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1 Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
       Volume 16, Supplement 
2
         (July 2007)

Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan Elementary School Children (NAHSIT Children 2001-2002)


Abstracts & Full papers

Contents

Abstract Papers

Original Articles

The double malnutritional burden and regional disparities in Taiwan elementary school children: survey database and reference values WEN-HARN PAN AND MEEI-SHYUAN LEE

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(S2):478-506.

 

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Nutrition and Health Survey of Taiwan Elementary School Children 2001-2002: research design, methods and scope
SU-HAO TU, YUNG-TAI HUNG, HSING-YI CHANG, CHI-MING HANG, NING-SING SHAW, WEI LIN, YI-CHIN LIN, SU-WAN HU, YAO-HSU YANG, TZEE-CHUNG WU, YA-HUI CHANG, SHU-CHEN SU, HSIAO-CHI HSU, KEH-SUNG TSAI, SSU-YUAN CHEN, CHIH-JUNG YEH AND WEN-HARN PAN

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(S2):507-517.

 

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Dietary nutrient intake and major food sources: the Nutrition and Health Survey of Taiwan Elementary School Children 2001-2002

SHIN-JIUAN WU, WEN-HARN PAN, NAI-HUAYEH AND HSING-YI CHANG

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(S2):518-533.

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Nutrition knowledge, attitude, and behavior of Taiwanese elementary school children

WEI LIN, HSIAO-CHI YANG, CHI-MING HANG AND WEN-HARN PAN

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(S2):534-546.

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The relationship between snack intake and its availability of 4th-6th graders in Taiwan

CHI-MING HANG, WEI LIN, HSIAO-CHI YANG AND WEN-HARN PAN

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(S2):547-553.

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Dietary supplement usage among elementary school children in Taiwan: their school performance and emotional status

SHIH-YING CHEN, JIA-RONG LIN, MEI-DING KAO, CHI-MING HANG, LIEYUEH CHENG AND WEN-HARN PAN

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(S2):554-563.

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Thiamin and riboflavin status of Taiwanese elementary schoolchildren

NING-SING SHAW, JUI-LINE WANG, WEN-HARN PAN, PEI-CHUN LIAO AND FEILI LO YANG

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(S2):564-571.

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Evaluation of folate status by serum and erythrocyte folate levels and dietary folate intake in Taiwanese schoolchildren

KUAN-JU CHEN, NING-SING SHAW, WEN-HARN PAN AND BI-FONG LIN 

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(S2):572-578.

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Magnesium deficiency and its lack of association with asthma in Taiwanese elementary school children  JUI-LINE WANG, NING-SING SHAW AND MEI-DING KAO

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(S2):579-584.

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Bone mass status of school-aged children in Taiwan assessed by quantitative ultrasound: the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan Elementary School Children (NAHSIT Children 2001-2002)

YI-CHIN LIN, SU-HAO TU AND WEN-HARN PAN

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(S2):585-593.

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Hyperuricemia and metabolic syndrome in Taiwanese children MEEI-SHYUAN LEE, MARK L WAHLQVIST, HSIAO-LI YU AND WEN-HARN PAN

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(S2):594-600.

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Prevalence of obesity and its comorbidities among schoolchildren in Taiwan

NAIN-FENG CHU AND WEN-HAN PAN

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(S2):601-607..

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The double malnutritional burden and regional disparities in Taiwan elementary school children: survey database and reference values

Wen-Harn Pan and Meei-Shyuan Lee  This special issue on the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan Elementary School Children carried out during 2001-2002 (NAHSIT Children 2001-2002) portrays the current dilemma of the so-called "double nutritional burden" in Taiwanese children with papers addressing topics on the dietary characteristics, nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors, usage of nutritional supplements, nutritional biochemistry, and various aspects of diet, nutrition, behavior, health and wellbeing in children. The emergence of a double health burden in Taiwanese children is more prevalent in the underprivileged and less urbanized communities than in metropolitan cities. The NAHSIT Children 2001-2002 survey provides age-, and gender- specific percentile values for anthropometric measurements, physiological variables like physical fitness, blood pressure and pulse, respiratory function and bone density; nutritional hematology and biochemistry. For international comparison, these reference data are tabulated in this report and the survey data are made available in the data archive system maintained by the Center for Survey Research, Academia Sinica.   Key Words: Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan Elementary School  Children, NAHSIT Children 2001-2002, double malnutrition burden, database, reference values

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臺灣地區國小學童之雙重營養不良負擔及區域不平等:調查資料與參考值 

這個國小學童國民營養健康狀況變遷調查2001-2002 (NAHSIT Children 2001-2002)專刊,包含針對兒童之飲食特性、營養相關知識、態度及行為、營養補充劑使用、營養生化、及不同的飲食、營養、行為、健康及安適觀點等議題的文章,描繪目前臺灣地區兒童所謂的「雙重營養負擔」的困境。這種臺灣兒童雙重健康負擔問題的浮現,以弱勢及都市化程度較低的社區較之都會地區來得普遍。NAHSIT Children 2001-2002同時提供了體位測量、生理變項(如體適能、血壓及脈搏、呼吸功能及骨密度)、營養血液及生化之年齡別及性別百分位值。為了國際間的比較,這些參考值均附錄在本報告中,調查數據則保存在中央研究院調查工作研究室所維護的資料庫系統中,供學界申請使用。  關鍵字:國小學童國民營養健康狀況變遷調查2001-2002NAHSIT Children 2001-2002、雙重營養不良負擔、資料庫、參考值。

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Nutrition and Health Survey of Taiwan Elementary School Children 2001-2002: research design, methods and scope

Su-Hao Tu, Yung-Tai Hung, Hsing-Yi Chang, Chi-Ming Hang, Ning-Sing Shaw, Wei Lin, Yi-Chin Lin, Su-Wan Hu, Yao-Hsu Yang, Tzee-Chung Wu, Ya-Hui Chang, Shu-Chen Su, Hsiao-Chi Hsu, Keh-Sung Tsai, Ssu-Yuan Chen, Chih-Jung Yeh and Wen-Harn Pan The "Nutrition and Health Survey of Taiwan's Elementary School Children (2001-2002)" was to investigate the nutritional status, influential dietary and non-dietary factors, health and development, and school performance, as well as the inter-relationships among these factors. The survey adopted a two-staged stratified, clustered probability sampling scheme. Towns and districts in Taiwan with particular ethnic and geographical characteristics were designated into 13 strata including Hakka areas, mountain areas, eastern Taiwan, the Penghu Islands, 3 northern regions, 3 central regions and 3 southern regions. Eight schools were selected from each stratum using the probabilities proportional to sizes method. Twenty-four pupils were randomly selected within each school. The survey included face-to-face interviews and health examinations. Taking seasonal effects into consideration, the face-to-face interviews were evenly allocated into each of the two semesters. A total of 2,419 face-to-face interviews and 2,475 health examinations were completed. Interview data included household information, socio-demographics, 24-hour dietary recall, food frequency, dietary and nutritional knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, physical activity, medical history, oral health, pubertal development, and bone health. Health exam data included anthropometry, blood pressure, physical fitness, bone density, dental health, and blood and urine collection. SUDAAN was used to adjust sampling design effect. There were no significant differences in sibling rank and parental characteristics between respondents and non-respondents, which indicates that our survey is representative and unbiased. The results of this survey will increase our understanding on the nutrition and health status of schoolchildren and can be used to shape public health policy in Taiwan.
Key Words: survey, schoolchildren, nutrition, diet, health

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臺灣地區國小學童營養健康狀況調查(2001-2002):研究設計、方法及內容

 臺灣地區國小學童營養健康狀況調查(2001-2002)目的在探討國小學童飲食與營養狀況,影響營養狀況之飲食及非飲食因素,學童健康及發展狀況與在校表現,及這些因素相互關係。採分層兩段集束取樣法,將臺灣地區各鄉鎮市區按特殊族群與地理位置分成13層:客家、山地、東部、澎湖,北部、中部及南部地區各3層。每一層以等比例抽樣原則(Probabilities proportional to sizes: PPS)抽取8所學校,抽中學校再簡單隨機抽出24位學生。本調查包含面訪與身體健康檢查兩部分。考慮季節效應後,面訪在一學年兩個學期中的每一學期分成上半與下半學期進行,最後共完成面訪2,419人。身體檢查部份完成2,475人。面訪資料包括:家戶及社會人口背景資料、24小時飲食回憶、飲食頻率、營養知識、態度與行為、體能活動量、疾病與藥物史、口腔保健、青春期發展量表與骨質健康。體檢項目包括:人體測量、血壓、體溫、體適能、骨質密度、牙齒健康、抽空腹血與收尿。以SUDAAN調整抽樣設計效應,發現調查回應者與不回應者間在家中排行及父母親人口特徵上無明顯差異,顯示本調查之代表性應無偏差。此調查結果有助於瞭解臺灣地區國小學童的營養與健康狀況,以及制訂公共衛生營養政策。 

關鍵字:調查、學童、營養、飲食、健康。

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Dietary nutrient intake and major food sources: the Nutrition and Health Survey of Taiwan Elementary School Children 2001-2002

Shin-Jiuan Wu, Wen-Harn Pan, Nai-HuaYeh and Hsing-Yi Chang  The aim of the study was to investigate nutrient intake and their dietary sources in Taiwanese children ages 6-12 years by analyzing the 24-hour recall data of 2386 participants from a nationally representative sample.  Results showed that children in Taiwan were slightly lower in mean proportion of energy intake from carbohydrates (53.5% of energy intake) and higher in those from fats (30.8%) and protein (15.8%) as based on the recommendations of Department of Health in Taiwan. The mean intake of vitamins and of minerals by children was equivalent to or exceeded Daily Reference Intake of Taiwan (DRI) or other recommended standards with the exception of a seriously insufficient calcium intake and extremely high sodium intake. A substantial proportion of children in different age/gender/location strata had lower mean vitamin and mineral intake by DRI and other recommended standards. These nutrient profiles were mainly related to dietary patterns with relatively low intake of fruits, vegetables, cereals/grains, and dairy products, but high intake of the protein-rich foods, salt/sauces, and fats/oils. According to the suboptimal dietary nutrient profiles of Taiwanese children, particularly in the underprivileged areas, recommendations are made in this article for policy makers and health practitioners to consider in order to improve dietary quality of elementary school children.

Key Words: 24-hour recall, elementary school children, food sources, Nutrition and Health Survey, Daily Reference Intakes

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臺灣國小學童的營養攝取狀況與食物來源  

本研究的主要目的在瞭解臺灣國小學童的營養攝取狀況與食物來源。資料來源是以2001~2002年進行的「臺灣國小學童營養健康狀況調查」中6~12學童2386全國性樣本為對象,分析其二十四小時飲食回憶記錄中,不同性別、年齡及地區的國小學童,對各種營養素的攝取狀況及其食物來源。研究結果顯示6~12學童由三大營養素所提供的總熱量中,醣類佔53%、脂肪佔31%、蛋白質佔16%;學童除了鈣嚴重攝取不足與鈉攝取過量外,各種維生素與礦物質的平均攝取量皆超過或接近「 臺灣膳食營養素參考攝取量」(DRIs)與其他建議標準;但是不同年齡、性別與地區,仍有一部份學童的維生素與礦物質攝取量低於DRI與其他建議標準。學童的飲食型態,呈現出較低的蔬菜、水果、五穀根莖類與乳製品攝取量;較高的肉魚蛋豆類、鹽/湯與油脂類攝取量。因此建議政府與有關的實務工作者,應留意國小學童的營養攝取問題,並提供適當的改善措施

關鍵字:24-小時回憶法、國小學童、食物來源、營養與健康調查膳食營養素參考攝取量。

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Nutrition knowledge, attitude, and behavior of Taiwanese elementary school children

Wei Lin, Hsiao-Chi Yang, Chi-Ming Hang and Wen-Harn Pan

The purpose of this study is to understand nutrition knowledge, attitude, and behavior in Taiwanese elementary school children, and the relationship of these various components. The results indicated that children's knowledge was fair in nutrition basics, but poor in 'the physiological function of nutrients', 'relationships between diet/nutrients and disease', and 'the daily serving requirement for different food groups'. Children in general valued the importance of nutrition, but they did not concern the health benefit of foods in food selections. Their dietary quality was not satisfactory, and the diet of most children did not meet the recommended serving requirements for milk, vegetable, fruit, and cereals and grains groups. Positive relationships were found among nutrition knowledge, attitude, caring- about-nutrition behavior and dietary quality score. The restraint or disinhibited eating behavior of 4th to 6th graders was not serious, but a large number of children already performed some self-controlling practices to avoid obesity, but not frequently. One fourth of the students skipped meals, especially breakfast, and one quarter of 4th to 6th graders prepared their own breakfast; which may have some impact on children's diet quality. A gap was found between nutrition knowledge, attitude and eating behavior, especially vegetable and fruit consumption, indicating that the attitude toward eating for health was not strong in this age group. Future nutrition education for school children should not only include food serving requirements of food groups, but also apply appropriate theories to improve the motivation for healthy eating.
Key Words:
elementary school children, nutrition knowledge, nutrition attitude, nutrition behaviour, dietary quality

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臺灣國小學童的營養知識、態度及行為

 本研究為瞭解臺灣國小學童的營養知識、態度、行為現況以及其間的關係。結果顯示,學童的基礎知識尚可,但欠缺營養與疾病,六大類食物每日需要量等知識。學童肯定營養的重要性,但在選食時並不以食物對健康的益處作考量,且大多沒有達到奶類、蔬菜、水果和五穀根莖類的每日建議攝取量。四至六年級學童節制飲食行為情形尚不嚴重,但已有相當比例者因怕胖而採取一些節制行為。約1/4學童經常略餐,尤其是早餐,1/44-6年級學童自己準備早餐。營養知識、態度、選食與關心營養行為及飲食品質分數兩兩間皆有顯著正相關。研究顯示學童營養知識、態度及行為間存在落差。建議未來營養教育不僅需教導學童食物的需要量,也需利用適當理論來提昇其實踐健康飲食行為的動機。  關鍵字:國小學童、營養知識、營養態度、飲食行為、飲食品質。   

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The relationship between snack intake and its availability of 4th-6th graders in Taiwan

Chi-Ming Hang, Wei Lin, Hsiao-Chi Yang and Wen-Harn Pan

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the snack intake and snack availability of elementary school children. Data analyzed were from 722 4th to 6th graders' food availability and food intake questionnaires collected in the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan Elementary School Children 2001-2002. The snacks commonly eaten were divided into two groups. Healthy snacks included dairy products, 100% fruit juice and fresh fruits. Unhealthy snacks included high fat/sugar snacks, cookies, candy, carbonated/sugared beverages and fast food. Structural equating modeling was used to test the models that describe the availability and intake of two snack groups. Results indicated that parents' intake and children's preference were major predictors of children intake of both healthy and unhealthy snacks. Other than that, the intake of unhealthy snacks was positively associated with "purchase by children themselves" but not the intake of healthy snacks, which was influenced predominantly by "present in home". The results support the perception that a positive family food environment is important for improving children's diet quality. To build a healthy family food environment, parents have to not only provide healthy snacks but also limit the unhealthy snacks in home. In addition to that, the role modeling of parents as eating healthy snacks instead of unhealthy snacks themselves may help children to develop similar behaviors.
Key Words: food availability, snack intake, food frequency, food environment, 4 th-6th graders

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國小高年級學童點心攝取與其可獲性之相關

 本研究探討臺灣地區國小高年級學童點心攝取與可獲性的相關性。以「臺灣地區國小學童營養健康狀況調查2001-2002」之四至六年級、居住於北、中、南地區的722位學童資料分析。根據食物可獲性問卷及食物攝取頻率問卷,將學童經常攝取的點心分為有利於健康的點心和不利於健康的點心兩類,以SEM分別檢視兩組的攝食頻率與可獲性間之相關性。結果發現學童攝取有利於健康的點心與「家中有」成正相關,而攝食不利於健康的點心則與「自己購買」有關。建議家中增加有利於健康的點心之供應;並減少學童購買不利於健康的點心食物之機會,將有助於改善學童點心攝取的品質。

 關鍵字:可獲性、食物頻率、國小高年級學童、食物環境。

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Dietary supplement usage among elementary school children in Taiwan: their school performance and emotional status

Shih-Ying Chen, Jia-Rong Lin, Mei-Ding Kao, Chi-Ming Hang, Lieyueh Cheng and Wen-Harn Pan

Dietary supplement consumption practices among 2417 children (1295 boys and 1122 girls) aged 6 to 12 years in Taiwan were derived from the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan Elementary School Children (NAHSIT 2001-2002). The proportion (22%) of boys and girls using supplements was equivalent. Some 77% of the child supplement takers took only one type of supplement. The top five supplements consumed were: multivitamins and minerals, calcium, vitamin C, cod-liver oil and bee propolis in that order. Children in the most urbanized southern Taiwan had the highest usage (33%), but prevalence was lowest in the mountainous areas (5%). Higher parental education level and household monthly income were associated with higher intakes. Supplement users were more competent at school; however, the frequency and number of supplement types were not related to competence.
Key Words: dietary supplements, elementary school children, school performance, emotion, cognition

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臺灣國小學童攝取膳食補充品的現況-學童的學校表現與情緒狀態

2417 6 12歲兒童(1295 位男孩和 1122 位女孩)攝取膳食補充品的現況分析,資料源自於2001-2002年 臺灣國小學童營養健康狀況變遷調查。男童攝取補充品的比率(22%)與女童相同。77% 的兒童只攝取一種補充品。使用前五名的補充品,依序是:綜合維生素與礦物質、鈣質,維生素 C、魚肝油和蜂膠。臺灣南部都市化程度最高的地區,其兒童攝取補充品的比率最高(33%),山地地區的兒童攝取比率最低(5%)。父母親的教育程度和家庭的每月收入較高,其兒童攝取補充品的比率也高。攝取補充品的兒童在學校的表現較能幹;然而,這種現象與攝取頻率和補充品的種類數目無關。

  關鍵字:膳食補充品、國小學童、學校表現、情緒、認知

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Thiamin and riboflavin status of Taiwanese elementary schoolchildren

Ning-Sing Shaw, Jui-Line Wang, Wen-Harn Pan, Pei-Chun Liao and Feili Lo Yang In The Nutrition and Health Survey of Taiwan Elementary School Children (NAHSIT Children 2001~2002), erythrocyte activity coefficients of transketolase (ETKAC) and glutathione reductase (EGRAC) were chosen as indices for assessing the functional status of thiamin and riboflavin nutriture. Mean values of the ETKAC for boys and girls, both of which were in a normal range, were 1.070.00 and 1.060.01, respectively. The respective prevalence rates of marginal and deficient thiamin states were 10.4% and 7.8% for boys and 9.3% and 7.3% for girls. Mean values of the EGRAC were 1.180.00 for boys and 1.190.01 for girls, both of which showed an increasing trend with age. The respective rates of marginal and deficient riboflavin states were as high as 32.5% and 3.5% for boys and 35.9% and 4.5% for girls. The marginal and deficient riboflavin statuses of Taiwanese schoolchildren were associated with a low frequency of dairy food consumption and an elevated risk of anemia.
Key Words:
thiamin status, riboflavin status, elementary schoolchildren, biochemical assessment, Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan Elementary School Children (2001-2002)

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臺灣國小學童之維生素B1與維生素B2營養狀況

在「臺灣國小兒童營養與健康狀況變遷調查」(NAHSIT Children 2001~2002)中,我們選用紅血球轉酮酶活性係數(ETKAC)與穀胱甘肽還原酶活性係數(EGRAC),為評估長期維生素B1與維生素B2生化營養狀況的功能性指標。男、女學童的ETKAC平均值分別為1.070.001.060.01,二者皆在正常範圍。男孩的維生素B1臨界缺乏率與缺乏率分別為10.4%7.8%,女孩則分別為9.3%7.3%。男、女學童的EGRAC平均值分別為1.180.001.190.01,二者皆有隨年齡增加而上升的趨勢。男孩的維生素B2臨界缺乏率與缺乏率分別為32.5%3.5%,女孩則分別為35.9%4.5%。 臺灣學童的維生素B2臨界缺乏與缺乏現象與飲食乳製品攝取頻率低有關,並與貧血的危險率增加顯著相關。關鍵字:維生素B1營養狀況、維生素B2營養狀況、國小學童、生化營養評估、臺灣國小學童營養與健康狀況變遷調查(2001~2002)。

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Evaluation of folate status by serum and erythrocyte folate levels and dietary folate intake in Taiwanese schoolchildren

Kuan-Ju Chen, Ning-Sing Shaw, Wen-Harn Pan and Bi-Fong Lin  

The folate status and dietary folate intake of Taiwanese schoolchildren was investigated by analysis of both serum and red blood cell (RBC) folate levels and dietary folate intake in 1105 boys and 958 girls aged 6-13 years sampled from the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan Elementary School Children 2001-2002 (NAHSIT Children 2001-2002). Mean serum folate levels were 18.38.8 nmol/L (8.13.9 ng/mL) in boys and 20.39.7 nmol/L (9.04.3 ng/mL) in girls. Mean RBC folate levels were 700320 nmol/L (308141 ng/mL) in boys and 751347 nmol/L (331153 ng/mL) in girls. The prevalence of serum folate deficiency was 1.4% in boys and girls, and the prevalence of marginal serum folate deficiency (7-14 nmol/L) was 31.1% in boys and 25.8% in girls. In addition, 8.5% of boys and 7.4% girls had RBC folate deficiency (RBC folate < 318 nmol/L), and 17% of children had marginal RBC folate deficiency (RBC folate of 318-454 nmol/L). Our results suggesting that Taiwanese schoolchildren have poor folate status especially during periods of rapid growth and development such as the transition from childhood to early adolescence (boys at age 12-12.9, girls at age 11-12.9). The average estimated folate intakes were 2699 g/d in boys and 2599 g/d in girls, and 42% of Taiwanese schoolchildren had a dietary folate intake below 2/3 of the RDA, indicating a poor dietary folate intake in this population. This study shows that the folate status of Taiwanese schoolchildren is currently inadequate and strategies are needed for improvement. Key Words: folate intake, serum folate, RBC folate, schoolchildren, NAHSIT 2000-2001

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臺灣地區國小學童葉酸營養狀況評估

 本研究以衛生署2001-2002年進行的「臺灣地區國小學童營養健康狀況調查2001-2002」(Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan Elementary School Children 2001-2002; NAHSIT Children 2001-2002)計畫中的6~13歲學童為研究對象,男生1105人和女生958人,共計2063人,以全自動冷光分析儀測定血清與紅血球葉酸濃度。結果顯示,男生血清葉酸濃度為18.38.8 nmol/L (8.13.9 ng/mL),女生為20.39.7 nmol/L (9.04.3 ng/mL);男生紅血球葉酸濃度為700320 nmol/L (308141 ng/mL),女生為751347 nmol/L (331153 ng/mL)。男女生各有1.4%為血清葉酸缺乏;血清葉酸瀕臨缺乏比率男生為31.1% ,女生為25.8%。紅血球葉酸缺乏比率男生為8.5%,女生為7.4%。男女生之紅血球葉酸瀕臨缺乏比率為17%尤其是男生在12~12.9歲、女生在11~12.9歲正值進入青春發育期的葉酸營養狀況最差。每日飲食葉酸攝取量,男生平均為2699 g,女生為2599 g,有將近42%的男女生飲食葉酸攝取量尚未達到2/3的飲食建議攝取量。研究顯示正值進入青春期的臺灣國小學童葉酸營養狀況不佳,應加以改善。

 關鍵字:飲食葉酸、血清葉酸、紅血球葉酸、國小學童、「臺灣地區國小學童營養健康狀況調查2001-2002」。

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Magnesium deficiency and its lack of association with asthma in Taiwanese elementary school children

Jui-Line Wang, Ning-Sing Shaw and Mei-Ding Kao The purpose of this study was to investigate magnesium nutritional status and its association with asthma in elementary school children (1277 boys and 1109 girls) participating in the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT children 2001-2002). Dietary magnesium intake was based on 24-hour dietary recalls. Serum magnesium was measured. Average magnesium intake was 247 mg and 228 mg for the boys and girls, respectively, which is equivalent to 135-123% of the relevant Taiwanese Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Mean serum magnesium concentration was 0.87 mmol/L and 0.86 mmol/L, respectively. The prevalence of serum magnesium <0.8 mmol/L was 10.5-13.5% in both gender in our sample of elementary school children. In Taiwan, asthma was diagnosed in about 5.8% and 4.7% of boys and girls, respectively. In this study, there were no associations between asthma prevalence, dietary magnesium and serum magnesium concentration. In about 40% of our sample of school children, however, dietary magnesium may be suboptimal. This deficit should be targeted though improved intake of magnesium-rich foods such as whole grains, green vegetables and soybean products, particularly in Taiwanese school children whose dietary intakes are below the DRIs and/or who have low serum magnesium levels. Key Words: magnesium intake, serum magnesium, elementary school children, asthma, nutrition and health survey in Taiwan

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臺灣國小學童鎂缺乏與氣喘間無顯著相關

 本研究目的探討臺灣地區國小學童營養健康狀況調查2001-2002」中國小學童(1277名男學童與1109名女學童)鎂營養狀況與氣喘之相關性。研究中以24小時回憶法調查飲食鎂攝取量並分析血鎂濃度。男學童平均飲食鎂攝取量247 mg、女學童 228 mg,相當於135%~123%之營養素建議參考量(DRIs)。血清鎂濃度男學童平均濃度為0.87 mmol/L、女學童為0.86 mmol/L,兩性學童血清鎂濃度<0.8 mmol/L之缺乏率為10.5-13.5 %。臺灣5.8%男學童經診斷證實為氣喘、女學童為4.7%。於本研究中學童氣喘盛行率與飲食鎂攝取量、血鎂濃度間並無相關性,但臺灣約40%學童的飲食鎂攝取狀況並不理想,若能提高富含鎂食物如全穀類、綠色蔬菜及黃豆製品等食物的攝取,對飲食鎂攝取不足的學童應能有效改善其鎂營養狀況。  關鍵字:飲食鎂攝取血清鎂、國小學童、氣喘、國民營養健康狀況變遷調查。

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Bone mass status of school-aged children in Taiwan assessed by quantitative ultrasound: the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan Elementary School Children (NAHSIT Children 2001-2002)

Yi-Chin Lin, Su-Hao Tu and Wen-Harn Pan

Bone health status in childhood and adolescence may be important factors influencing the attainment of peak bone mass. The Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan Elementary School Children 2000-2001 was carried out to evaluate the overall nutrition and health status of school children aged between 6 and 13 years. The survey was conducted using a multi-stage complex sampling scheme. Townships and city districts in Taiwan were classified into 13 strata. Bone mass measured as broadband ultrasound attenuation was taken at heel by quantitative ultrasound bone densitometry. A total of 1164 boys and 1016 girls who had complete physical examination data with ultrasound bone scan were included in the current analysis. There were no apparent differences in BUA across all strata for both genders. In both boys and girls, age, height, body weight, BMI, and intake frequencies of vegetables and fruits/juices were significantly related to BUA. Results of multivariate regression showed that age (b=1.36, p=0.0002) and body weight (b=0.40, p<0.0001) were significant predictors for BUA in boys, whereas in girls body weight (b =0.47, p<0.0001), height, (b =0.20, p=0.01), dietary phosphorus intake (b =-0.002, p=0.038), and frequency of fruit/juice intake (b =0.15, p=0.029) remained statistically significant. The differential effects dietary intake variables on BUA in boys and girls may be in part due to the development of puberty. It would be necessary to include levels of physical activity in future analyses for better understanding factors influencing the development of peak bone mass in Taiwanese children.

Key Words: bone, Taiwan, children, QUS, survey

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以定量超音波評估臺灣學齡兒童骨質狀況:臺灣地區國小學童營養健康狀況調查(NAHSIT Children 2001-2002)

 兒童和青少年時期骨質健康狀況可能影響顛峰骨量(peak bone mass)。臺灣地區國小學童營養健康狀況調查(2001-2002)旨在評估國小學童整體營養攝取與健康情形。骨質狀況評估係以定量超音波測量腳跟骨而得到寬頻超音波衰減率(broadband ultrasound attenuation, BUA)。本研究以具有完整體檢資料及腳跟骨超音波檢測結果之1164位男童與1016位女童之資料進行分析。不論男童或女童之BUA平均值皆無明顯的地區層差異。年齡、身高、體重、身體質量指數、以及蔬菜、水果的攝取頻率皆與男童和女童的BUA 有關。多變量迴歸分析顯示年齡(b=1.36, p=0.0002)及體重 (b=0.40, p<0.0001) 是預測男童BUA的顯著因子,而女童的BUA則與體重(b=0.47, p<0.0001),身高(b=0.20, p=0.01),磷攝取量(b=-0.002, p=0.038),及水果/果汁攝取頻率(b=0.15, p=0.029)有顯著關聯。飲食攝取因素對男童與女童的BUA 具有不同的效應或許與青春期的起始和發展有關。未來仍需探討體能活動量是否與學童骨質健康有關,以便了解影響臺灣地區學童顛峰骨量發展的因素。

 關鍵字:骨質、臺灣、學童、定量超音波、調查。

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Hyperuricemia and metabolic syndrome in Taiwanese children

Meei-Shyuan Lee, Mark L. Wahlqvist, Hsiao-Li Yu and Wen-Harn Pan

Metabolic fitness in childhood is of increasing concern in transitional and advanced economies as the metabolic syndrome (MS) is recognized more often in this age group. As the MS appears, so also does hyperuricemia. Studies in Taiwan have identified both indigenous and Chinese with high prevalence of hyperuricemia. Data (1227 boys and 1057 girls, aged 6-12) from the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan Elementary School Children (NAHSIT Children 2001-2002) were used to appraise the association between uric acid (UA) and MS in children. Mean serum urate increases by age, ranging from 5.69 mg/dL to 7.11 mg/dL for boys and 5.61 mg/dL to 6.13 md/dL for girls. Boys have higher UA concentrations (6.07 mg/dL vs. 5.74 mg/dL) and hyperuricemia (UA 7 mg/dL) rate (26.5% vs. 18.8%) than girls. Children of Mountain areas have higher rates of hyperuricemia (boys: 39.2%, girls: 30.1%). 5.56% of boys and 6.39% of girls were classified as having the MS by ATP III criteria. Serum urate was closely correlated with the MS parameters, and waist circumference (WC) in particular (r=0.387). WC alone accounted for 18% of variance of serum urate concentration. Both serum urate and hyperuricemia are significant risk factors for the MS (serum urate in mg/dL, OR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.36-1.74; hyperuricemia, OR: 3.73, 95% CI: 2.47-5.62). Adjustment for age and region accentuate these relationships. Not only abdominal fatness, but also uric acid status, or both together may be of interest to public health workers and clinicians in regard to the transitional health problem of MS. Key Words: serum urate, hyperuricemia, metabolic syndrome, abdominal obesity, elementary school children, Taiwan, Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan Elementary School Children (NAHSIT Children 2001-2002)

top 臺灣兒童之高尿酸血症與代謝症候群

 兒童代謝適能在過渡及高度經濟發展地區漸受關切,而代謝症候群(MS)在這個年齡層也愈常見。當MS出現,高尿酸血症也同時出現。臺灣的研究指出原住民及華人其高尿酸血症盛行率均極高。採用臺灣學童營養及健康調查(男:1227人;女:1057)的資料,評估尿酸(UA)MS在兒童的關係。平均血清UA隨年齡上升,男童範圍為5.69 mg/dL 7.11 mg/dL,女童為5.61 mg/dL6.13 md/dL。男童UA濃度(6.07 mg/dL vs. 5.74 mg/dL)及高尿酸血症(UA 7 mg/dL)(26.5% vs. 18.8%)均較女童高。用ATP III標準,5.56%的男童及6.39%的女童有代謝症候群。血清尿酸與MS指標緊密相關,尤其腰圍(r=0.387)。腰圍本身可解釋18%血清尿酸的變異。血清尿酸及高尿酸血症均是代謝症候群的危險因子(UA1 mg/dL, OR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.36-1.74; hyperuricemia, OR: 3.73, 95% CI: 2.47-5.62),控制年齡及區域後,關係更明顯。公共衛生及臨床工作者對代謝症候群這個變化中的健康問題,應多重視腹部肥胖或尿酸。  關鍵字:血清尿酸、高尿酸血症、代謝症候群、腹部肥胖、國小學童、臺灣、臺灣學童營養及健康調查 (NAHSIT Children 2001-2002)

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Prevalence of obesity and its comorbidities among schoolchildren in Taiwan

Nain-Feng Chu and Wen-Han Pan To evaluate the prevalence of obesity and its comorbidities among a representative sample of elementary schoolchildren in Taiwan, the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan Elementary School Children used a stratified, multi-staged complex sampling scheme. In total 2,405 children (1,290 boys and 1,115 girls) were included. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 15.5 and 14.7% in boys and 14.4 and 9.1% in girls. With respect to geographic differences, the prevalence of obesity for boys was highest in the southern area (23.3% for the 3rd stratum) and lowest in the mountain area (4.3%). For girls, the prevalence of overweight and obesity was highest in the central area (13.0% for the 3rd stratum) and lowest in the southern area (2.6% for the 3rd stratum). The obese children had higher mean levels of blood pressure, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, uric acid and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, but lower level of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol when compared with the normal weight children. For obese and normal weight boys, the prevalence was 12.9 % vs. 0.3 % for high blood pressure, 31.4 % vs. 19.6 % for dyslipidemia, and 6.4 % vs. 0.8 % for abnormal serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase level. In conclusion, we found that about one third of the boys and one quarter of the girls were overweight and/or obesity in Taiwan. Furthermore, the prevalence of obesity-related comorbidities was significantly increased for obese and/or overweight elementary schoolchildren in the Taiwan area. Key Words: schoolchildren, obesity, prevalence, comorbidities, Taiwanese

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臺灣地區學童肥胖及其相關合併症盛行率

本研究是以一代表性樣本,臺灣學童營養及健康調查來評估學童肥胖及其合併症盛行率,本調查是一分層多步驟抽樣調查。總計有2405名學童(男童1290名,女童1115名)參加本研究。男童過重及肥胖盛行率分別約為15.5%及14.7%;女童過重及肥胖盛行率分別為14.4%及9.1%。不同區域,男童肥胖盛行率最高地區為南部第三層抽樣地區(約23.3%),最低為山部地區(約4.3%)。女童肥胖盛行率最高為中部第三層(約13.0%),最低為南部第三層(約2.6%)。肥胖學童的血壓、血三酸甘油酯、低密度脂蛋白膽固醇、尿酸及丙胺酸轉胺酶值等皆較正常體重學童為高,而高密度脂蛋白膽固醇值則較正常體重學童為低。肥胖及正常體重男童,其高血壓盛行率分別為12.9%比0.3%;血脂異常盛行率為31.4%比19.6%;肝功能指數異常盛行率為6.4%比0.8%。本研究發現,在臺灣約有三分之一男童及四分之一女童為體重過重或肥胖。更值得注意的是,肥胖或過重學童其肥胖相關合併症的盛行率也顯著的升高。關鍵字:學童、肥胖、盛行率、合併症、臺灣。

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Last Updated: July 2007