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1 Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
       Volume 18, 1

         (March 2009)


Abstracts

Contents

Abstract 摘要

The Asia Pacific Clinical Nutrition Society Award for 2009: Citation for Hee Young Paik
MARK L WAHLQVIST
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(1):i.

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Original Research Communications

Aging and Elder Nutrition

Serum antioxidants and age-related macular degeneration among older Japanese
TAKEHIRO MICHIKAWA, SUSUMU ISHIDA, YUJI NISHIWAKI, YURIKO KIKUCHI, TAZURU TSUBOI, KANAE HOSODA, AI ISHIGAMI, SATOKO IWASAWA, MAKIKO NAKANO AND TORU TAKEBAYASHI
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(1):1-7.

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Growth and Child Nutrition 

Lentil-based high protein diet is comparable to animal-based diet in respect to nitrogen absorption and nitrogen balance in malnourished children recovering from shigellosis
MD IQBAL HOSSAIN, M MUNIRUL ISLAM, M ABDUL WAHED, MAKHDUMA KHATUN AND IQBAL KABIR
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(1):8-14.

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Stunting and zinc deficiency among primary school children in rural areas with low soil zinc concentrations in Jiangsu Province, China
YU QIN, ALIDA MELSE-BOONSTRA, JINKOU ZHAO, MING WU, XIAOSHU HU AND FRANS J KOK
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(1):15-21.

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Mental retardation is associated with plasma omega-3 fatty acid levels and the omega-3/omega-6 ratio in children
YASMIN H NEGGERS, EUN-KYUNG KIM, JU-MI SONG, EUN-JUNG CHUNG, YOUNG-SOOK UM AND TAESUN PARK
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(1):22-28.

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Macro- Micro- and Phyto-nutrients

Serum vitamin D status of Korean postmenopausal women during the winter months
EUN SIL LEE, JIHYUN AHN AND HYOUNG MOO PARK
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(1):29-33.

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Iodine status and thyroid function of pregnant, lactating women and infants (0-1 yr) residing in areas with an ef-fective Universal Salt Iodization program
YANLING WANG, ZHONGLIANG ZHANG, PENGFEI GE, YIBO WANG AND SHIGONG WANG
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(1):34-40.

 

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Maternal and Women’s Nutrition

Micronutrient status in anemic and non-anemic Chinese women in the third trimester of pregnancy
AI-GUO MA, EVERT G SCHOUTEN, YU WANG, RONG-XIAN XU, MING-CI ZHENG, YONG LI, QIUZHEN WANG AND YONGYE SUN
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(1):41-47.

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Nutritional status among postmenopausal osteoporotic women in North West of Iran
JALAL HEJAZI, JAVAD MOHTADINIA, SOUSAN KOLAHI AND MEHRANGIZ EBRAHIMI-MAMAGHANI
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(1):48-53.

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Nutritional Assessment and Status 

Nutritional risk, malnutrition (undernutrition), overweight, obesity and nutrition support among hospitalized patients in Beijing teaching hospitals
XIAOKUN LIANG, ZHU-MING JIANG, MARIE T NOLAN, XINJUAN WU, HAIYAN ZHANG, YINING ZHENG, HUAPING LIU AND JENS KONDRUP
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(1):54-62.

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Nutritional Economics 

Current and future costs of cancer, heart disease and stroke attributable to obesity in Australia – a comparison of two birth cohorts
ROBERT J AITKEN, MARGARET A ALLMAN-FARINELLI, LESLEY A KING AND ADRIAN E BAUMAN
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(1):63-70.

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Nutritional Epidemiology and Public Health

The repeatability of self reported physical activity patterns in rural South India
MARIO VAZ, ANKALMADAGU VENKATASUBBAREDDY BHARATHI, TINKU THOMAS, SALIM YUSUF AND ANURA VISHWANATH KURPAD
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(1):71-75.

 

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Food frequency questionnaire is a valid tool in the nutritional assessment of Brazilian women of diverse ethnicity
JUNKO ISHIHARA, MOTOKI IWASAKI, CLAUDIA MISAE KUNIEDA, GERSON SHIGEAKI HAMADA AND SHOICHIRO TSUGANE
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(1):76-80.

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Hyperuricemia and the metabolic syndrome in Hangzhou
ZHENZHEN CAI , XIAOFENG XU, XIANGMING WU, CIQIN ZHOU AND DUO LI
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(1):81-87.

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Nutritional status, Dietary Intake, and Body Composition

Understanding the differences in obesity among working adults between Taiwan and China
SATORU SHIMOKAWA, HUNG-HAO CHANG AND PER PINSTRUP-ANDERSEN
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(1):88-95.

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Effects of masticatory movement on cranial bone mass and micromorphology of osteocytes and osteoblasts in developing rats
TOSHIKAZU KAWAKAMI, SADAFUMI TAKISE, TAKAFUMI FUCHIMOTO AND HIROSHI KAWATA
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(1):96-104.

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Obesity criteria for identifying metabolic risks
JIN-WEN WANG, DA-YI HU, YI-HONG SUN, JIA-HONG WANG, GUI-LIAN WANG, JIANG XIE AND ZI-QIANG ZHOU
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(1):105-113.

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Nutritionally-Related Disorders and Diseases and Their Risk Factors

Sustainability of lifestyle changes following an intensive lifestyle intervention in insulin resistant adults: follow-up at 2-years
KELLY S DALE, JIM I MANN, KIRSTEN A MCAULEY, SHEILA M WILLIAMS AND VICTORIA L FARMER
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(1):114-120.

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Effects of supplementation with multivitamin and mineral on blood pressure and C-reactive protein in obese Chinese women with increased cardiovascular disease risk
CHENG WANG, YING LI, KUN ZHU, YAN-MEI DONG AND CHANG-HAO SUN
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(1):121-130.

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Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its influencing factors among adolescent girls in Mashhad, Iran
NAGHMEH-ZAHRA MIRHOSSEINI, NOOR AINI MOHD YUSOFF, SUZANA SHAHAR, SYYED MOHAHHAD REZA PARIZADEH, MAJID GHAYOUR MOBARHEN AND MOHAMMAD TAGHI SHAKERY
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(1):131-136.

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Special Report

Symposium on Diet, Nutrition and Immunity
RODOLFO F FLORENTINO
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(1):137-142.

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Book Review and Future Events

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(1):143-144.

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The Asia Pacific Clinical Nutrition Society Award for 2009: Citation for Hee Young Paik
MARK L WAHLQVIST

Hee Young Paik, ScD is a Professor in the Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Human Ecology, at the Seoul National University in Seoul, Korea. Dr Paik was born on September 30, 1950 in Seoul, Korea. She received the BS in food and nutrition from Mississippi University for Women in Columbus, Mississippi, the MS in food science from the University of California at Berkeley, and her ScD in nutrition from the Harvard School of Public Health in Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Dr Paik’s research interests have focused on dietary intake and the health and development of the Korean population. She developed computer software programs and questionnaires in the 1980s, which were utilized in large-scale surveys in Korea, including the first community-based health and nutrition survey which took place from 1993-1995. She continues to collect and analyze dietary data to understand the dietary and nutritional status of Koreans and related trends in Korea. Dr Paik also has a strong interest in the effects of long-term diet on bioavailability and metabolism of nutrients. She has investigated the effects of soy protein, phytate, high salt, and isoflavone—all of which are specific to the traditional Korean diet—on protein and mineral metabolism. She recently expanded her research interests, with studies of the dietary intake and nutritional status of Korean descendants living in China and the U.S., and in the cultural as well as health implications of changing dietary patterns which occur due to acculturation. Dr Paik was the President of the Korean Nutrition Society in 2005, and the Chair of the Committee for Dietary Reference Intakes of Koreans, 2002-2005, Chair of the Dietary Guidelines Committee in 2007 and 2009. She has served as President of the Korean Home Economics Association in 2003, and on various organizing committees of international meetings in nutrition and home economics held in Korea. She has also served on the editorial boards of the Korean Journal of Nutrition and the Korean Journal of Home Economics, and is currently on the editorial boards of Nutrition Today, Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition and Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism. Dr Paik is a four-time recipient of the Excellence in Research award granted by the Korean Nutrition Society, and received the Outstanding Research Award of the Korea Federation of Science and Technology Association in April, 2005. She was selected for the Humboldt Fellowship from 1990-1991 to visit the Institute of Social Medicine at the Free University of Berlin in Germany. She was among the Twenty Leaders of Science in Korea in 2005 and received the National Medal for Promotion of Science and Technology by Ministry of Science, Korea in 2008. Dr Paik was selected to be a member of the National Academy of Medicine of Korea in 2009. She currently serves as a Councillor of the International Union of Nutritional Sciences and plays a major role in nutrition leadership training in the Asia Pacific Region.
    The Asia Pacific Clinical Nutrition Society makes an annual Award to persons who have made exceptional contributions to the health, wellbeing and nutritional status of peoples in the Asia Pacific region. In 2009, Professor Hee Young Paik joins an illustrious line of Awardees since the first recipient in 1993, Profesor Tu Giay of Vietnam.
 

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Serum antioxidants and age-related macular degeneration among older Japanese
TAKEHIRO MICHIKAWA, SUSUMU ISHIDA, YUJI NISHIWAKI, YURIKO KIKUCHI, TAZURU TSUBOI, KANAE HOSODA, AI ISHIGAMI, SATOKO IWASAWA, MAKIKO NAKANO AND TORU TAKEBAYASHI

From the perspective of human nutrition, the prevention of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) through diet control is feasible and desirable. We investigated the relationship between serum antioxidants and AMD in the community-dwelling older Japanese eating a typical Japanese diet. In this study, 722 subjects aged 65 years or older (297 males and 425 females) who had gradable fundus photographs were included. The subjects were divided into three groups of early or late AMD or non-maculopathy. Serum antioxidants (alpha-, gamma-tocopherols, retinol, beta-cryptoxanthin, alpha-, beta-carotenes, lycopene, and lutein and zeaxanthin) were meas-ured with high-performance liquid chromatography. To clarify the combined effect as the group of the antioxi-dants, we defined the carotene family (alpha-, beta-carotenes and lycopene) and carotenoid family (beta-cryptoxanthin, alpha-, beta-carotenes, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin). Tertiles of each serum antioxidant were obtained and the prevalence of early or late AMD was compared with univariate or multivariate analysis. The overall prevalence of early AMD was 4.4% (95% confidence interval: 3.1-6.2) and late AMD was 1.1% (0.5-2.2). Only alpha-tocopherol and beta-cryptoxanthin were related to late AMD as single antioxidants. On the other hand, the carotene and carotenoid families as a combination of antioxidants were protectively associated with late AMD. No relationship was found between serum antioxidants and early AMD. Our findings support the hy-pothesis that a combination of serum antioxidants obtained from the traditional Japanese diet is protective for late AMD, but not for early AMD.
Key Words: serum antioxidants, Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD), diet, aged, Japan
 

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日本老人血清中抗氧化物質與老年黃斑病變之關係
在人類營養之前瞻性研究中發現,透過飲食控制老年黃斑病變(AMD)是可行且受期望的。我們調查居住社區且攝食傳統飲食之日本老人,其血清中抗氧化物質與AMD之關係。本研究共有722位受試者(297位男性與425位女性),年齡為65歲以上,都已做眼基底攝像。將受試者分為三組,分別為早期AMD、晚期AMD及未有黃斑病變組。血清中抗氧化物質(α-生育醇、γ-生育醇、維生素A、β-隱黃質、α-胡蘿蔔素、β-胡蘿蔔素、茄紅素、葉黃素及玉米黃質)利用高性能液相色層分析測量。為闡明抗氧化物質的結合性效用,定義胡蘿蔔素家族有α-胡蘿蔔素、β-胡蘿蔔素及茄紅素;類胡蘿蔔素家族包括β-隱黃質、α-胡蘿蔔素、β-胡蘿蔔素、茄紅素、葉黃素及玉米黃質。將血清抗氧化物質濃度分為三分位,利用單變項及多變項分析,比較早期AMD及晚期AMD之盛行率。早期AMD之盛行率為4.4%(95%信賴區間為3.1-6.2),而晚期AMD盛行率為1.1%(95%信賴區間為0.5-2.2)。只有α-生育醇及β-隱黃質有單獨效應,與晚期AMD相關。另一方面,胡蘿蔔素及類胡蘿蔔素家族有整體性效用,對晚期AMD有保護性。然而血清中抗氧化物質與早期AMD無關聯。本研究發現可支持作者之假說,即從傳統日本飲食中獲得的血清中抗氧化物質,可共同作用保護晚期AMD,但於早期AMD中未發現相同之結果。
關鍵字:血清抗氧化物質、老年黃斑病變、飲食、年長者、日本

 

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Lentil-based high protein diet is comparable to animal-based diet in respect to nitrogen absorption and nitrogen balance in malnourished children recovering from shigellosis
MD IQBAL HOSSAIN, M MUNIRUL ISLAM, M ABDUL WAHED, MAKHDUMA KHATUN AND IQBAL KABIR

Previous studies showed better absorption of protein and catch-up growth with animal-based high protein (15% energy from protein) diets (AP) than plant-based diets. This study compared the intake and absorption of nutri-ents from a lentil-based high protein (15% energy from protein) diet (LenP), AP, and a low protein (7.5% energy from protein) diet (LP). A total of 31 moderately malnourished 24 to 59 month old children convalescing from shigellosis were randomised to these three diets: LenP (n=11), AP (n=9) and LP (n=11). After two weeks adapta-tion with the respective diets, a 72-hour metabolic balance study was performed. The children’s baseline charac-teristics were comparable among the groups (one exception: children of LP group were less stunted). The costs of 1,000 kcal from LenP, AP and LP diets were 0.15, 0.75 and 0.11 US dollar, respectively. Average daily en-ergy intake (115-119 kcal/kg/d), coefficients of carbohydrate (89-91%), fat (80-90%), and energy (87-89%) ab-sorption were similar in all groups. MeanSD coefficient of nitrogen absorption (%) and nitrogen balance (g/kg/day) were 816 and 0.350.21 in LenP, 825 and 0.360.08 in AP, and 734 and 0.130.06 in LP groups, respectively (for both the nitrogen absorption and balance comparisons: LenP vs. AP, p>0.05; LenP vs. LP, p<0.05; AP vs. LP, p<0.05). The results showed higher absorption of nitrogen and its balance from high protein diets whether derived from lentil or animal source, which may enhance tissue protein deposition. A lentil-based high protein diet, which is less expensive, may be useful for nutritional rehabilitation of moderately malnour-ished children.
Key Words: lentil-based high protein diet, animal-based high protein diet, nitrogen absorption, nitrogen balance, malnutrition
 

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以扁豆為主的高蛋白質飲食與動物性蛋白質飲食有相近效果:觀察從桿菌性痢疾復原的營養不良兒童之氮吸收及氮平衡
之前的研究顯示動物性蛋白質來源的飲食(AP,15%熱量來自蛋白質)比起植物性來源的飲食,有較好的蛋白質吸收率及促進生長。這個研究比較一個以扁豆(LenP)為主的高蛋白飲食(15%熱量來自蛋白質),AP及一個低蛋白質飲食(LP,7.5%熱量來自蛋白質)的營養素攝取及吸收能力。年齡24-59個月大的31名輕度營養不良,由桿菌性痢疾復原的兒童,隨機分成三種飲食組:LenP (n=11)、AP (n=9)及LP (n=11)。經過兩週對於個別飲食的適應期後,進行一個72小時代謝平衡研究。各組的兒童基本特性都相似(惟一例外:LP組兒童的身高不足差距較小)。來自LenP、AP及LP飲食的1,000卡價格分別為0.15、0.75及0.11美元。每日熱量攝取平均值(115-119 kcal/kg/d)與碳水化合物(89-91%)、脂肪(80-90%)及熱量(87-89%)的吸收係數各組都相似。氮吸收(%)及氮平衡(g/kg/day)係數的平均值標準差,分別是LenP組為816及0.350.21,AP組為825及0.360.08,而LP組為734及0.130.06 (全部氮吸收及平衡比較:LenP vs. AP,p>0.05;LenP vs. LP,p<0.05;AP vs. LP,p<0.05)。此結果顯示不論是扁豆或是動物性來源的高蛋白飲食均有較高的氮吸收及氮平衡,這可能促進組織蛋白質儲存。以扁豆為主的高蛋白飲食較便宜,適用於中度營養不良的兒童之營養性修復。
關鍵字:扁豆為主的高蛋白飲食、動物來源高蛋白飲食、氮吸收、氮平衡、營養不良

 

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  Stunting and zinc deficiency among primary school children in rural areas with low soil zinc concentrations in Jiangsu Province, China
YU QIN, ALIDA MELSE-BOONSTRA, JINKOU ZHAO, MING WU, XIAOSHU HU AND FRANS J KOK

Objective: To assess stunting and zinc deficiency among primary school children in north rural area of Jiangsu Province with low soil zinc concentrations, eastern part of China. Methods: Two data collection rounds were conducted. In the first data collection round, 2268 primary school children aged 6-9 years were included by clus-ter sampling from three counties with low soil zinc concentrations. Anthropometric measures were assessed and stunting was defined as a z-score of height-for-age (HAZ) below -2 according to the WHO new Growth Stan-dards in 2006. For the second data collection round, the county with the highest prevalence of stunting was se-lected. From this county, 297 children aged 6-9 years were recruited by cluster sampling. Anthropometric meas-ures, serum and hair zinc, and haemoglobin were measured at this stage. Results: The total prevalence of stunt-ing (HAZ < -2) and mild stunting (-2  HAZ< -1) was 4.7% and 22.8% respectively, and Huain had the highest prevalence of stunting (8.1%) among the three counties. In Huain County the prevalence of zinc deficiency based on serum zinc concentration, hair zinc concentration, and both was 0.7%, 15.2% and 15.3%, respectively, and 32.3% of subjects were anaemic. Boys had a higher prevalence of zinc deficiency than girls (19.1 vs. 10.5%, p < 0.05), whereas the prevalence of anaemia in boys was lower than that in girls (28.2 vs. 37.3%, p = 0.07). Conclusion: Stunting and zinc deficiency were not highly prevalent among primary school children in rural counties with low soil zinc concentrations of Jiangsu Province.
Key Words: zinc deficiency, stunting, anaemia, children, China
 
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中国江苏省土壤缺锌地区农村小学生发育迟缓和锌缺乏情况调查 目的:了解苏北土壤缺锌地区农村小学生的生长迟缓和锌缺乏状况。方法:實施两次抽样调查。第一次抽样调查在3个土壤缺锌的縣區集群抽样了2268名6-9岁小学生,对他们进行了身高和体重的测量。按照2006年世界卫生组织最新的生长曲线,将年龄别身高(HAZ)评分小于-2定义为生长迟缓。第二次抽样调查在生长迟缓发生率最高的縣區集群抽样297名6-9岁小学生,进行身体和体重的测量,并采样检测血锌和髮锌、血红蛋白等。结果:在三个苏北土壤缺锌地区小学生生长迟缓和轻度生长迟缓(-2 ≤ HAZ评分 < -1)发生率分别为4.7%和22.8%,其中以淮安县的学生生长迟缓发生率为最高(8.1%)。在淮安县的第二次调查结果显示,以血清锌、髮锌和二者联合定义的锌缺乏率分别为0.7%、15.2%和15.3%,贫血患病率为32.3%。男生锌缺乏率高于女生(19.1 vs. 10.5%,p<0.05),而贫血患病率低于女生(28.2 vs. 37.3%,p=0.07)。结论:尽管土壤锌相对较低,但这些地区农村小学生生长迟缓和锌缺乏未见高发生率。 关键词:锌缺乏,生长迟缓,贫血,儿童,中国

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Mental retardation is associated with plasma omega-3 fatty acid levels and the omega-3/omega-6 ratio in children
YASMIN H NEGGERS, EUN-KYUNG KIM, JU-MI SONG, EUN-JUNG CHUNG, YOUNG-SOOK UM AND TAESUN PARK

There is evidence that alteration in plasma fatty acid composition may play a role in certain neurological disor-ders. This case control study was conducted to evaluate the association between plasma fatty acid levels and mental retardation in Korean children. Plasma phospholipid fatty acids, plasma lipids, dietary fatty acids and se-lected nutrients were measured in 31 mentally retarded boys (mean age 9.93 1.5 yrs) and matched controls. To-tal plasma omega-3 fatty acids (Σw3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) concen-trations were significantly lower and the Σomega-6/Σomega-3 ratio was significantly higher in cases than in con-trols. The odds in favor of mental retardation increased by 69 % for each unit increase in the Σomega-6/ Σomega-3 ratio (adjusted odds ratio = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.25-2.29). Significant variation in plasma Σomega-3 and the Σomega-6/ Σomega-3 ratio was explained by mental retardation and plasma HDL concentrations (45% and 37 % respectively). There was a significant inverse association between plasma DHA and mental retardation. For each unit increase in plasma DHA, odds of mental retardation decreased by 74 %. There was no significant difference in either total dietary fat or fatty acids intakes between cases and controls. The energy intake of cases was significantly higher than the controls. These results suggest that proportion of plasma Σomega-3 fatty acids, particularly, DHA, and the Σomega-6/ Σomega-3 ratio are associated with mental retardation in children in this study.
Key Words: plasma omega-6 fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids, docosahexanoic acid, mental retardation, children
 

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兒童智力遲緩與血漿中 ω-3 脂肪酸及ω-3/ω-6 比率相關 有研究指出血漿中脂肪酸組成改變對特定的神經異常有關。這個病例對照研究評估韓國小孩血漿中脂肪酸與智力遲緩之相關。測量31位智能遲緩之男孩(平均年齡為9.931.5歲)及其配對控制組之血漿中磷脂脂肪酸、脂質、飲食脂肪酸及營養素。病例組血漿之ω-3 脂肪酸(Σw3)、二十二碳六烯酸(DHA)及高密度脂肪酸(HDL)濃度顯著低於控制組,而ω-6/ω-3 比率顯著高於控制組。結果發現ω-6/ω-3 比率每增加一單位,智能遲緩勝算比增加69%(校正後勝算比為1.69,95%信賴區間為1.25-2.29)。顯著的血漿Σw3及Σω-6/Σω-3 比率之變異,能被智能遲緩及其血漿中高密度脂蛋白濃度解釋(分別為45%及37%)。血漿中DHA與智能遲緩有顯著之逆相關。血漿中DHA 每增加一單位,智能遲緩之勝算比可降低74%。在病例及對照組之飲食脂肪及脂肪酸攝取未達顯著差異。病例組能量之攝取顯著高於控制組。本研究發現,血漿Σw3脂肪酸、DHA及Σw6/Σw3比率與孩童智能遲緩相關。 關鍵字:血漿 ω-6 脂肪酸、血漿ω-3 脂肪酸、二十二碳六烯酸、智力遲緩、孩童

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Serum vitamin D status of Korean postmenopausal women during the winter months
EUN SIL LEE, JIHYUN AHN AND HYOUNG MOO PARK

Objective: To determine the vitamin D status of Korean postmenopausal women during the winter months according to the intake of vitamin D supplements. Design: Cross sectional study of serum 25(OH)D levels according to the intake of vitamin D supplements in postmenopausal women. Method: Between November 2006 and February 2007, 254 postmenopausal women who visited our menopausal clinic for hormone therapy or osteoporosis medication were recruited. Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured with a radioimmunoassay kit and the results were compared among groups that were classified according to the intake amount of vitamin D supplements. Results: The mean serum 25(OH)D level was 83.3 32.8 nmol/L and it increased as the intake amount of vitamin D supplements increased. The mean serum 25(OH)D level was not significantly different between groups 1 (no vitamin D supplements) and 2 (daily 100-300 IU supplements). However, the mean serum 25(OH)D level was significantly higher in group 3 (daily 400 IU supplements) than in group 1. While the mean value of group 4 (daily 600 IU) was not significantly different from that of group 3, it was significantly lower than that of group 5 (daily 800-900 IU). Conclusion: Vitamin D supplementation is highly effective in improving vitamin D status and the vitamin D status in this study population was improved considerably when compared to previous studies. Therefore, it is concluded that the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency should be re-evaluated in postmenopausal women in most countries including Korea. Key Words: vitamin D status, Korea, postmenopausal women, winter, vitamin D supplements

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韓國停經婦女在冬季的血清維生素D的狀態 目的:根據維生素D補充劑攝取量,探討韓國停經婦女在冬季的維生素D的狀態。研究設計:利用橫斷性研究,探討停經婦女中,攝取維生素D補充劑,血清25(OH)D的濃度。研究方法:2006年11月至2007年2月,本研究招募了254位到更年期門診而使用荷爾蒙療法,或使用骨質疏鬆症治療藥物的停經婦女。利用放射免疫分析試劑測量血清25(OH)D的濃度,並根據維生素D補充劑的攝取量去做分組比較。結果:25(OH)D的平均值為83.332.8 nmol/L。隨著維生素D補充劑攝取提高,血清25(OH)D的濃度也增加。在第一組(沒有使用維生素D補充劑)和第二組(每日攝取100-300 IU的維生素D補充劑)的25(OH)D平均值沒有顯著的差異。然而,第三組(每日攝取400 IU的維生素D補充劑)的血清25(OH)D平均值顯著高於第一組。儘管第四組(每日攝取600 IU的維生素D補充劑)的血清25(OH)D平均值沒有顯著不同於第三組,但顯著低於第五組(每日攝取800-900 IU的維生素D補充劑)的25(OH)D平均值。結論:維生素D補充劑是非常有效地改善維生素D的狀態。比起以往的研究,本研究的族群之維生素D狀態有相當大的改善。因此,本篇推論停經婦女在大多數國家,包括韓國在內,維生素D缺乏的盛行應重新評估。 關鍵字:維生素D狀態、韓國、停經婦女、冬季、維生素D補充劑

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Iodine status and thyroid function of pregnant, lactating women and infants (0-1 yr) residing in areas with an ef-fective Universal Salt Iodization program
YANLING WANG, ZHONGLIANG ZHANG, PENGFEI GE, YIBO WANG AND SHIGONG WANG

Objective: To assess the iodine nutrition and thyroid function of pregnant women, lactating women and infants residing in areas where the Universal Salt Iodization program is in place. Methods: Pregnant women, lactating women and infants were selected randomly in the regions where iodized salt coverage rate is more than 90% since 2000. Urine iodine levels of pregnant woman, lactating woman and infants, milk iodine of lactating woman, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free T4 of women were tested respectively. Results: Median Urinary Iodine (MUI) of infants, three groups of pregnant women (first, second and third trimester) and two groups lactating women (breastfeeding less than or more than six months) were 233, 174, 180, 147, 126 and 145 μg/L, respectively. Median milk iodine of lactating women was 163 μg/L. Percentage of milk iodine < 150 μg/L of early lactating women was 40% less than that of late lactating women (p < 0.01).There was a positive correlation between urine iodine of infants and milk iodine of lactating women (r = 0.526, p = 0.000). T4 of two women were above or below the reference range. Total 15.4% women’s TSH were abnormal. Most of these women’s urinary iodine were lower than 150 μg/L. Conclusion: Iodine status of most of the target population for Universal Salt Iodization program is adequate, but iodine deficiency still existed in some. To assure every new life’s brain not be damaged by iodine deficiency, iodine status of targeted populations should be monitored and supplements provided according to the monitoring outcomes. Key Words: iodine nutrition, iodized salt, thyroid hormone, urine iodine concentration, milk iodine concentration

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食盐加碘措施有效落实地区孕妇、哺乳期妇女及婴儿碘营养和甲状腺功能 本研究的目的是评价食盐加碘措施有效落实地区孕妇、哺乳期妇女及婴儿的碘营养状况及甲状腺功能。在碘盐覆盖率从2000年一直高於90%的地区随机选择不同生理阶段的孕妇、哺乳期妇女及婴儿,采集其尿样进行尿碘检测,采集妇女的血样进行T4和TSH测定,同时采集哺乳期妇女的乳汁测定乳碘。早、中及晚期孕妇,哺乳不足半年及半年以上妇女及婴儿的尿碘中位数分别为233、174、180、147、126和145 μg/L。乳汁碘中位数为163 μg/L。哺乳早期妇女尿碘低於150 μg/L所占的比例小于哺乳晚期妇女40% (p < 0.01)。婴儿尿碘与母亲乳汁碘之间存在正相关性 (r = 0.526, p = 0.000)。有两个妇女的T4值异常。共计15.4%妇女的TSH异常,这些妇女尿碘值多数低于150 μg/L。全民食盐加碘能满足大多数重点人群碘营养需要,但仍有部分人存在碘缺乏。为保证每个新生命免受因缺碘所造成的脑损伤,应对重点人群进行碘营养监测,并根据监测结果进行適度补充碘。 关键词:碘营养、碘盐、甲状腺激素、尿碘、乳碘

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Micronutrient status in anemic and non-anemic Chinese women in the third trimester of pregnancy
AI-GUO MA, EVERT G SCHOUTEN, YU WANG, RONG-XIAN XU, MING-CI ZHENG, YONG LI, QIUZHEN WANG AND YONGYE SUN

Background: Anemia is a major nutrition related problem in China. In addition to iron deficiency this may be due to deficiencies of other micronutrients. Objective: To describe the micronutrient status of anemic and non-anemic pregnant women in China. Subjects and Methods: 734 clinically normal pregnant women in the third trimester aged 20-35, were randomly recruited from the population of pregnant women regularly receiving pregnant examination in community medical centers. Serum concentrations of vitamins A, B12 and C, iron and zinc status parameters, and vitamin B2 in urine were determined. Subjects were categorized according to the presence or absence of anemia and compared according to micronutrient status. Results: Serum concentrations of iron and micronutrients were significantly lower in anemic women than non-anemic women: serum iron 909 g/L versus 1109 g/L, ferritin 13.8 g/L versus 19.6 g/L, vitamin C 308.9 g/L versus 388.1 g/dL, and retinol 50.0 g/dL versus 59.3 g/dL. Zinc concentrations were also lower in anemic women. Subnormal serum iron (<700 g/L) and iron depletion (ferritin <12 g/L) were 39.7% and 52.6%, significantly more frequent in anemic than 23.9% and 35.0% in non-anemic subjects, as were subnormal vitamin A and ascorbic acid. Subnormal vitamin B2 and B12 were frequent in both anemic and non-anemic groups. Conclusion: Subnormal concentrations of iron and micronutrients in combination may contribute to this situation. Further studies on food-based or supplement-based approaches trying to increase intake of iron and certain vitamins are warranted to decrease anemia in pregnant Chinese women in the third trimester. Key Words: anemia, pregnancy, micronutrient, vitamin, iron

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中国贫血与非贫血孕妇妊娠晚期的微量营养素状况 贫血在中国仍然是一个主要的营养问题。贫血的原因除了鉄摄入不足外,也可能与其他微量营养缺乏有关。本研究目的是对比分析贫血与非贫血孕妇机体鉄、维生素A等微量营养素的营养状况。研究对象的选择是在县、乡(镇)妇幼保健院(所)从常规孕情检查的孕妇中随机抽取年龄20-35岁,健康的孕晚期妇女734名,其中贫血孕妇(Hb < 110 g/L)403名,非贫血孕妇(Hb ≥ 110 g/L)331名。经知情同意后采集空腹静脉血并离心获得血清,分别检测血清维生素A、C、B12、叶酸、鉄、锌等,采集尿液分析维生素B2(/g 肌酐)的营养状况。结果显示血清鉄、鉄蛋白、维生素C和维生素A的浓度在非贫血孕妇中达到1109 μg/L、19.6 μg/L、388.1 μg/dL和59.3 μg/dL,而贫血孕妇血清中相应的营养素水平明显较低,分别仅为909 μg/L、13.8 μg/L、308.9 μg/dL和50.0 μg/dL(p值均小于0.05); 此外,血清锌的浓度在贫血孕妇中也较低。经过微量营养素边缘缺乏分析显示鉄、鉄蛋白、维生素A和维生素C的边缘缺乏率在贫血孕妇中明显高于非贫血孕妇。维生素B2和B12在贫血和非贫血孕妇中的边缘缺乏比例均高,但两组之间没有统计学差异。总之,本研究发现孕晚期妇女贫血可能与鉄、维生素A、维生素C等缺乏有关,建议孕晚期孕妇应及早從飲食增加或額外补充鉄、维生素A、维生素C、维生素B2、B12等微量营养素,有利于预防和治疗贫血。 关键词:贫血,妊娠,微量营养素,维生素,鉄

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Nutritional status among postmenopausal osteoporotic women in North West of Iran
JALAL HEJAZI, JAVAD MOHTADINIA, SOUSAN KOLAHI AND MEHRANGIZ EBRAHIMI-MAMAGHANI

Background: Osteoporosis is a multifactorial disease and one of the most important modifiable factors in the development and maintenance of bone mass is nutrition. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional status among osteoporotic postmenopausal women in north west of Iran and compare intake of several nutrients important in terms of bone health with the standard values (DRIs). Design: Bone mineral density of the left proximal femur, the lumbar spine and total hip were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Ninety-seven postmenopausal osteoporotic women were studied. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to determine food habits and 24-h recall was used to estimate average energy and nutrient intakes. Results: The mean t-score for bone mineral density (BMD) of LS, FN and total hip were -3.15 0.73, -1.93 0.86 and -1.92 0.88, respectively. The percentages of participants receiving adequate intake of calcium, vitamin D and vitamin K were 7.2%, 3.1% and 42.3%, respectively. The mean phosphate to calcium ratio was 1.6 0.87. BMD of femoral neck and total hip was correlated inversely with the amount of energy obtained from fat and positively with energy intake. Among micronutrients studied, calcium was positively correlated with BMD of total hip. Conclusion: Most of the postmenopausal osteoporotic women in north west of Iran have a considerable deficiency in terms of energy and some micronutrients such as calcium, vitamin D and magnesium, which can be deleterious for bone health. Key Words: osteoporosis, postmenopausal, nutritional status, bone density, calcium

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停經且骨質疏鬆的伊朗西北方婦女之營養狀態 背景:骨質疏鬆是一個多因子的疾病,而在骨質發展及維持上的一個最重要的可修飾因子就是營養。目的:本研究目的是要測定居住在伊朗西北方骨質疏鬆的停經後婦女的營養狀態,並且將幾個在骨健康方面重要的營養素攝取與標準值(DRIs)做比較。設計:利用雙能量X光吸收儀(DEXA)來測量左側近端股骨、腰椎、及全部髖骨的骨質密度。研究對象為97位骨質疏鬆的停經後婦女。利用一個有效的食物頻率問卷來定義研究對象的飲食習慣,並利用24小時回憶來評估平均熱量及營養素攝取。結果:腰椎、股骨、及總髖骨的骨質密度平均t-score分別為-3.150.73、-1.930.86以及-1.920.88。研究對象中攝取適量鈣、維生素D及維生素K的人數比例分別為7.2%、3.1%及42.3%。平均磷鈣比為1.60.87。股骨頸及總髖骨的骨質密度與由脂肪而來的熱量呈現負相關,而與總熱量攝取呈正相關。在微量營養素方面,鈣攝取與總髖骨的骨質密度呈正相關。結論:大部分居住於伊朗西北方的停經後骨質疏鬆婦女,在能量及一些微量營養素(例如:鈣、維生素D、及鎂)的攝取相當不足,這對骨健康是不利的。 關鍵字:骨質疏鬆、停經、營養狀態、骨質密度、鈣

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Nutritional risk, malnutrition (undernutrition), overweight, obesity and nutrition support among hospitalized patients in Beijing teaching hospitals
XIAOKUN LIANG, ZHU-MING JIANG, MARIE T NOLAN, XINJUAN WU, HAIYAN ZHANG, YINING ZHENG, HUAPING LIU AND JENS KONDRUP

The purpose of this study was to test the suitability of Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002) among hospitalized patients and to determine the prevalence of nutritional risk, undernutrition, overweight, obesity, nutritional support and the changes of nutritional risk from admission to discharge or over a two-week period. A prospective descriptive design was used to describe patients’ data collected at three Beijing teaching hospitals. A total number of 1500 consecutive patients, who met the inclusion criteria on admission and provided informed consent, were enrolled. The NRS 2002 was completed by 97.7% of all patients in this study. The overall prevalence of nutritional risk was 27.3%, the prevalence of undernutrition, overweight and obesity was 9.2%, 34.8%, and 10.2%, respectively at admission. Only 24.9% of patients who were at nutritional risk received nutritional support while 6% of non-risk patients received nutritional support. The overall prevalence of nutritional risk changed from 27.3% to 31.9% (p < 0.05), and the prevalence of undernutrition, overweight and obesity changed from 9.2% to 11.7% (p < 0.05), from 34.8% to 31.8% (p > 0.05) and from 10.2% to 8.6% (p > 0.05), respectively during hospitalization. Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 was a feasible nutritional risk screening tool in selected Beijing teaching hospitals. The prevalence of nutritional risk observed was nearly 30%. Inappropriate use of nutritional support was observed in hospitalized patients. The prevalence of nutritional risk increased in surgical patients during hospitalization. Key Words: Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002), nutritional risk in hospitalized patient, malnutrition (undernutrition) in hospitalized patient, overweight in hospitalized patient, obesity in hospitalized patient

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北京大型教学医院住院患者的营养风险、营养不良(不足)、超重、肥胖和营养支持现状的调查研究 本文是调研北京大型教学医院的住院患者营养风险、营养不良(不足)、超重、肥胖和肠外肠内营养支持现状和分析研究。前瞻性队列研究设计,计划经纶理委员会通过和有NCT登记号。在北京三家大型教学医院采用连续抽样,1500名符合入组条件的住院患者知情同意后参加本研究。本研究中有97.7%的住院患者可使用NRS 2002进行营养风险筛查。营养风险的发生率为27.3%,营养不良(不足)、超重、肥胖的发生率分别为9.2%、34.8% 和10.2%。 有24.9%存在营养风险的住院患者得到了肠外肠内营养支持,同时有6%无营养风险的患者也接受了肠外肠内营养支持。住院期间患者的营养不良(不足)、超重、肥胖发生率的变化分别由9.2% 到11.7% (p < 0.05),34.8% 到31.8% (p > 0.05),10.2% 到 8.6% (p > 0.05)。北京教学医院的住院患者营养风险的发生率近30%,临床上存在肠外肠内营养的不合理应用。 关键词:营养风险筛查NRS 2002、 营养风险、 住院患者营养不良(不足)、住院患者超重、 住院患者肥胖

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Current and future costs of cancer, heart disease and stroke attributable to obesity in Australia – a comparison of two birth cohorts
ROBERT J AITKEN, MARGARET A ALLMAN-FARINELLI, LESLEY A KING AND ADRIAN E BAUMAN

The obesity epidemic appears set to worsen the morbidity and mortality from leading causes of death in Australia – ischaemic heart disease, stroke and obesity-related cancers. The aim of this study was to compare hospital separations, deaths and direct health costs for middle-aged adults (45 to 54 years) in 2004/05 with those attaining age 45 to 54 years in 2024/25 who were born into an obesogenic environment. Using data from National Health Surveys, prevalence of obesity in 2004/05 was calculated for those born in 1950/51-59/60 and four scenarios were considered to project rates in 2024/25 for those born in 1970/71-79/80: an age-cohort model; a linear trend model; a steady state where rates increase to equal those of the older birth cohort at the same age; and a best case where rates remain at 2004/05 levels. Population attributable fractions were calculated by gender and disease using relative risks of disease from the literature, and applied to hospital separations, deaths, and direct health system costs data to estimate the proportion of each attributable to obesity. In 2024/25 the projected number of hospitalizations of 45 to 54 year olds due to the diseases of interest could be more than halved, over 200 lives rescued and $51.5 million (in 2004/05 dollars) saved if further gains in obesity in the younger birth cohort are halted. Instead, if the worst case scenario is realized there will be a more than doubling in costs (in 2004/05 dollars) compared with those born in 1950/51-59/60.  Key Words: obesity, health costs, cancer, stroke, coronary heart disease

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與肥胖有關的現今與未來癌症、心臟病及中風之花費-澳洲兩個出生世代的比較 肥胖流行性的出現,惡化了澳洲首要死因的發生率和死亡率,即缺血性心臟病、中風和與肥胖相關的癌症。本研究的目的是比較2004/05年45-54歲中年人和生長於肥胖促成環境而在2024/25年達到45-54歲族群之住院人次、死亡及直接醫療花費。使用國家健康調查(National Health Surveys)的資料,計算出生於1950/51-59/60年的人在2004/05年的肥胖盛行率;對於出生於1970/71-79/80年的人以四個情境來預測2024/25年的肥胖盛行率:一個年齡世代模式、一個線性趨勢模式、一個穩定的狀態,肥胖比例增加至與同年齡的年長世代相當、和一個最好的情況,肥胖率維持在2004/05年的程度。人群歸因危險度按性別和疾病分開估算,根據文獻,肥胖對這些疾病都有高的相對危險比。估算得到的歸因危險度則被用來評估與肥胖相關的疾病之住院人次、死亡及直接醫療花費比率。如果在年輕世代中肥胖率不再上升,預測2024/25年,因為相關的疾病而住院的45-54歲人次可能減半,超過200個生命被挽救,同時可節省51.5百萬元。反之,如果是最糟的情境實現,將會比出生於1950/51-59/60年的人支出(以2004/05年幣值)兩倍以上的花費。 關鍵字:肥胖、醫療費用、癌症、中風、冠狀動脈心臟病

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The repeatability of self reported physical activity patterns in rural South India
MARIO VAZ, ANKALMADAGU VENKATASUBBAREDDY BHARATHI, TINKU THOMAS, SALIM YUSUF AND ANURA VISHWANATH KURPAD

The objective of this study was to develop a physical activity assessment questionnaire for use in poorly educated and low socio-economic rural communities in developing countries and assess the repeatability of the measurements over a one-year duration. Physical Activity Level, as a composite measure of daily physical activity (PAL = estimated 24 hour energy expenditure / estimated basal metabolic rate) was derived from the semi-pictorial, interviewer based questionnaire assessing physical activity over the previous 1 week. PAL of both men and women was unchanged across the different seasons of the year. Correlations between the first physical activity questionnaire and the mean of at least 4 questionnaires administered during the course of one year were generally high (males: PAL ‘r’ = 0.69, individual domains ‘r’ between 0.57 and 0.82; females: PAL ‘r’ = 0.7, individual domains ‘r’ between 0.41 and 0.76, all p < 0.05). Within- individual % coefficient variations (CV) across 4 physical activity questionnaires were low for sleep duration and PAL (< 14%) but high for the other domains of physical activity (77-100%). The data, at least in this community, suggest that while within-individual variations in specific domains of physical activity may be considerable, the questionnaire that we designed can rank individuals in terms of their PAL or individual domains of physical activity fairly consistently. A single physical activity assessment using this instrument may therefore be adequate to rank individuals. Key Words: Physical activity, methods, rural, India, questionnaire

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印度南部鄉村自陳體能活動型態的再現性 此篇研究目的為發展一體能活動量評估問卷,使應用於開發中國家低教育程度及低社經地位之鄉村居民,並且評估一年期間測量之再現性。體能活動程度 (PAL) 是每日體能活動的複合性測量 (PAL = 24小時能量消耗估計量/基礎代謝率估計值),由訪員利用半圖示問卷評估前一週之體能活動量。成人之PAL未因季節不同而有所改變。第一次體能活動量問卷結果與隨後一年期間至少四次問卷平均值的相關係數均相當高(男性:PAL相關係數為0.69,各項活動量相關係數介於0.57-0.82;女性:PAL相關係數為0.7,各項活動量相關係數介於0.41-0.76,p<0.05)。四次活動量問卷的個體內之變異係數(%CV),在睡眠時間及PAL(<14%)較低,但在其他項目活動量的變異係數頗高(77-100%)。這些數據顯示在此社區中,在特定項目的體能活動量,個體內變異可能相當可觀。然而,我們設計的這份問卷,可根據PAL或單項體能活動量將受試者做相當一致性之排序。使用這個工具評估單一項體能活動量,即足以用來將個體排序。 關鍵字:體能活動量、方法、鄉村、印度、問卷

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Food frequency questionnaire is a valid tool in the nutritional assessment of Brazilian women of diverse ethnicity
JUNKO ISHIHARA, MOTOKI IWASAKI, CLAUDIA MISAE KUNIEDA, GERSON SHIGEAKI HAMADA AND SHOICHIRO TSUGANE

The objective of this study was to validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used to estimate energy and selected nutrient intake in a Brazilian population with various ethnic backgrounds. Validity of intake estimated using the FFQ was tested among 55 Brazilian women, namely 26 Caucasians, 15 of Japanese descent, and 14 others. The FFQ was originally developed for use in a case-control study of breast cancer conducted in So Paulo. Dietary records (DRs) recorded in two seasons were used as references. Intake of energy and 24 nutrients were calculated using the USDA and Japanese food composition tables. Validity and reproducibility were evaluated using Spearman’s correlation coefficients. Results showed that intake of chicken/poultry, eggs and legumes were overestimated by the FFQ compared to the DR, whereas that of pork and fat was underestimated. Further, intake of folate, fiber and isoflavones was overestimated by the FFQ whereas that of energy, fat, carbohydrate alpha-carotene and lycopene was underestimated. Energy-adjusted correlation coefficients between nutrient intakes estimated with the FFQ and DR were high for isoflavones (0.76), calcium (0.50), and vitamin C (0.49). In contrast, validity varied from moderately high to low for energy and other nutrients. In conclusion, validity of the FFQ for estimation of the intake of selected nutrients among Brazilian women with varied ethnic background was moderately high. Key Words: FFQ, ethnicity, reproducibility, validity, nutritional assessment

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食物頻率問卷對於不同種族的巴西婦女是一種具有效度的營養評估工具 本研究目的為確認食物頻率問卷(FFQ)作為多種族背景的一巴西族群之熱量及選出的營養素攝取評估的效度。FFQ攝取量評估的效度是測試55名巴西婦女,包括26名白人、15名日本裔及14名其他種族。此套FFQ原本是為Sao Paulo的一個乳癌病例對照研究而發展出來的。以兩季的飲食紀錄(DRs)當作參考值。使用USDA及日本食物組成表計算熱量及24種營養素的攝取量。使用斯皮爾曼相關係數評估效度及信度。結果顯示FFQ比起DR,在雞肉/家禽類、蛋類及豆類是高估,反之豬肉及脂肪是低估。再者,FFQ高估葉酸、纖維素及異黃酮的攝取,反之熱量、脂肪、碳水化合物、α-胡蘿蔔素及蕃茄紅素是低估。經過熱量校正後,FFQ與DR對營養素攝取量的評估,在異黃酮(0.76)、鈣質(0.50)及維生素C(0.49)有高的相關係數。相反地,對熱量及其他營養素的效度並不一致,從適度地高到低。總之,對有多種族背景的巴西婦女,FFQ在評估某些營養素攝取量的效度是適度地高。 關鍵字:食物頻率問卷、種族、信度、效度、營養評估

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Hyperuricemia and the metabolic syndrome in Hangzhou
ZHENZHEN CAI , XIAOFENG XU, XIANGMING WU, CIQIN ZHOU AND DUO LI

The aim of this study was to investigate prevalences of hyperuricemia and the metabolic syndrome (MS) in the Hangzhou population, and the relationship between serum uric acid and the MS. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 4155 subjects (2614 men and 1541 women) aged 20-80 years, recruited through a health check program in Hangzhou, China. Biochemical and haematological parameters were measured by standard methods. The diagnosis of the MS is made when three or four of the following criteria are met: 1) body mess index (BMI) ≥ 25; 2) systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg; 3) fasting triacyglycerol ≥ 1.7 mmol/L (150 mg/dL), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) < 0.9 mmol/L (35 mg/dL) in men and <1.0 mmol/L (39 mg/dL) in women; 4) fasting glucose ≥ 6.1 mmol/L (109 mg/dL). Hyperuricemia is defined by cut-off values of > 420 mol/L for men and > 360 mol/L for women. Prevalences were 16.9% (N=702) for hyperuricemia and 8.4% (N=349) for the MS. Serum uric acid concentration was significantly higher in males than in females (p<0.0001), and significantly higher in subjects with obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension compared with those without. In the partial correlation analysis, after controlling for gender, age and creatinine, serum uric acid concentration was significantly positively correlated with BMI (r=0.301, p<0.0001), systolic blood pressure (r=0.151, p<0.0001), diastolic blood pressure (r=0.168, p<0.0001), total cholesterol (r=0.144, p<0.0001) and triacyglycerol (r=0.234, p<0.0001). Results suggest that increased serum uric acid concentration is associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic disorders such as obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension in the Hangzhou population. Key Words: uric acid, the metabolic syndrome, correlation, Hangzhou, China

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杭州地区人群的高尿酸血症和代谢综合征 本研究主要探讨杭州地区人群的高尿酸血症和代谢综合征的发病率,以及两者之间的相关性。从杭州疗养院进行健康体检的人群中征集4155名体检者作为研究对象,其中包括2614名男性和1541名女性,年龄介于20至80岁。血液生化参数均以标准方法测定。以下4项指标中具备3项以上的,被诊断为代谢综合征:1)身体质量指数≥25;2)收缩压≥140 mmHg 或舒张压≥90 mmHg;3)三酸甘油酯≥1.7 mmol/L(150 mg/dL),高密度脂蛋白胆固醇在男性<0.9 mmol/L(35 mg/dL),女性<1.0 mmol/L(39 mg/dL);4)空腹血糖≥6.1 mmol/L(109 mg/dL)。高尿酸血症的诊断标准为,男性血尿酸>420 mol/L,女性>360 mol/L。结果显示,高尿酸血症的发病率为16.9%(702例),代谢综合征的发病率为8.4%(349例)。男性的血尿酸浓度显著高于女性(p<0.0001),肥胖、血脂紊乱、高血压都可使血尿酸浓度显著升高。把性别、年龄和肌酸酐浓度作为控制变量的偏相关分析结果显示,血尿酸浓度和身体质量指数、收缩压、舒张压、总胆固醇浓度、三酸甘油酯浓度都呈显著正相关。本研究结果提示,杭州地区人群的血尿酸浓度升高,和肥胖、血脂紊乱、高血压等代谢性疾病相关。 关键词:尿酸、代谢综合征、相关性、杭州、中国

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Understanding the differences in obesity among working adults between Taiwan and China
SATORU SHIMOKAWA, HUNG-HAO CHANG AND PER PINSTRUP-ANDERSEN

Objective: To investigate the difference in the prevalence of obesity and the associations between the risk of obesity and socioeconomic factors with regard to working adults in China and Taiwan. Data: the 2000 China Health and Nutrition Survey and the 2001 National Health Interview Survey in Taiwan, which contains information from 20-60-year-old working adults in China (3,067 men and 2,998 women) and Taiwan (6,475 men and 6,341 women). Method: Variables were converted to cross-economy comparable forms, and the estimated prevalence of obesity across socioeconomic groups was compared between China and Taiwan. Probit models were used to examine the associations between socioeconomic factors and the probability of being obese. Results: In China, the prevalence of obesity was higher in the higher income, more educated, and more sedentary occupation groups, while it was higher in the lower income and less educated groups in Taiwan. Also, our results indicate that occupational types rather than income and education levels are more significantly associated with the probability of being obese in China, whereas income and education levels rather than occupational types are more significantly associated with the probability of being obese in Taiwan. These findings may indicate that, when an economy becomes more developed, the association between obesity risk and income and education levels becomes more significant and negative especially among women, while the association between obesity risk and occupational types decreases especially among men. Key Words: obesity, socioeconomic factors, adults, Taiwan, China

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探討中國與台灣有工作之成年人肥胖的差異 目的:探討中國與台灣有工作之成年人肥胖盛行率以及其社經影響因子的差異。 資料:擷自2000年中國健康與營養調查與2001年台灣國民健康調查。分析對象集中於20歲到60歲有工作的成年人。中國樣本共包含3,067位男性與2,998位女性,台灣樣本共包含6,474位男性以及6,341位女性。方法:用於分析中的變數與肥胖盛行率已轉換成同一比較基礎。應用二元Probit模型來解釋社經變數與肥胖率的關係。結果:在中國,高所得、高教育、以及從事久坐工作的成年人有較高肥胖率。在台灣,低所得與低教育程度工作者有較高肥胖率。另外,中國分析反映出,相較於所得與教育程度,職業別和肥胖率有較高關聯性。但是在台灣,所得與教育程度相較於職業別,對肥胖而言關聯較顯著。本文研究發現指出,當經濟發展趨向成熟時,教育程度與所得對肥胖率有負向顯著影響,尤其對女性而言;反之,肥胖風險與職業別的關聯性卻降低,此現象對男性工作者尤其明顯。 關鍵字:肥胖、社經因子、成年人、台灣、中國

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Effects of masticatory movement on cranial bone mass and micromorphology of osteocytes and osteoblasts in developing rats
TOSHIKAZU KAWAKAMI, SADAFUMI TAKISE, TAKAFUMI FUCHIMOTO AND HIROSHI KAWATA

In order to evaluate the influence of masticatory movement on cranial bone mineral density (BMD) and osteocyte and osteoblast micromorphology, we conducted a study in rats fed with solid feed (n=10) and powdered feed (n=10). Cranial BMD was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Osteocyte morphology was evaluated by light microscopy. In addition, some of the tissue was treated with EDTA-KOH to digest the bone matrix and prepare osteocyte samples. Micromorphology of the osteocytes was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Bone mineral content (BMC) was significantly higher in the solid feed group (1.86 0.11 g) than in the powdered feed group (1.63 0.09 g) (p < 0.05). In the solid feed group, the maximum masseter muscle tension when crushing solid feed was 305 46.0 N. Immunohistochemical staining with DMP-1 showed greater positive localization of DMP-1 in bone lacunae in the solid feed group than in the powdered feed group. On examination of cranial bone sections by SEM, the lacunar area was significantly larger in the solid feed group (0.64 0.08 μm2) than in the powdered feed group (0.43 0.10 μm2) (p < 0.01). In the solid feed group, adjacent osteocytes were connected through cytoplasmic branches and reticular cell processes to form a 3-dimensional structure. In the powdered feed group, connecting osteocyte processes were sparser. Results suggest that masticatory movement stimulates mediator substances involved in dynamic interactions between osteocytes, increases cranial bone mass during the developmental period and influences osteoblast, osteocyte, and lacunar micromorphology. Key Words: masticatory movement, cranial bone density, osteocytes, osteoblasts, bone lacunae, DMP-1

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在發育的大鼠中咀嚼運動對頭蓋骨量及骨細胞和成骨細胞的微觀型態的影響 為了評估咀嚼運動對頭蓋骨質密度(BMD)、骨細胞和成骨細胞的微觀形態之影響本研究利用大鼠來試驗,餵食固體飼料(n=10)或粉狀飼料(n=10)頭蓋骨質密度藉由雙能X光吸收儀(DXA)來檢測骨細胞形態以光學顯微鏡評估。另外一些組織利用EDTA-KOH來消化骨基質和製作骨細胞樣品骨細胞的微觀形態則用掃描式電子顯微鏡(SEM)檢測。在餵食固體飼料(1.86 0.11 g)的骨礦物質含量(BMC)顯著高於粉狀飼料組(1.63 0.09 g) (p < 0.05)在餵食固體飼料組中咬碎固體飼料的最大咬肌張力為305 46.0 N。以免疫組織化學法染色骨基質蛋白質(DMP-1),發現餵食固體飼料組比起粉狀飼料組骨腔隙中有較多的DMP-1存在藉由掃描電子顯微鏡檢測頭蓋骨切片,在餵食固體飼料組(0.64 0.08 μm2)的腔隙區域顯著大於粉狀飼料組(0.43 0.10 μm2) (p < 0.01)。在固體飼料組中,相鄰骨細胞藉由細胞質分支和網狀細胞突連接,以形成三級結構而在粉狀飼料組中,連接骨細胞的細胞突較稀疏。研究結果顯示,咀嚼運動刺激物質參與調節骨細胞的動態交互作用,並且增加發育期間頭蓋骨量和影響成骨細胞、骨細胞和骨腔隙的微觀形態。 關鍵字:咀嚼運動、頭蓋骨密度、骨細胞、成骨細胞、骨腔隙、骨基質蛋白質-1

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Obesity criteria for identifying metabolic risks
JIN-WEN WANG, DA-YI HU, YI-HONG SUN, JIA-HONG WANG, GUI-LIAN WANG, JIANG XIE AND ZI-QIANG ZHOU

Criteria of obesity in the Chinese population with multiple metabolic risk factors remains unclear. The objective was to determine the best anthropometrical measurements with regard to the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and to propose optimal cut-off values. Between April and August, 2007, 3,704 men and 6,392 women aged 18-85 years were recruited from four community centers. Medical examinations included measurement of weight, height, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, fasting blood triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), glucose concentrations, and blood pressure (BP). Body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR), WC and waist to stature ratio (WSR) were calculated. Four metabolic risk factors were examined: 1) high BP; 2) high levels of TG; 3) low levels of HDL-C; 4) impaired glucose tolerance. The relationships between studied indices and risk factors were analyzed using partial correlation analyses, analysis of variance (ANOVA), linear regression, and Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The optimal cut-off values of each obesity index were calculated using ROC analysis respectively. All obesity indices were positively associated with metabolic risk factors. Area under curve (AUC) of WC was the largest for ≥ 2 risk factors after adjustment for age in both genders. Optimal cut-off points for WC were 89 cm in men, and 80.5cm, 82.5cm, and 89.5cm in < 40-yr, 40-60-yr, and > 60-yr women respectively. Waist circumference is best associated with metabolic risk factors among the studied indices in Chinese adults. Indices of abdominal obesity for older age groups tend to be higher than younger age groups in women. Key Words: obesity, waist circumference, metabolic risk factors, ROC curve analysis, Chinese

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代谢综合征的肥胖标准 与多个代谢危险因素相关的中国人群的肥胖标准尚存在争议。本研究目的是寻找检出代谢综合征的最佳人体测量指标及适宜切点值。于2007年4月至8月期间,调查了北京市四个社区的年龄在18-85岁之间的居民,其中男性3704位,女性6392位。所有人检测了身高、体重、腰围(WC)、臀围、血压(BP)、血清甘油三酯水平(TG)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)水平及空腹血糖水平。分别计算了每个人的体重指数(BMI)、腰围身高比(WSR)和腰臀比(WHR)。四个代谢危险因素包括1)高血压; 2)高TG血症; 3)低HDL-C血症; 4)高血糖。分析人体测量指标与代谢风险关系的统计方法包括偏相关分析、方差分析、线性回归和接收器運作特性(ROC)曲线分析,适宜切点值由ROC分析得出。所有肥胖指标均与代谢危险因素有正相关。校正年龄后,腰围检出2个以上代谢危险因素聚集的敏感性、特异性最佳。男性腰围切点值是89 cm,而女性在小於40岁、40-60岁和大於60岁年龄组的腰围切点值分别为80.5 cm、82.5 cm和89.5 cm。因此,在本研究的人体测量指标中,腰围与中国成人代谢危险因素的相关性最强,老年女性人群的肥胖指标高于較年輕女性。 關鍵字:肥胖、腰围、代谢危险因素、ROC曲线分析、中国人

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Sustainability of lifestyle changes following an intensive lifestyle intervention in insulin resistant adults: follow-up at 2-years
KELLY S DALE, JIM I MANN, KIRSTEN A MCAULEY, SHEILA M WILLIAMS AND VICTORIA L FARMER

The objective of this study was to determine whether overweight insulin resistant individuals who lost weight and improved cardiovascular risk factors during a 4-month lifestyle intervention could sustain these lifestyle changes in the long-term. Seventy-nine insulin resistant adults were randomised to a control group or either a modest or intensive lifestyle intervention group for 4-months. Thereafter the two intervention groups were combined and all participants were followed-up at 8, 12 and 24 months. Anthropometry, blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipids, insulin and aerobic fitness were measured and dietary intake was assessed. An interview was conducted to determine factors which participants perceived facilitated or hindered maintenance of healthy lifestyle habits. Seventy-two (91.1%), sixty-nine (87.3%) and sixty-two (78.5%) participants were retained at 8, 12 and 24-month respectively. At 4-months the adjusted difference in weight between the modest and control groups was -3.4 kg (95% CI -5.4, -1.3) p=0.002 and intensive and control groups was -4.7 kg (-6.9, -2.4) p=0.0001 respectively. At 2-years there were no significant differences for weight when the initial 3 groups were compared or when the combined intervention group was compared with the control group. At 2-years, 64% of participants reported that more frequent follow-up would have helped them to maintain healthy lifestyle habits. Even intensive counselling for 4-months with 4-monthly and then yearly monitoring were not enough for maintaining lifestyle changes sufficient to sustain weight loss. More frequent monitoring for an indefinite period was perceived by two-thirds of participants as necessary for them to maintain their initial lifestyle changes. Key Words: Weight maintenance, insulin resistance, obesity, diet, physical activity

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有胰島素阻抗性的成人接受密集的生活型態介入後對其後續生活型態的改變:追蹤2年 此研究目的為評估有胰島素阻抗且體重過重的人,在4個月的生活型態介入,降低體重及改善心血管疾病危險因子之後,是否能長期維持那些生活型態改變。79名胰島素阻抗的成年人,隨機分配為控制組、或者是4個月的適度或是密集生活型態介入組。之後合併2組介入組。追蹤所有參與者在第8、12及24個月的情形。測量他們的體位、血壓、禁食血糖、血脂、胰島素及有氧體適能,並評估飲食攝取。面訪參與者以找出那些對維持健康的生活習慣之自覺促進或是阻礙的因子。在第8、12及24個月,分別有72名(91.1%)、69名(87.3%)及62名(78.5%)參與者仍在這個研究中。在4個月時,適度介入組及控制組之間的調整體重差異為-3.4 kg (95% CI: -5.4, -1.3),p=0.002,密集介入組與控制組為-4.7 kg (95% CI: -6.9, -2.4),p=0.0001。在2年時,三組間或是介入組與控制組相比,體重均沒有顯著差異。在2年時,64%的參與者報告顯示較頻繁的追蹤可以幫助他們去維持健康的生活習慣。甚至4個月的密集介入及後繼每4個月的一次諮詢及每年的監測對於維持生活型態改變以致於降低體重是不夠的。三分之二的參與者認為不定期的頻繁監測對於維持他們最初的生活型態改變是必要的。 關鍵字:維持體重、胰島素阻抗、肥胖、飲食、體能活動

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Effects of supplementation with multivitamin and mineral on blood pressure and C-reactive protein in obese Chinese women with increased cardiovascular disease risk
CHENG WANG, YING LI, KUN ZHU, YAN-MEI DONG AND CHANG-HAO SUN

Objective: To investigate the effect of supplementation with multivitamin and mineral on blood pressure and C-reactive protein (CRP) in obese women with increased cardiovascular disease risk as having hypertension, hyperglycemia or hyperlipemia. Subjects and Methods: 128 obese Chinese women aged 18-55 years with increased cardiovascular disease risk participated in a 26-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Subjects were randomized to four groups, and received either one tablet of high-dose multivitamin and mineral supplement (MMS), or one tablet of low-dose MMS (Low MMS), or calcium 162 mg (Calcium) or identical placebo (Placebo) daily during the study. Diastolic blood pressure (DBP), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and serum concentrations of CRP were measured at baseline and end-trial. Results: At baseline, the subjects had an average age of 42.07.1 years and BMI of 30.92.8 kg/m2. There were no significant differences between the four groups in baseline characteristics. One hundred and seventeen subjects completed the study. After 26-week supplementation, both SBP and DBP were significantly lower in the MMS group compared to the placebo group (p < 0.05). There was also a non-significant trend of lower DBP at 26-week in the MMS and calcium groups compared to baseline (p < 0.08). At 26-week, the MMS group also had significantly lower serum concentrations of CRP compared with that of baseline and the placebo group (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Our results showed that supplementation with adequate multivitamin and mineral supplement could reduce blood pressure and serum CRP in obese women with increased cardiovascular disease risk. Key Words: obesity, blood pressure, C-reactive protein, multivitamin and mineral supplementation, Chinese women

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補充多种礦物质与维生素对中国有心血管疾病風險的肥胖婦女血压和C反应蛋白的影响 目的:以高血压、高血脂或高血糖的心血管疾病风险增加的肥胖女性为研究对象,评价补充多种矿物质与维生素对血压和C反应蛋白(CRP)的影响。对象和方法:选择128名年龄在18-55岁且心血管疾病风险高的肥胖中国女性,进行26周的随机、双盲、安慰剂对照试验。研究对象被随机分成4组,分别是每天服用一錠高剂量多种维生素与矿物质(MMS)组、一錠低剂量多种维生素与矿物质(Low MMS)组、补钙组(162mg)和安慰剂组。检测了基线和实验后的舒张压(DBP)、收缩压(SBP)和血清中的CRP水平。结果:在基线水平,研究对象平均年龄42.07.1岁,平均BMI为30.92.8 kg/m2,且四组间各种指标没有显著不同。117个研究对象完成了试验,补充26周后,MMS组同对照组相比,DBP和SBP显著降低(p < 0.05)。MMS组和补钙组干预后同基线相比DBP有不显著的降低趋势(p < 0.08)。在第26周,MMS组与基线及安慰剂组相比,血清的CRP水平显著降低(p < 0.05)。结论:我们的研究表明,对于心血管疾病风险增加的肥胖女性,充分补充多种维生素和矿物质可以降低血压和血清中的CRP水平。 關鍵字:肥胖、血压、C反应蛋白、多种礦物质与维生素補充、中国婦女

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Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its influencing factors among adolescent girls in Mashhad, Iran
NAGHMEH-ZAHRA MIRHOSSEINI, NOOR AINI MOHD YUSOFF, SUZANA SHAHAR, SYYED MOHAHHAD REZA PARIZADEH, MAJID GHAYOUR MOBARHEN AND MOHAMMAD TAGHI SHAKERY

Introduction:  This study sought to determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, one of the major public-health challenges worldwide, and its influencing factors among 15 to 17 years old adolescent girls in Mashhad, Iran. Methods: A total of 622 high school adolescents participated in a cross-sectional study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess socio-demographic characteristics and dietary habits. Anthropometric assessments, blood pressure measurement and biochemical assessment were done. Results: Applying BMI Z-score for age and gender (WHO 2007), 14.6 % and 3.4 % of subjects were classified as overweight and obese, respectively. Enlarged WC (> 80 cm) was seen in 9.5% of subjects. The prevalence of combined hypertension was 6.1% which was increased by the severity of obesity. A total of 24.5% of subjects had hypertriglyceridemia and 57% of them had low level of HDL-cholesterol. Hyperglycemia was present in 16.7% of subjects. Based on the NCEP ATP III (2001) criteria, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 6.5% and increased to 45.1% in obese subjects. Increasing BMI or WC, led to significant increment in the number of metabolic syndrome features (p < 0.001). High socioeconomic status of family, medical history of parents and dietary habits especially high consumption of carbohydrates were influencing factors in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: Approximately 6.5% of all and 45% of obese subjects met the criteria for the metabolic syndrome. Dietary habits especially carbohydrate consumption, socioeconomic status of family and medical history of parents can be influential factors in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. Key Words: metabolic syndrome, adolescent girl, obesity, prevalence, diet

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伊朗馬什哈德青少女代謝症候群盛行率及其影響因子 前言:本研究企圖找出全球性的公共健康挑戰之一的代謝症候群在,其主要為伊朗馬什哈德15至17歲青少女的盛行率,及其影響因子。方法:一個622位高中青少年參與的橫斷性研究。以自填式問卷用來評估社會人口學特徵和飲食習慣,並完成體位血壓和生化測量。結果:採用年齡和性別身體質量指數Z-分數(WHO 2007),有14.6%個案為過重,3.4%為肥胖。9.5%的個案為大腰圍(>80 cm)。合併高血壓盛行率為6.1%,會隨著肥胖的嚴重度而增加。24.5%的個案有高三酸甘油酯血症和57%有低的高密度脂蛋白。16.7%的個案有高血糖症。根據NCEP ATP III(2001)的標準,代謝症候群的盛行率為6.5%,在肥胖的個案則增為45.1%。增加身體質量指數或腰圍,導致顯著增加代謝症候群特徵的數目(p < 0.001)。高社經地位的家庭,家族史和飲食習慣,尤其攝取較多的碳水化合物,是代謝症候群盛行率的影響因子。結論:約有6.5%的所有研究對象和45%的肥胖者符合代謝症候群的標準。碳水化合物的攝取習慣、社經地位的家族史,可能影響代謝症候群的盛行率。 關鍵字:代謝症候群、青少女、肥胖、盛行率、飲食

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Symposium on Diet, Nutrition and Immunity
RODOLFO F FLORENTINO

The symposium on Diet, Nutrition and Immunity held in Singapore on April, 2008, reviewed the current scientific information on the development of the immune system particularly in infancy and the role of diet, exercise and aging on immunocompetence, together with the molecular processes involved. The importance of specific nutrients particularly zinc and iron, vitamins D and E and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on enhancing immunity, as well as the significance of maintaining a healthy microbiota in the gut leading to the concept of pro- and pre-biotics was discussed. Of interest was the presentation of studies on some common Asian foods such as soybeans, wolfberry, and mushroom that may have application in the prevention and treatment of disease involving inflammatory responses. Key Words: Diet, immune system, micro- and macronutrients, pro- and pre-biotics, Asian foods

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飲食、營養和免疫的研討會 2008年4月在新加坡舉行一個飲食、營養和免疫的研討會回顧當前的科學訊息,特別是在嬰兒期的免疫系統發展,以及飲食運動老化在免疫能力上的角色,還包括相關的分子生物層次尤其是鋅鐵、維生素D、維生素E和長鏈多元不飽和脂肪酸,皆是能提高免疫特性的重要營養素另外,維持腸道健康微生物群落的重要,也引領了益生菌及益生源的概念來做討論而數篇研究,則提出一些普遍的亞洲食物如大豆、枸杞蘑菇等,可能應用於預防和治療有關發炎反應的疾病。 關鍵字:飲食、免疫系統、微量和巨量營養素、益生菌及益生源、亞洲食物

 

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Last Updated: March 2009