHISA NOSAKA, MICHIO KASAI, TOSHIAKI AOYAMA, JIAN WU, CHANGYONG XUE
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(3):351-358.

 

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Association of trans fatty acid intake with metabolic risk factors among free-living young Japanese women
MAI YAMADA, SATOSHI SASAKI, KENTARO MURAKAMI, YOSHIKO TAKAHASHI, KAZUHIRO UENISHI AND FOR THE JAPAN DIETETIC STUDENTS’ STUDY FOR NUTRITION AND BIOMARKERS GROUP
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(3):359-371.

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Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 is related to fish intake and exercise in Korean adult men
YOUL-LEE LYM AND HEE-KYUNG JOH
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(3):372-376.

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Maternal and Women’s Nutrition 

Maternal and neonatal plasma n-3 and n-6 fatty acids of pregnant women and neonates from three regions of China with contrasting dietary patterns
JIAN ZHANG, YIQUN WANG, LIPING MENG, CHUNRONG WANG, WENHUA ZHAO, JUNSHI CHEN, KEBREAB GHEBREMESKEL AND MICHAEL A CRAWFORD
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(3):377-388.

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Polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption and concentration among South Indian women during pregnancy
PRATIBHA DWARKANATH, SUMITHRA MUTHAYYA, TINKU THOMAS, MARIO VAZ, PANAM PARIKH, RUCHIKA MEHRA AND ANURA V KURPAD
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(3):389-394.

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Nutritional Assessment and Status

Development and validation of 3-Minute Nutrition Screening (3-MinNS) tool for acute hospital patients in Singapore
SU-LIN LIM, CHUNG-YAN TONG, EMILY ANG, EVAN JON-CHOON LEE, WAI-CHIONG LOKE, YUMING CHEN, MAREE FERGUSON, LYNNE DANIELS
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(3):395-403.

 

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Accuracy of body mass index (BMI) thresholds for predicting excess body fat in girls from five ethnicities
J SCOTT DUNCAN, ELIZABETH K DUNCAN AND GRANT SCHOFIELD
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(3):404-411.

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Nutritional Epidemiology and Public Health 

Food variety score is associated with dual burden of malnutrition in Orang Asli (Malaysian indigenous peoples) households: implications for health promotion
NURFAIZAH SAIBUL, ZALILAH MOHD SHARIFF, KHOR GEOK LIN, MIRNALINI KANDIAH, NAWALYAH ABDUL GHANI AND HEJAR ABDUL RAHMAN
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(3):412-422.

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What extent of weight loss can benefit the health-related quality of life in motivated obese Chinese?
CHIH-HSING WU, HUI-CHING KUO, CHIN-SUNG CHANG AND LUNG YU
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(3):423-432.

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Association of major dietary patterns with obesity risk among Mongolian men and women
OTGONTUYA DUGEE, GEOK LIN KHOR, MUNN-SANN LYE, LHAGVA LUVSANNYAM, OYUNBILEG JANCHIV, BATJARGAL JAMYAN AND NORHAIZAN ESA
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(3):433-440.

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Gender differences in “luxury food intake” owing to temporal distribution of eating occasions among adults of Hindu communities in lowland Nepal
NORIKO SUDO, MAKIKO SEKIYAMA, RYUTARO OHTSUKA AND MAKHAN MAHARJAN
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(3):441-446.

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Influences on consumption of soft drinks and fast foods in adolescents
ELIZABETH DENNEY-WILSON, DAVID CRAWFORD, TIMOTHY DOBBINS, LOUISE HARDY AND ANTHONY D OKELY
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(3):447-452.

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 Nutritional status, Dietary Intake, and Body Composition 

Trends in BMI, diet and lifestyle between 1976 and 2005 in North Sydney
LILLIAN M KENT AND ANTHONY WORSLEY
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(3):453-461.

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Special Report

Expert meeting on child growth and micronutrient deficiencies – new initiatives for developing countries to achieve millennium development goals: executive summary report
AVITA A USFAR, ENDANG L ACHADI, REYNALDO MARTORELL, HAMAM HADI, RAZAK THAHA, IDRUS JUS’AT, ATMARITA, DRAJAT MARTIANTO, HARDINSYAH RIDWAN AND SOEKIRMAN
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(3):462-469.

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Book Review and Future Events

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(3):470-471.

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The development of a national salt reduction strategy for Australia
JACQUI WEBSTER, ELIZABETH DUNFORD, RACHEL HUXLEY, NICOLE LI, CARYL A NOWSON AND BRUCE NEAL

Excess dietary salt is a well established cause of high blood pressure and vascular disease. National and interna-tional bodies recommend a significant reduction in population salt intakes on the basis of strong evidence for health gains that population salt reduction strategies could achieve. The Australian Division of World Action on Salt and Health (AWASH) coordinates the Drop the Salt! campaign in Australia. This aims to reduce the average amount of salt consumed by Australians to six grams per day over five years through three main implementation strategies targeting the food industry, the media and government. This strategy has the potential to achieve a rapid and significant reduction in dietary salt consumption in Australia. With industry and government engage-ment, this promises to be a highly effective, low cost option for preventing chronic disease.
Key Words: salt, public health, food supply, dietary, cardiovascular disease
 

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澳洲一個全國鹽減量政策的發展
攝取過多食鹽已確定會導致高血壓及血管疾病。降低族群鹽量攝取的政策已被證實可以促進健康,因此國內外團體都建議應顯著減少族群鹽量攝取。鹽與健康的世界行動澳洲分會(AWASH)參與澳洲“ 鹽減量”運動。此運動為透過三個主要目標執行對策,即食品工業、媒體及政府,俾使5年內澳洲人平均食鹽攝取量降低至每天6公克。這個對策有能力達成快速及顯著降低澳洲的食鹽攝取量。有工業界與政府的參與,使得這個運動對於降低慢性疾病具有高效益及低成本。
關鍵字:食鹽、公共衛生、食物供應、飲食、心血管疾病
 

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Combined nattokinase with red yeast rice but not nattokinase alone has potent effects on blood lipids in human subjects with hyperlipidemia
NAE-CHERNG YANG, CHIEN-WEN CHOU, CHUNG-YIN CHEN, KAI-LIN HWANG AND YI -CHUEH YANG

The purpose of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel comparison study was to evaluate the lipid-lowering effect of orally administrated nattokinase and nattokinase combined with red yeast rice (RYR) ex-tract on blood lipids in patients with hyperlipidemia. A total of 47 patients with hyperlipidemia were assigned to one of three groups: 1. nattokinase-mono formula (50 mg/capsule), 2. combined formula of nattokinase with RYR (300 mg of extract/capsule) and 3. placebo. Subjects received a twice daily dose of two capsules for six months. The mono formula showed no effects on blood lipids until month six, while the combined formula ame-liorated all of measured lipids starting from month one. In the combined group significant decreases were found with regard to: triglycerides (TG) by 15%, total cholesterol (TC) by 25%, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) by 41%, TC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio by 29.5%, and increases in HDL-C by 7.5%. These changes were sustained until the end of study. After controlling for baseline levels, only the com-bined group, but not mono group, showed a significant difference (p<0.0001) in TC, LDL-C and TC/HDL-C ra-tio when compared with the placebo group. In summary, this study provides long-term efficacy of nattokinase supplementation and shows that the combined formula has relatively more potent effects than the mono formula on lowering of blood lipids, suggesting that combined nattokinase with RYR will be a better neutraceutical for patients with hyperlipidemia than nattokinase alone.
Key Words: nattokinase, red yeast rice, human trial, hyperlipidemia, blood lipid

 

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納豆激酶合併紅麴複方而非單方在高血脂病患中有明顯的降血脂效果
此一隨機分配、雙盲、安慰劑對照、平行比較之臨床試驗的目的在評估口服納豆激酶及納豆激酶合併紅麴萃取物對高血脂病患降低血脂的效果。總計有47名高血脂病患被分配到三組中的其中一組:1. 納豆激酶單方(50毫克/膠囊),2.納豆激酶合併紅麴萃取物(300毫克萃取物/膠囊)複方,3. 安慰劑。受試者接受每日兩次、每次兩顆為期六個月的口服劑量。單方組在六個月之前並未顯示有降血脂的效果,而複方組從第一個月開始在各項血脂測量上皆有改善。複方組在以下幾項檢測結果有顯著改變:三酸甘油脂(TG)降低15%,總膽固醇(TC)降低25%,低密度膽固醇(LDL-C)降低41%,TC/高密度膽固醇(HDL-C)比值降低29.5%,HDL-C上升7.5%;且這些改變持續維持到試驗結束。在控制了基礎值(baseline)後,只有複方組在TC、LDL-C及TC/HDL-C與安慰劑組相較有顯著差異(p<0.0001),而單方組則未顯著與安慰劑組不同 (p>0.05)。總結而言,本研究提供長期補充納豆激酶的效益評估結果,並顯示納豆激酶複方相較於單方有更明顯的降血脂效果,顯示對於高血脂患者來說,納豆激酶合併紅麴之複方產品相對於納豆激酶單方而言,是更佳的營養療品(neutraceutical)。
關鍵字:納豆激酶、紅麴、人體試驗、高血脂、血脂

 

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Serum lutein and its dynamic changes during supplementation with lutein in Chinese subjects
LE MA, XIAO-MING LIN, XIAN-RONG XU, ZHI-YONG ZOU, ZI-XIN WANG, YANG-MU HUANG AND YING LI
Observational epidemiological studies have shown that a high consumption of lutein-containing foods is associ-ated with decreased risk of chronic diseases. However, results are inconsistent, suggesting the possibility that confounders may impact serum lutein concentration after consumption. The present study aimed to determine the factors affecting serum lutein status and to characterize dynamic changes of lutein concentration in serum during lutein supplementation in healthy Chinese subjects. After baseline characteristics were determined, thirty-seven healthy participants were randomized to receive 6 mg lutein/d, 12 mg lutein/d, or placebo for 12 weeks, as well as to be observed for 6 additional weeks after the cessation of supplementation. Serum levels of lutein and β-carotene were measured by HPLC at weeks 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18. Dietary intake was estimated by food-frequency questionnaires. No significant sex differences were found in serum concentration of lutein. Serum lu-tein level positively correlated with dietary lutein, retinol equivalents, vitamin C, vitamin E, β-carotene and fat intake after adjustment for caloric intake, but not with BMI. After 12-weeks of supplementation, lutein levels in-creased approximately 1.8-fold and 2.3-fold for the 6-, and 12-mg dose groups respectively, approaching a pla-teau at week 9, and then decreased to baseline values at week 18. No adverse events or reductions in serum β-carotene were observed throughout the study. Our findings indicate that increasing the consumption of lutein-rich fruit and vegetables can be considered as a long-term, sustainable and safe approach to reach and maintain high serum levels of lutein.

Key Words: lutein, β-carotene, carotenoid, interactions, adults


 
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中国人群血清叶黄素水平及叶黄素干预过程中的动态变化趋势
观察性研究结果显示摄取含叶黄素的食品与慢性疾病的患病危险性呈负相关。但是许多研究的结果并不一致,这可能归因于各种混杂因素影响血清叶黄素浓度。本研究目的在于确定影响中国健康人群叶黄素水平的因素,并观察叶黄素干预过程中血清叶黄素的变化趋势。在基线调查后,37名健康受试者被随机分配到6 mg叶黄素组、12 mg叶黄素组或安慰剂组,进行12周的干预试验,并在干预停止后继续观察6周。分别在干预0、1、3、6、9、12和18周采用HPLC法测量血清叶黄素和β-胡萝卜素浓度。采用膳食频率表评价膳食摄入情况。性别之间血清叶黄素浓度未见显著性差异。能量调整后,血清叶黄素浓度与膳食叶黄素、维生素A、维生素C、维生素E、β-胡萝卜素和脂肪的摄入量呈正相关,而与BMI无关。在干预过程中,血清叶黄素浓度在9周达到峰值,在18周返回到基线水平。6 mg叶黄素组和12 mg叶黄素组血清叶黄素浓度分别增长为干预前的1.8倍和2.3倍。干预中未见不良反应及血清β-胡萝卜素的降低。本研究结果显示长期摄取含叶黄素的蔬菜和水果可安全有效地将血清叶黄素浓度维持在较高水平。
关键词:叶黄素、β-胡萝卜素、类胡萝卜素、相互作用、成年人
 

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Impact of milk consumption on performance and health of primary school children in rural Vietnam
DO THI KIM LIEN, BUI THI NHUNG, NGUYEN CONG KHAN, LE THI HOP, NGUYEN THI QUYNH NGA, NGUYEN TRI HUNG, JEROEN KIERS, YAMAMOTO SHIGERU AND ROB TE BIESEBEKE
This is a follow-up study to an investigation on the prevalence of malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies among Vietnamese primary schoolchildren. A total of 454 children aged 7 to 8 years attending three primary schools in the Northern delta province of Vietnam were either provided with regular milk, milk fortified with vi-tamins, minerals and inulin or served as a reference control group. Children were monitored for anthropometrics, (micro)-nutritional status, faecal microbiota composition, school performance, and health indices. Both weight-for-age (WAZ) and height-for-age (HAZ) significantly improved during 6 months of milk intervention; and un-derweight and stunting dropped by 10% in these groups. During intervention the incidence of anemia decreased and serum ferritin levels increased significantly in all groups. Serum zinc levels increased and consequently the incidence of zinc deficiency improved significantly in all three groups. Serum retinol levels and urine iodine lev-els remained stable upon intervention with fortified milk whereas in the control group the incidence of iodine de-ficiency increased. Bifidobacteria composed less than 1% of the total faecal bacteria. After three months of milk intervention total bacteria, bifidobacteria and Bacteroides sp. increased significantly in both milk and inulin for-tified milk groups. Children in the milk consuming groups had significantly better short-term memory scores. Parent reported that health related quality of life status significantly improved upon milk intervention. In conclu-sion, (fortified) milk consumption benefited the children in rural Vietnam including lowering the occurrence of underweight and stunting, improving micronutrients status and better learning indicators as well as improving the quality of life.
Key Words: malnutrition, micronutrients, Vietnam, children, health


 

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越南農村小學生牛奶攝取對於表現和健康的影響
這是一個追蹤調查,研究越南小學生營養不良和微量營養素缺乏的盛行率。總共有454名兒童,年齡7至8歲,來自越南北方三角洲的三所小學,分別接受一般牛奶、牛奶強化了維生素、礦物質和菊糖、或做為參考對照組。監測學童的體位、(微量)營養素狀況、糞便菌落的組成、學校表現和健康指數。經過六個月的牛奶介入,學童按年齡的體重(WAZ)和按年齡的身高(HAZ)有顯著改善,體重不足和發育不良比率下降10%。介入期間,貧血的發生率下降和血清鐵蛋白顯著增加。在所有三組中,血清鋅升高,因而鋅缺乏有顯著改善。介入強化牛奶後,血清視網醇和尿碘水平維持穩定,但是對照組碘缺乏發生率卻增加。介入前,雙歧桿菌在總糞便細菌組成中小於1%。經三個月的一般牛奶或強化牛奶介入,總菌數、雙歧桿菌和類桿菌均顯著增加。兒童攝取牛奶顯著提高短期記憶分數。在牛奶介入後,家長陳述健康相關生活品質狀況有顯著改善。結論,(強化)牛奶的攝取有益於越南農村兒童,包括減少體重不足和發育不良,改善微量營養素狀況和提高學習指標以及改善生活品質。
關鍵詞:營養不良、微量營養素、越南、兒童、健康
 

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Average daily intake of phosphorus in 3- to 5-year-old Japanese children as assessed by the duplicate–diet technique
TOMOKO SUGIYAMA, TAEKO MURAKAMI, TOMIKO SHIBATA, MIHO GOSHIMA, NAOKI NARITA, HARUO NAKAGAKI AND MAMORU NISHIMUTA
The present study aimed to determine whether there is excessive mean daily intake of phosphorus in 3- to 5-year-old Japanese children and to ascertain relationships between phosphorus intake and various food and bever-age groups. Subjects comprised of 90 children, with 15 boys and 15 girls in each age group from 3 to 5 years. The duplicate-diet technique was used to ascertain total dietary intake, including snacks and beverages over a 24-h period on 3 separate days from summer 1999 to winter 2000. After wet ashing food samples, phosphorus was quantified by colourimetry using a spectrophotometer. Median and 25th-75th percentile daily phosphorus intake for 3- to 5-year-old Japanese children was 674 mg (534-890 mg), and phosphorus intake correlated with the intake of many food groups and was closely correlated with total daily intake of food and beverage (rs=0.64). In addition, phosphorus intake correlated with the intake of magnesium and calcium (rs≥0.6, p<0.001). When as-sessed based on dietary reference intakes for the US, maximum intake did not exceed the tolerable upper intake level in any of the young children, but phosphorus intake was not more than the estimated average requirement (EAR) in 4.4% of subjects, which exceeded the target of 2.5% for the US EAR. We concluded that there is a risk of insufficient phosphorous intake, rather than excessive intake, for 4.4% of 3- to 5-year-old Japanese children.

Key Words: phosphorus intake, duplicate-diet technique, preschool children, seasonal variation, nutrition survey

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使用雙重飲食取樣技術評估日本三到五歲小孩平均每日磷攝取情況
本篇研究目標為探討日本3至5歲小孩每日磷攝取是否過量,並確認磷攝取與食物及飲料之相關性。共有90位小孩參與研究,在3到5歲各年齡層中,男女各15位。於1999年夏天至2000年冬天選擇非連續3天,使用雙重飲食取樣技術評估24小時飲食攝取,包含了點心及飲料。將食物樣本濕灰化後,接著使用分光光譜儀,以比色法將磷定量。3到5歲日本小孩磷攝取量中位數及25-75百分位分別為674 mg及534-890 mg。磷的攝入與許多食物類別相關,並且與食物及飲料總攝取量密切相關(rs=0.64)。另外磷的攝取與鎂和鈣有相互關聯(rs>0.6, p<0.001)。所有兒童磷攝取最大量均未超過美國膳食建議最高上限攝取量,且4.4%受試者磷攝取低於美國建議的估計平均需要量(EAR),這個比例大於EAR的設定目標即2.5%。綜合上述,3至5歲的日本兒童,非但不是磷過量,反而4.4%兒童有磷攝取不足之風險。
關鍵字: 磷攝取量、雙重飲食取樣技術、學齡前兒童、季節變異、營養調查
 

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Nutrient intake and blood iron status of male collegiate soccer players
YUKA NODA, KAZUHIDE IIDE, REIKA MASUDA, REINA KISHIDA, ATSUMI NAGATA, FUMIKO HIRAKAWA, YOSHITAKA YOSHIMURA AND HIROYUKI IMAMURA

The purpose of this study was: 1) to collect baseline data on nutrient intake in order to advise athletes about nu-trition practices that might enhance performance, and 2) to evaluate the dietary iron intake and blood iron status of Japanese collegiate soccer players. The subjects were 31 soccer players and 15 controls. Dietary information was obtained with a food frequency questionnaire. The mean carbohydrate (6.9 g・kg-1 BW) and protein (1.3 g/kg) intakes of the soccer players were marginal in comparisons with recommended targets. The mean intakes of calcium, magnesium, vitamin A, B1, B2, and C were lower than the respective Japanese recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) or adequate dietary intakes in the soccer players. The mean intakes of green and other vege-tables, milk and dairy products, fruits, and eggs were lower than the recommended targets. Thus, we recom-mended athletes to increase the intake of these foodstuffs along with slight increase in carbohydrate and lean meat. The mean intake of iron was higher than the respective RDA in the soccer players. A high prevalence of hemolysis (71%) in the soccer players was found. None of the soccer players and controls had anemia. Two soc-cer players had iron depletion, while none was found in the controls. In those players who had iron deficiency, the training load need to be lowered and/or iron intake may be increased.
Key Words: dietary assessment, serum ferritin, hemolysis, iron deficiency, anemia

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大學的男性足球員營養素攝取與血液中鐵狀況
此研究目的共有兩個1. 收集運動員營養攝取基本資料,以便提出營養建議,可能有助運動表現;2. 評估日本大學足球員,飲食鐵攝取與血液中鐵狀況。受試者共有31位足球員及15位控制組人員,經由食物頻率問卷獲得飲食資料。足球運動員醣類及蛋白質攝取平均數(6.9 g・kg-1 BW及1.3 g/kg)皆在建議目標邊緣;然而鈣、鎂、維生素A、B1、B2及C皆低於日本每日營養素建議攝取量(RDAs)及足夠膳食攝取量。綠色蔬菜及其他種類蔬菜、奶類、奶類製品、水果及蛋攝取皆低於建議目標。因此建議運動員增加攝取這些食品,並且些微增加醣類及瘦肉攝取量。足球員鐵平均攝取量高於RDA。在足球運動員中發現高比例溶血現象(71%)。足球運動員及控制組皆未發現有貧血,其中有兩位足球運動員有鐵耗盡情形,而在控制組中均未發現此情形。發現鐵缺乏的運動員,必須降低負荷訓練或是增加鐵的攝取量。
關鍵字:膳食評估、血清鐵蛋白、溶血、鐵缺乏、貧血
 

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A good response to oil with medium- and long-chain fatty acids in body fat and blood lipid profiles of male hypertriglyceridemic subjects
YINGHUA LIU, JIN WANG, RONGXIN ZHANG, YUEHONG ZHANG, QING XU, JIEYING ZHANG, YONG ZHANG, ZIXIN ZHENG, XIAOMING YU, HONGJIANG JING, NAOHISA NOSAKA, MICHIO KASAI, TOSHIAKI AOYAMA, JIAN WU, CHANGYONG XUE
A double blind clinical trial was carried out to clarify the effects of oil with medium- and long-chain triglyceride (MLCT) on body fat and blood lipid profiles in hypertriglyceridemic subjects. One-hundred-and-twelve subjects were enrolled and divided into two groups; those that consumed MLCT oil and those that consumed long-chain triglyceride (LCT) oil for 8 weeks. All subjects were requested to consume 25-30 g of the oils daily and maintain a fixed level of energy intake and exercise. Anthropometric and blood biochemical parameters were measured when the study was initiated and completed. The LCT group consisted of 50 subjects (34 men and 16 women), while the MLCT group consisted of 51 subjects (33 men and 18 women) who completed the study. Larger de-creases in body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, body fat, total fat area and subcutaneous fat area in the abdomen and serum triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, C2, C3 and E were observed in male subjects in the MLCT group than those in the LCT group. However, no significant differ-ences in these parameters between the female subjects in the two groups were observed. Data from this study in-dicate that consumption of medium-and long-chain triglycerides can reduce body weight and body fat and im-prove blood lipid profiles in male hypertriglyceridemic subjects.

Key Words: medium-chain fatty acids, long-chain fatty acids, hypertriglyceridemia, sex, Chinese

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中长链脂肪酸食用油可改善男性高甘油三酯血症患者体脂肪和血脂水平
采用双盲临床试验方法,将112名高甘油三酯血症患者随机分为中长链脂肪酸食用油组和长链脂肪酸食用油组,研究期限为8周。所有受试者控制每日膳食摄入量及食用油摄入量(25-30克/人/日),规定运动方式。分别于研究开始前和8周后对受试者进行人体組成测量及血生化指标检测。长链脂肪酸食用油组50例(男34例,女16例),中长链脂肪酸食用油组51例(男33例,女18例)完成了研究。男性中长链脂肪酸食用油组的体重、BMI、腰围、体脂肪重、腹部脂肪总面积、腹部皮下脂肪面积及血清甘油三酯、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇、载脂蛋白B、C2、C3和E指标降低的程度明显大于长链脂肪酸食用油组。但这些指标在两组之间的女性患者没有发现显著性差异。因此,本研究表明男性高甘油三酯血症患者使用中长链脂肪酸食用油可减轻体重和体脂肪含量,改善血脂谱。
关键字:中链脂肪酸、长链脂肪酸、高甘油三酯血症、性别、中国人
 

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Association of trans fatty acid intake with metabolic risk factors among free-living young Japanese women
MAI YAMADA, SATOSHI SASAKI, KENTARO MURAKAMI, YOSHIKO TAKAHASHI, KAZUHIRO UENISHI AND FOR THE JAPAN DIETETIC STUDENTS’ STUDY FOR NUTRITION AND BIOMARKERS GROUP

Objective: We examined cross-sectional associations of total, hydrogenated, and natural trans fatty acid intake with selected metabolic risk factors in young Japanese women. Methods: Subjects were 1136 Japanese female dietetic students aged 18-22 years. Dietary intake was estimated using a validated, self-administered diet history questionnaire. Associations between trans fatty acid intake and metabolic risk factors were examined with mul-tivariate linear regression analysis, with control for potential covariates. Dietary covariates included intake of energy, total fat, and saturated fatty acids (model 1); monounsaturated fatty acids instead of saturated fatty acids (model 2); and polyunsaturated fatty acids instead of saturated fatty acids (model 3). Results: Mean (standard deviation) total trans fatty acid intake was 0.90% (0.30%) of total energy. Hydrogenated trans fatty acids con-tributed 77% of total trans fatty acid intake. Total trans fatty acid intake was significantly and positively associ-ated with waist circumference, triacylglycerol, and glycated hemoglobin, except in the analysis of triacylglycerol with adjustment for monounsaturated fatty acids. No associations were found between total trans fatty acid in-take and body mass index, cholesterol, or glucose. Hydrogenated trans fatty acid intake was significantly and positively associated only with waist circumference and glycated hemoglobin. No association was observed for natural trans fatty acid intake. Conclusion: hydrogenated trans fatty acid intake was positively associated with several metabolic risk factors among free-living young Japanese women with relatively low intake.
Key Words: trans fatty acid intake, metabolic risk factors, young Japanese women, cross-sectional study, Asian population

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日本年輕女性反式脂肪酸的攝取與代謝危險因子之相關
目的:橫斷性研究日本年輕女性的總反式脂肪酸、氫化或天然反式脂肪酸的攝取與選定的代謝危險因子之關係。方法:研究對象為1136名日本營養系女學生,年齡18-22歲。飲食攝取評估使用效度已確認的,自我評估飲食歷史問卷。反式脂肪酸的攝取與代謝危險因子之相關,利用多元線性迴歸分析,控制潛在的共變量。飲食共變量包括總熱量攝取、總脂肪和飽和脂肪酸(模式1),單元不飽和脂肪酸替代飽和脂肪酸(模式2),和多元不飽和脂肪酸替代飽和脂肪酸(模式3)。結果:平均(標準差)總反式脂肪酸攝取佔總熱量的0.90%(0.30%)。氫化反式脂肪酸攝取佔總反式脂肪酸的77%。總反式脂肪酸與腰圍、三酸甘油酯和糖化血紅素幾乎都有顯著的正相關,僅有校正單元不飽和脂肪酸後的三酸甘油酯例外。總反式脂肪酸攝取與身體質量指數、膽固醇或血糖沒有相關性。氫化反式脂肪酸攝取只與腰圍和糖化血紅素有顯著正相關。天然反式脂肪酸未發現有相關。結論:在相對攝取量較低的日本年輕女性中,氫化反式脂肪酸攝取與一些代謝危險因子有顯著正相關。
關鍵詞:反式脂肪酸攝取、代謝危險因子、年輕日本女性、橫斷性研究、亞洲人口

 

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Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 is related to fish intake and exercise in Korean adult men
YOUL-LEE LYM AND HEE-KYUNG JOH
Vitamin D is an important factor for bone health. It is uncertain which lifestyle is associated with vitamin D status, especially in healthy middle aged Asian men. A cross-sectional analysis was performed in 149 men aged 40–69 years who visited a health check-up center in Korea. Serum vitamin D (25-OHD3) was measured and smoking, alcohol, exercise, occupation, frequency of fish and dairy intake were estimated by self-administered questionnaire. The mean (±SD) 25-OHD3 concentration was 96.5±30.7 nmol/L. Higher and lower 25-OHD3 groups were generated with the median concentration as the cut-off point. By univariate analysis, exercise status and fish intake frequency were significantly different between two 25-OHD3 groups (p=0.012, 0.019 respec-tively). After multivariable logistic regression, higher fish intake frequency and regular exercise were associated with higher levels of 25-OHD3 (p for trend=0.017 and 0.02 respectively). In conclusion, frequent fish intake and regular exercise are positively associated with serum 25-OHD3 concentrations in healthy Korean men.

Key Words:  exercise, fishes, Koreans, life style, vitamin D

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韓國成年男性血清25-hydroxyvitamin D3與魚類攝取及運動之相關性
維生素D對於骨質健康是重要的因子。生活型態與維生素D狀況的相關性尚不明確,尤其是在健康的中年亞洲男性。本研究為橫斷性分析,對象為參加韓國一健檢中心的149名男性,年齡為40-69歲。測量血清維生素D (25-OHD3),並使用自填式問卷評估他們的抽菸、飲酒、運動、職業及魚類和奶類的攝取頻率。25-OHD3濃度的平均值(±標準差)為96.5±30.7 nmol/L。以中位數的濃度當作切點,區分成高及低25-OHD3兩組。單變項分析結果,高及低25-OHD3兩組在運動狀況及魚類攝取有顯著性差異(p值分別為0.012及0.019)。在多變項羅吉斯迴歸分析,較高的魚類攝取頻率及規律的運動與較高量的25-OHD3具有相關性(p for trend分別為0.017及0.02)。結論是,在健康的韓國男性,常吃魚及規律的運動與血清25-OHD3濃度具有正相關。
關鍵字:運動、魚類、韓國人、生活型態、維生素D
 

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Maternal and neonatal plasma n-3 and n-6 fatty acids of pregnant women and neonates from three regions of China with contrasting dietary patterns
JIAN ZHANG, YIQUN WANG, LIPING MENG, CHUNRONG WANG, WENHUA ZHAO, JUNSHI CHEN, KEBREAB GHEBREMESKEL AND MICHAEL A CRAWFORD
The aim of this study was to investigate n-3 and n-6 fatty acid status of pregnant women and neonates from River/Lake, Coastal and Inland regions of China. Demographic, nutritional and anthropometric data, as well as blood samples (maternal and cord) were obtained. Plasma choline phosphoglyceride (CPG) fatty acids were ana-lysed. Median daily fatty acid intakes of the women from River/Lake, Coastal and Inland women were linoleic acid (LA), 20.2, 22.1, 31.7 g; arachidonic acid (AA), 157.2, 95.6, 141.3 mg; α-linolenic acid (ALA), 4.2, 1.0, 1.8 g; eicosapentenoic acid (EPA), 22.4, 28.6, 3.1 mg; docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 51.7, 54.7, 33.3 mg and the n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratio, 4.7, 20.9, 17.2. The median maternal and cord plasma CPG AA levels of River/Lake, Coastal and Inland groups were 7.3% and 15.7%, 6.7% and 16.1%, and 7.2% and 16.9%. The median maternal and neonatal DHA levels in the three regions were 3.2% and 4.7%, 3.0% and 4.3%, and 2.0% and 3.6%. There appears to be a close association between dietary intake of AA, EPA, DHA and the corresponding levels of the fatty acids in maternal plasma CPG (p<0.05). The results of the study indicate low intake of the n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, EPA and DHA, and n-6 to n-3 fatty acid imbalance are the main problems of dietary fat intake of Chinese pregnant women. Measures such as increased supply of oily fish and ALA-rich edible oils should be taken to help enhance n-3 fatty acid intake of pregnant Chinese women.

Key Words: docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosapentenoic acid, Chinese pregnant women, neonate

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中国三个不同膳食模式地区孕妇及新生儿血浆n-3和n-6系列脂肪酸水平
本研究目的是探讨中国河湖、沿海、内陆地区孕妇和新生儿n-3和n-6脂肪酸的营养状况。收集了研究对象的人口统计学、营养和体格测量资料,并收集了血液样品(包括孕妇静脉血和脐带血)。分析了血浆胆磷脂(CPG)脂肪酸含量。河湖、沿海、内陆孕妇每日膳食脂肪酸摄入量的中位数分别为:亚油酸(LA)20.2、22.1、31.7克,花生四烯酸(AA)157.2、95.6、141.3毫克;α-亚麻酸(ALA)4.2、1.0、1.8克,二十碳五烯酸(EPA)22.4、28.6、3.1毫克,二十二碳六烯酸(DHA)51.7、54.7、33.3毫克;n-6/n-3脂肪酸比值分别为4.7、20.9、17.2。河湖、沿海、内陆地区孕妇静脉血和新生儿脐带血血浆胆磷脂的AA水平分别是7.3%和15.7%、6.7%和16.1%、7.2%和16.9%;DHA水平分别是3.2%和4.7%、3.0%和4.3%、2.0%和3.6%。孕妇膳食AA、EPA、DHA摄入量与血浆CPG中相应脂肪酸水平呈现显著相关(p<0.05)。基于这些结果,可以认为:在中国,孕妇人群膳食脂肪摄入状况中的主要问题是n-3长链多不饱和脂肪酸,特别是EPA、DHA摄入量低和n-6/n-3脂肪酸比例不平衡。建议采取增加食用肥鱼或富含ALA植物油等方法增加中国孕妇膳食n-3脂肪酸的摄入量。
关键字:二十二碳六烯酸,花生四烯酸,二十碳五烯酸、中国孕妇、新生儿
 

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Polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption and concentration among South Indian women during pregnancy
PRATIBHA DWARKANATH, SUMITHRA MUTHAYYA, TINKU THOMAS, MARIO VAZ, PANAM PARIKH, RUCHIKA MEHRA AND ANURA V KURPAD
In recent years there is growing interest on the role of long chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 LC-PUFA) in pregnancy and the growth and development of the offspring. We aim to characterize and provide baseline data on the intake of LCPUFA (ω-3 and ω-6) in a prospective cohort of 829 pregnant Indian women and report asso-ciations between LCPUFA intake and erythrocyte membrane phospholipid fatty acid concentration in a sub-group at baseline (1st trimester), the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy. The dietary intake of all the macronutri-ents and of α-linolenic acid(ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) significantly increased over the 3 trimesters of pregnancy while that of ω-6 fatty acids (FA) remained unchanged. Median ω-3 FA intakes of ALA, EPA and DHA, however, were on average low at 0.56, 0.003 and 0.011 g/d, respectively while LA was 14.6 g/d during pregnancy. Consequently, the intake ratio of ALA to LA in the women in the pre-sent study was very low at 1:26. A significant decline in erythrocyte membrane arachidonic acid (AA) concen-tration but not of DHA was observed throughout pregnancy. This might be due to increased efficiency in terms of elongation of parent ω-3 FA. Dietary methods for improving the consumption of ω-3 FA need to be consid-ered in the diets of young women as well as during pregnancy. As newborns primarily depend on placental trans-fer of ω-3 FA there is need to examine the ω-3 LC-PUFA concentration in infants of mother’s with low intakes of ω-3 FA.

Key Words: long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA), linoleic acid (LA), α linolenic acid (ALA), pregnancy, South India

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南印度的懷孕婦女多元不飽和脂肪酸之攝取與含量
近年來對長鏈ω-3多元不飽和脂酸(ω-3 LCPUFA)在懷孕、後代的生長和發育的角色越來越感興趣。本研究目的是探討829位懷孕印度婦女的前瞻性世代,描述和提供LCPUFA(包含ω-3和ω-6)在研究起點(第一孕期)的攝取量資料,並以次群體探討研究起點(第一孕期)、第二孕期、第三孕期LCPUFA攝取與紅血球細胞膜磷脂質中脂酸含量之關係。所有巨量營養素、α-次亞麻油酸(ALA)、EPA、DHA的攝取量在3孕期中顯著增加,而ω-6脂酸攝取量保持不變。ω-3脂酸中的ALA、EPA、DHA攝取量中位數,都低於平均參考值,分別為0.56、0.003、0.011克/天,而亞麻油酸(LA)在懷孕期則為14.6克/天。因此,本研究中的婦女ALA與LA攝取比值是非常低的1:26。在紅血球胞膜中花生四烯酸(AA)濃度在整個孕期顯著下降,但DHA濃度無改變。這可能由於孕期中體內ω-3脂酸延長作用的效率增加。年輕女性以及懷孕婦女需考慮改善飲食以增加ω-3脂酸的攝取。因為新生兒的ω-3脂肪酸主要取決於胎盤轉移,有必要檢驗母親攝取量低的嬰兒ω-3 LCPUFA濃度。
關鍵字:長鏈多元不飽和脂酸、亞麻油酸、α次亞麻油酸、懷孕、南印度
 

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Development and validation of 3-Minute Nutrition Screening (3-MinNS) tool for acute hospital patients in Singapore
SU-LIN LIM, CHUNG-YAN TONG, EMILY ANG, EVAN JON-CHOON LEE, WAI-CHIONG LOKE, YUMING CHEN, MAREE FERGUSON, LYNNE DANIELS

It is important to detect and treat malnutrition in hospital patients so as to improve clinical outcome and reduce hospital stay. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a nutrition screening tool with a simple and quick scoring system for acute hospital patients in Singapore. In this study, 818 newly admitted patients aged above 18 years old were screened using five parameters that contribute to the risk of malnutrition. A dietitian blinded to the nutrition screening score assessed the same patients using the reference standard, Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) within 48 hours. Sensitivity and specificity were established using the receiver opera-tor characteristics (ROC) curve and the best cut-off scores determined. The nutrition parameter with the largest area under the ROC curve (AUC) was chosen as the final screening tool, which was named the 3-Minute Nutri-tion Screening (3-MinNS). The combination of the parameters weight loss, intake and muscle wastage (3-MinNS), gave the largest AUC when compared with SGA. Using 3-MinNS, the best cut-off point to identify malnourished patients is three (sensitivity 86%, specificity 83%). The cut-off score to identify subjects at risk of severe malnutrition is five (sensitivity 93%, specificity 86%). The 3-Minute Nutrition Screening is a valid, sim-ple and rapid tool that identifies acute hospital patients at risk of malnutrition in Singapore. It is able to differen-tiate patients at risk of moderate malnutrition and severe malnutrition for prioritization and management pur-poses.

Key Words: 3-Minute Nutrition Screening, subjective global assessment, validation, sensitivity, specificity

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研发及验证使用于新加坡急症医院病患的三分钟营养检视工具(3-MinNS)
检测与治疗营养不良的住院病患是十分重要的,因为这有助于改善临床医疗结果和减短住院时间。这次的研究是为了研发及验证一项使用于新加坡急症医院病患的营养检视工具。这项工具是以既简单又快速的评分系统来评估病患的营养状况。本研究先使用五項显示营养不良危机的参数来检视818位,年龄18岁以上的新住院病患。为了验证此工具,一名没有参与营养检视的营养师使用了营养评估参考标准-主观全面评估 (Subjective Global Assessment (SGA)),在48个小时内评估同一位病患。研究小组采用了受试者工作特征曲线(Receiver Operator Characteristic curve (ROC curve))来分析这工具的敏感度和特异性,并决定了最佳的切點分數。选择在ROC曲线下拥有最大面积(Area Under Curve (AUC))的营养参数作为最后的检视工具,并称为三分钟营养检视工具(3-MinNS)。这些参数包括体重减轻、进食量及肌肉流失。这三个参数合併再与SGA比较时也拥有最大的AUC。当用于检测营养不良病患时,三分钟营养检视工具(3-MinNS)的最佳切點是3分(86%敏感度,83%特异性)。而用于检测严重营养不良病患的最佳切點是5分(93%敏感度,86%特异性)。三分钟营养检视工具是一套有效、简单及快速的工具来检测新加坡急症医院病患是否有营养不良的危机。这项工具能够识别有中度及严重营养不良危机的病患,以达到优先分配及管理的目的。
关键词:三分钟营养检视工具,主观全面评估,验证,敏感度,特异性
 

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Accuracy of body mass index (BMI) thresholds for predicting excess body fat in girls from five ethnicities
J SCOTT DUNCAN, ELIZABETH K DUNCAN AND GRANT SCHOFIELD
The association between body mass index (BMI) and body fat in young people differs among ethnic groups. Consequently, BMI thresholds for defining childhood overweight may not represent an equivalent level of adi-posity in multiethnic populations. The objectives of this study were to characterise the relationships between BMI and percentage body fat (%BF) and to determine the appropriateness of universal BMI standards for pre-dicting excess fatness in girls from five ethnic groups. The BMI and %BF of 1,676 European, Maori, Pacific Is-land, East Asian, and South Asian girls aged 5-16 years were determined using anthropometric and bioim-pedance measurements. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were prepared to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the International Obesity Taskforce (IOTF) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) BMI thresholds for detecting %BF >85th percentile. Compared with European girls, South and East Asians averaged 4.2% and 1.3% more %BF at a fixed BMI and age, whereas Pacific Islanders averaged 1.8% less %BF. Areas under the ROC curves ranged from 89.9% to 92.4%, suggesting that BMI is an acceptable screening tool for identifying excess adiposity. However, the IOTF and CDC thresholds showed low sensitivity for predicting excess %BF in South and East Asian girls, with low specificity in Pacific Island and Maori girls. The development of an ethnic-specific definition of overweight improved diagnostic performance. We conclude that BMI can be an acceptable proxy measure of excess fatness in girls from diverse ethnicities, especially when ethnic-specific BMI reference points are implemented.

Key Words: epidemiology, ethnicity, child, adolescent, obesity

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可準確預測五種族女孩過多體脂肪的身體質量指數(BMI)切點
在不同種族的年輕族群中,身體質量指數(BMI)與體脂肪相關性也有所不同。因此,在不同種族人口中,定義兒童過重的BMI切點可能與肥胖程度不符。本篇研究目的在找出五種族女孩中,BMI與體脂肪比例(BF%)之關係,並探討以BMI通用標準預測過度肥胖的適當性。共有1,676位含歐洲裔、毛利族、太平洋島嶼族、東亞和南亞族裔的5-16歲女孩,接受體位測量及生物電阻法測量體脂肪。使用接受器操作特性(ROC)曲線評估國際肥胖工作小組(IOTF)及疾病控制和預防中心(CDC)的BMI切點對於偵測體脂肪高於85百分位的靈敏度及特異度。結果發現在同一BMI及年齡下,與歐裔女孩相比,南亞裔及東亞裔平均%BF高出4.2%及1.3%,但太平洋島裔女孩平均低1.8%BF。ROC曲線下面積從89.9%至92.4%,因此BMI可作為過度肥胖之篩選工具。然而IOTF及CDC訂定的切點,在預測南亞及東亞裔女孩過高體脂肪時,敏感度較低;而預測太平洋島裔和毛利族女孩時,特異度較低。依種族特異訂出的肥胖標準,診斷的功能較佳。結論,依種族特異性訂定出BMI參考點,在不同種族女孩中,BMI可作為過度肥胖之替代測量。
關鍵字:流行病學、種族、兒童、青少年、肥胖
 

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Food variety score is associated with dual burden of malnutrition in Orang Asli (Malaysian indigenous peoples) households: implications for health promotion
NURFAIZAH SAIBUL, ZALILAH MOHD SHARIFF, KHOR GEOK LIN, MIRNALINI KANDIAH, NAWALYAH ABDUL GHANI AND HEJAR ABDUL RAHMAN
This paper reports on the presence of dual burden households in Orang Asli (OA, indigenous people) communi-ties and its associated factors. A total of 182 OA households in two districts in Selangor with the required criteria (182 non-pregnant women of child bearing age and 284 children aged 2-9 years old) participated in the study. Height and weight of both women and children were measured. Energy intake and food variety score (FVS) were determined using three 24-hour diet recalls. While 58% were underweight and 64% of the children were stunted, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in women were 31% and 20% respectively. The percentage of dual burden households (overweight mother/underweight child) was 25.8% while 14.8% households had normal weight mother/normal weight child. The mean food variety score (FVS) was similar for women (7.0+2.1) and children (6.9+1.9). Dual burden households were associated with women’s employment status (OR: 3.18, 95% CI: 2.65-5.66), FVS of children (OR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.51-0.95) and FVS of women (OR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.02- 1.89). The FVS of children (OR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.25-0.89) and women (OR: 1.92, 95% CI: 1.64-2.77) remained significant even when dual burden households were compared to only households with normal weight mother/normal weight child. In these OA communities, food variety may predict a healthier diet in children, but may increase the risk of overweight and obesity in adults. Efforts to address households with dual burden malnu-trition should consider promotion of healthy diets and lifestyle for all members.

Key Words: indigenous peoples, dual burden of malnutrition, food variety, overweight, underweight

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食物多樣性分數與馬來西亞原住民家庭的兩極化營養不良相關:健康促進的建議
此篇報告是關於馬來西亞原住民社群中,有兩極化營養不良家庭的現象及其相關因子。在雪蘭莪省的兩個區域,共有182原住民家庭參加此研究(182位育齡但未懷孕的婦女及284位2-9歲兒童)。測量婦女及兒童的身高和體重。並使用三次24小時回憶問卷評量能量攝取及食物多樣性分數(FVS)。婦女過重及肥胖盛行率分別為31%及20%,但有58%的兒童體重過輕及67%的兒童生長遲緩。兩極化營養不良家庭(母親過重/兒童過輕)比例為25.8%;而14.8%的家庭中,母親及兒童體重都在正常範圍。母親(7.02.1)及孩童(6.91.9)有相似的食物多樣性分數(FVS)平均值。家庭兩極化營養不良分別與母親就業情形(OR: 3.18, 95% CI: 2.56-5.66)、兒童FVS(OR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.51-0.95)及母親FVS(OR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.02-1.89)有相互關聯。將兩極化營養不良家庭僅與兒童及母親體重正常的家庭相比,兒童及母親FVS仍有顯著關聯(OR: 0.49, 95%CI: 0.25-0.89; OR: 1.92, 95% CI: 1.64-2.77)。在原住民社區,食物多樣性或可用來預測兒童飲食健康;但在成人反而增加過重或肥胖危險性。努力解決兩極化營養不良家庭時,需考慮促進各成員健康飲食及生活型態。
關鍵字:原住民、兩極化營養不良、食物多樣性、體重過重、體重過輕
 

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What extent of weight loss can benefit the health-related quality of life in motivated obese Chinese?
CHIH-HSING WU, HUI-CHING KUO, CHIN-SUNG CHANG AND LUNG YU
Background: A clinical significant improvement in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is one of the main goals of weight control. Objective: To reveal the extent of weight loss on changes of HRQOL in obese Chinese. Design: A total of 119 motivated obese adults (BMI: 33.5  0.4 kg/m2) completed a 6-month weight loss inter-vention program by following either low calorie diet suggestions (LCDS; n=18), LCDS plus sibutramine (SG; n=27), LCDS plus orlistat (OG; n=41), or very low calorie diet (VLCD; n=33). Changes in body composition (TBF-410GS, Tanita Co., Tokyo, Japan) and HRQOL (36-item Short-Form (SF-36) questionnaire) were meas-ured accordingly. Results: After 6-months, the greatest weight loss (p<0.001) was found in VLCD group (14.1 ± 1.2 kg, 15.1%), followed by OG (10.6 ± 0.9 kg, 11.5%), SG (9.6 ± 1.3 kg, 10.2%) and LCDS alone (8.7 ± 1.2 kg, 11.1%). The physical component score of SF-36 were significantly improved at 6-month follow-up (p<0.001), but not the mental component score. Improvements in general health score of SF-36 ( mean: 6.1 ± 2.8, p<0.05) were greater in females than males. Subjects with weight loss  15 % had the greatest improvements in SF-36 scores whereas no changes in SF-36 scores were found with weight loss < 5%. Conclusions: The extent, not the type of intervention, of weight loss is highly correlated with the favorable changes in HRQOL at 6-months. Weight loss above 5% of baseline values is necessary to show significant improvements in HRQOL in motivated obese Chinese.

Key Words: very low calorie diet, sibutramine, orlistat, weight control, life quality
 

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有意減重的肥胖華人達到何種程度的體重減輕才有助於改善健康相關生活品質?
背景: 臨床上能顯著改善健康有關的生活品質(HRQOL)是體重控制的主要目標之一。目的:了解體重減輕程度對於肥胖華人HRQOL的改變。研究設計: 總計招募119位具有意願的肥胖成人(身體質量指數33.5  0.4 kg/m2)並完成六個月的不同減重介入計劃包含:低熱量飲食建議組(LCDS,18位)、LCDS合併諾美婷(sibutramine)組(SG,27位)、LCDS合併羅氏鮮(orlistat)組(OG,41位)或極低熱量飲食組(VLCD,33位)。評估受試者身體組成變化與HRQOL(短式36項問卷,SF-36)。結果: 經過六個月後,體重減輕最多為VLCD組(14.1 ± 1.2 kg, 15.1%, p<0.001),其次為OG組(10.6 ± 0.9 kg, 11.5%)、SG組(9.6 ± 1.3 kg, 10.2%)及LCDS組(8.7 ± 1.2 kg, 11.1%)。SF-36之身體生理分數在六個月追蹤時明顯改善(p<0.001),但是心理方面分數則不顯著。女性在整體健康分數的改善優於男性( mean: 6.1 ± 2.8, p<0.05)。體重減輕15%者在SF-36量分的改善幅度最大,體重減輕<5%者則SF-36量分未見改變。結論: 減重程度而非減重方式與六個月的HRQOL改善具有高度的相關。對有意減重的肥胖華人,體重必須減輕5%以上,才能呈現健康相關生活品質的進步。
關鍵字: 極低熱量飲食、諾美婷、羅氏鮮、體重控制、生活品質
 

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Association of major dietary patterns with obesity risk among Mongolian men and women
OTGONTUYA DUGEE, GEOK LIN KHOR, MUNN-SANN LYE, LHAGVA LUVSANNYAM, OYUNBILEG JANCHIV, BATJARGAL JAMYAN AND NORHAIZAN ESA

Mongolia is experiencing changes in its unique nomadic lifestyle and dietary habits in the last two decades with accompanying increase in obesity rate. The dietary pattern approach, which investigates the overall diet in rela-tion to obesity risks, has become appealing in nutrition epidemiology. The aim of this study was to identify ma-jor dietary patterns of the Mongolian adults in relation to the risk of having obesity. Dietary intake of a total 418 adults aged ≥ 25 years was assessed by using a food frequency questionnaire with 68 items. An exploratory fac-tor analysis resulted in three dietary patterns: transitional high in processed meat and potato, traditional rich in whole milk, fats and oils and healthy with greater intake of whole grains, mixed vegetables and fruits. Individu-als in the upper quintile of the transitional pattern had significantly greater risk of obesity (BMI≥25kg/m2: OR=2.47; 95% CI=1.04-5.86) while subjects in the highest quintile of the healthy dietary pattern were found to have significantly decreased risk of obesity (OR: 0.49; 95% CI=0.25-0.95). Men in the highest quintile of the transitional pattern had greater risk of abdominal obesity WC≥90cm: OR= 4.08; 95% CI=1.11-14.97) than those in the lowest quintile. Women in the top quintile of the traditional pattern had a greater odds of having abdomi-nal obesity (WC≥80cm: OR=4.59; 95% CI=1.58-13.30) than those in the lowest quintile. The study suggests that public health efforts be targeted at adults in Mongolia to address the undesirable aspects of the transitional and the traditional dietary patterns.

Key Words: dietary pattern, factor analysis, body mass index, waist circumference, Mongolian adults

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蒙古男性及女性主要飲食型態與肥胖風險之相關
蒙古人在過去20年來,隨著特殊的遊牧生活方式及飲食習慣改變,肥胖率也有上升情形。目前營養流行病學趨向使用飲食型態方法,調查整體飲食與肥胖危險的相關。本研究目標為針對蒙古成人,找出與肥胖風險相關之飲食型態。對象為418位年齡大於25歲之成年人,使用68項食物頻率問卷評估其飲食攝取。由探索性因素分析歸納出三種飲食型態:變遷飲食含多量加工肉品及馬鈴薯、傳統飲食富含全脂奶和油脂,最後一種為健康飲食攝取全穀類、蔬菜及水果。將各飲食型態分數,依五分位法分組比較,發現變遷飲食分數最高之受試者會顯著增加肥胖之風險(BMI25 kg/m2: OR=2.47,95% CI=1.04-5.86);而健康飲食型態分數最高者肥胖危險顯著較低(OR=0.49; 95% CI=0.25-0.95)。男性變遷飲食型態分數最高者,腹部肥胖(腰圍90cm)風險較大(OR=4.08; 95% CI=1.11-14.97)。女性傳統飲食型態最高分數者,腹部肥胖機率亦比較高(腰圍80 cm: OR=4.59; 95% CI=1.58-13.3)。本篇研究顯示,公共衛生目標應針對蒙古成年人闡明變遷及傳統飲食型態之不利影響。
關鍵字:飲食型態、因子分析、身體質量指數、腰圍、蒙古成年人
 

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Gender differences in “luxury food intake” owing to temporal distribution of eating occasions among adults of Hindu communities in lowland Nepal
NORIKO SUDO, MAKIKO SEKIYAMA, RYUTARO OHTSUKA AND MAKHAN MAHARJAN

Our previous studies in developing countries have indicated that gender differences in intake of luxury foods in-cur risk of micronutrient deficiencies among women. As the next step, we examined the causes of gender differ-ences in food intake by comparing eating patterns, including meal frequency (skipping) and temporal distribu-tion of food consumption throughout the day among adults of Hindu communities in lowland Nepal. A total of 321 adults (126 men and 195 women) aged 20 years and above were randomly selected from 94 households in three rural communities. A face-to-face questionnaire-based 24-hour dietary recall interview was conducted whereby foods eaten throughout the six eating occasions (morning snack, breakfast, lunch, daytime snack, dinner, and evening snack) were recorded and analyzed. Results shows that men frequently skipped lunch (p <0.001), they also frequently consume daytime snack (p <0.001), and consumed purchased luxury foods such as tea with sugar and milk (p = 0.008) and samosa (p = 0.049) as daytime snack. The six-eating occasion analysis revealed that gender differences in food intake of rural Nepalese adults occurred during lunch and daytime snack, attribut-ing to gender differences in daily activity patterns.

Key Words: women, luxury food intake, feeding behaviour, Nepal, 24-hour dietary recall interview

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尼泊爾低地印度教社區成年人「奢侈食物攝取」因進餐時機與場合不同而有性別差異
之前研究指出,發展中國家,因婦女較少攝取奢侈食物,而有微量營養素缺乏之風險。因此本篇研究進一步探討,食物攝取的性別差異原因何在。比較尼泊爾低地印度教社區成年人不同性別的進食模式,包括每日用餐頻率(省略某一餐)及時間分佈。三個農村社區94戶經隨機挑選後,共有321位20歲以上成人(男性126位;女性195位)參與研究。使用24小時飲食回憶問卷,面對面訪談詢問受試者,記錄六餐(早點、早餐、午餐、午點、晚餐及晚點)食物及攝食時機,納入分析。結果顯示,男性常常省略午餐(p<0.001),而午點攝取較頻繁(p<0.001),午點較常購買奢侈食物,如加糖及牛奶的茶(p=0.008)以及印度三角餃(p=0.049)。從六餐進食時機的分析而得知,尼泊爾低地印度教社區成年人食物攝取,在午餐及午點有性別差異,此差異可歸因於不同性別的每日活動型態不同。
關鍵字:婦女、奢侈食物攝取、飲食行為、尼泊爾、24小時飲食回憶面訪
 

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Influences on consumption of soft drinks and fast foods in adolescents
ELIZABETH DENNEY-WILSON, DAVID CRAWFORD, TIMOTHY DOBBINS, LOUISE HARDY AND ANTHONY D OKELY

Soft drink and fast food are energy dense foodstuffs that are heavily marketed to adolescents, and are likely to be important in terms of risk of obesity. This study sought to examine the influences on soft drink and fast food consumption among adolescents as part of a cross-sectional survey of 2,719 adolescents (aged 11-16) from 93 randomly selected schools in New South Wales, Australia. Students provided information on soft drink and fast food consumption, and responded to statements examining influences over consumption. Over half of the boys and more than one third of the girls reported drinking soft drink daily, and consumption peaked in Grade 8 stu-dents. A quarter of students reported choosing soft drinks instead of water or milk, and around 40% agreed that soft drink was usually available in their homes. Availability in the home and drinking soft drinks with meals was most strongly associated with consumption in all age groups. Fast food consumption was higher among boys than girls in all age groups. Convenience and value for money yielded the strongest associations with fast food consumption in boys, while preferring fast food to meals at home and preferring to “upsize” meals were most strongly associated with consumption in girls. Interventions to reduce consumption of soft drinks should target availability in both the home and school environment by removing soft drinks and replacing them with more nu-tritive beverages. Fast food outlets should be encouraged to provide a greater range of healthy and competitively priced options in reasonable portions.

Key Words: adolescent, obesity, fast food, soft drink, weight gain

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青少年攝取軟性飲料和速食食品的影響因子
軟性飲料和速食食品是高能量密度的食品,並大力針對青少年的市場行銷,極有可能是造成肥胖風險的重要因子。本研究目的在探討青少年攝取軟性飲料和速食食品的影響因素,從93個在澳大利亞新南威爾斯省隨機選擇的學校,橫斷性調查2719位青少年(年齡11-16歲)。學生提供了關於軟性飲料和速食食品的攝取情形,並回答影響攝取的相關問題。超過一半的男孩和三分之一以上的女孩每天喝軟性飲料,而攝取高峰在8年級學生。四分之一的學生選擇軟性飲料替代水或牛奶,而大約40%學生同意軟性飲料通常可在家中得到。在家中可得到和進餐時喝軟性飲料與所有年齡層軟性飲料的攝取有很密切的關聯。在所有年齡層,男孩攝取速食食品多於女孩。男孩中,便利性和物有所值與速食食品的攝取有最強的關聯;而女孩中,喜歡速食食品超過家中餐食及喜歡“升級”的餐點,與速食食品的攝取有強烈的關聯。若要減少軟性飲料的攝取,應針對家庭和學校環境,除去軟性飲料,以更營養的飲料替換。鼓勵速食餐廳提供多樣的健康與價格不高且份量合理的食品。
關鍵字:青少年、肥胖、速食食品、軟性飲料、體重增加
 

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Trends in BMI, diet and lifestyle between 1976 and 2005 in North Sydney
LILLIAN M KENT AND ANTHONY WORSLEY
Although the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Australia has increased during the past 30 years, little is known about the dietary and behavioural antecedents of body mass index (BMI). We examined changes in mean BMI, diet, and other lifestyle behaviours between 1976 and 2005 and described the cross-sectional associations between these factors and BMI. A series of biennial biomedical surveys by Sydney Adventist Hospital from 1976 to 2005 allowed examination of BMI trends, while the selection of three surveys enabled detailed examina-tion of likely dietary and lifestyle associations. Subjects included in this study were: 384 men and 338 women in 1976; 160 men and 146 women in 1978; 166 men and 141 women in 1980; 164 men and 142 women in 1982; 177 men and 13 women in 1984; 239 men and 227 women in 1986; 210 men and 225 women in 1988; 165 men and 148 women in 1990; 138 men and 167 women in 1992 and 270 men and 62 women in 2005. Height and weight were measured by hospital staff. Mean BMI increased in the early 1990s. Salt, coffee, cola, alcohol and meat consumption, dieting to lose weight and eating between meals were positively associated with BMI while physical activity, food variety, large breakfasts and consumption of spreads were negatively associated. Food consumption and daily activities have important associations with BMI, though their specific associations differ by sex. “Affluent” lifestyle patterns appear to contribute to higher BMI, while a more “prudent” lifestyle seems to protect from such increases. Key Words: BMI, diet, lifestyle, prudent lifestyle, Western lifestyle

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1976年至2005年澳大利亞北雪梨區居民身體質量指數,飲食和生活型態的趨勢
在過去30年,澳大利亞人的過重和肥胖盛行率確有增加,但鮮少探知影響身體質量指數(BMI)的飲食和行為。本研究探討1976年至2005年間,平均身體質量指數、飲食、和其它生活型態行為的變化,且橫斷性探討這些因子與身體質量指數的關聯。1976年至2005年雪梨Adventist醫院所做的每兩年連續的的生物醫學調查,提供BMI趨勢檢測。另選擇其中三次調查,詳細檢視可能相關的飲食和生活型態。研究對象包括: 1976年384名男性和338名女性,1978年160名男性和146名女性,1980年166名男性和141名女性,1982年164名男性和142名女性,1984年177名男性和13名女性,1986年239名男性和227名女性,1988年210名男性和225名女性,1990年165名男性和148名女性,1992年138名男性和167名女性及2005年270名男性和62名女性。身高、體重由醫院工作人員測量。1990初期平均身體質量指數上昇。鹽、咖啡、可樂、酒精和肉類的攝取,節食減肥和兩餐之間進食與BMI呈正相關;而身體活動量、食物種類、大量早餐、麵包塗醬攝取和BMI呈負相關。食物攝取和日常活動與BMI有重要的關聯,但其個別的關聯因性別而異。“富裕”的生活型態顯示導致較高的身體質量指數,而較“謹慎”的生活型態能防止其增加。
關鍵字:身體質量指數、飲食、生活型態、謹慎生活型態、西方生活型態
 

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Expert meeting on child growth and micronutrient deficiencies – new initiatives for developing countries to achieve millennium development goals: executive summary report
AVITA A USFAR, ENDANG L ACHADI, REYNALDO MARTORELL, HAMAM HADI, RAZAK THAHA, IDRUS JUS’AT, ATMARITA, DRAJAT MARTIANTO, HARDINSYAH RIDWAN AND SOEKIRMAN
Undernutrition in early childhood has long-term physical and intellectual consequences. Improving child growth should start before the age of two years and be an integrated effort between all sectors, covering all aspects such as diet and nutrient intake, disease reduction, optimum child care, and improved environmental sanitation. To discuss these issues, the Indonesian Danone Institute Foundation organized an expert meeting on Child Growth and Micronutrient Deficiencies: New Initiatives for Developing Countries to Achieve Millennium Development Goals. The objective of the meeting was to have a retrospective view on child growth: lessons learned from pro-grams to overcome under-nutrition in the developed countries and to relate the situation to the Indonesian con-text, as well as to discuss implications for future programs. Recommendations derived from the meeting include focus intervention on the window of opportunity group, re-activation of the Integrated Health Post at the village level, improvement of infant and young child feeding, expand food fortification intervention programs, strengthen supplementation programs with multi-micronutrient, and strengthening public and private partnership on food related programs.
Key Words: child, growth, micronutrient, deficiencies, Indonesia

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專家會議討論兒童生長和微量營養素缺乏-發展中國家達到千禧年發展目標的新倡議:執行總結報告
兒童早期營養不良會造成長期身體和智力的後果。改善兒童成長應始於兩歲以前,而且是一個整合各部門的工作,涵蓋所有方面,如飲食和營養攝取、疾病減低、最佳兒童照顧、及改善環境衛生。為討論這些問題,印尼Danone機構基金會組織了一次專家會議,討論兒童生長和微量營養素缺乏:發展中國家達到千年發展目標的新倡議。會議的目標是回顧展望兒童的成長:從已開發國家克服營養不良的計畫經驗中學習,並與印尼的現況相關連,進而討論未來計畫的意涵。會議建議包括重點介入之適當時機,重新啟動鄉村的健康整合據點,改善嬰兒和幼兒的餵食,擴大食物強化介入計畫,加強多種微量營養素補充計畫,在相關飲食計畫中加強公營和私營的夥伴關係。
關鍵字:兒童、生長、微量營養素、缺乏、印尼
 

 

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Last Updated: October 2009