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1 Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
       Volume 16, 4

         (December 2007)


Abstracts & Full papers

Contents

Abstract Papers

Obituary for Akira Okada (1938-2007)

Mark L Wahlqvist

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(4):i.

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Review Articles

A review of the evidence: nuts and body weight SHARON NATOLI AND PENELOPE MCCOY

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(4):588-597.

 

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Original Articles

Nutritional Pathophysiology

The lactase gene -13910 T allele can not predict the lactase-persistence phenotype in north China HAI-MING SUN, YUAN-DONG QIAO, FENG CHEN, LI-DAN XU, JING BAI AND SONG-BIN FU

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(4):598-601.

 

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Alterations of atherogenic low-density lipoproteins and serum fatty acids after 12 week moderate exercise training in sedentary Thai women

RAVEENAN SITTIWICHEANWONG, TIPAYANATE ARIYAPITIPUN, SOMNUKE GULSATITPORN, VANIDA NOPPONPUNTH, MAHINDA ABEYWARDENA AND WINAI DAHLAN

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(4):602-608.

 

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Effect of purple sweet potato leaves consumption on the modulation of the immune response in basketball players during the training period

WEN-HSIN CHANG, CHIAO-MING CHEN, SHENE-PIN HU, NAI-WEN KAN, CHUN-CHIEH CHIU AND JEN-FANG LIU

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(4):609-615.

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Macro- Micro- and Phyto-nutrients

Fruits and stir-fried vegetables increase plasma carotenoids in young adults YU-JU LIN, YI-WEN CHIEN, SHWU-HUEY YANG AND HSING-HSIEN CHENG

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(4):616-623.

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Dietary plant sterols supplementation does not alter lipoprotein kinetics in men with the metabolic syndrome ESTHER MM OOI, GERALD F WATTS, P HUGH R BARRETT, DICK C CHAN, PETER M CLIFTON, JUYING JI AND PAUL J NESTEL

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(4):624-631.

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Nutritional Status, Dietary Intake, and Body Composition

Desirable intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids in Indonesian adults ASIKIN HANAFIAH, DARWIN KARYADI, WIDJAJA LUKITO, MUHILAL AND FADILAH SUPARI

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(4):632-640.

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Comparison of body compositional indices assessed by underwater weighing, bioelectrical impedance and anthropometry in Indonesian adolescent girls RATIH I ISJWARA, WIDJAJA LUKITO AND JAN WERNER SCHULTINK

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(4):641-648.

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Percent body fat cutoff values for classifying overweight and obesity recommended by the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) in Korean children KAYOUNG LEE, SANGYEOUP LEE, SU YUNG KIM, SU JIN KIM AND YUN JIN KIM

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(4):649-655.

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Population-specific anthropometric cut-points improve the functionality of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) in elderly Taiwanese ALAN CHUNG-HONG TSAI, CHING-SUNG HO AND MING-CHENG CHANG

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(4):656-662.

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Body fatness, physical activity, and nutritional behaviours in Asian Indian immigrants to New Zealand GREGORY S KOLT, GRANT M SCHOFIELD, ELAINE C RUSH, MELODY OLIVER AND NARENDER K CHADHA

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(4):663-670.

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Reduction of abdominal fat and chronic disease factors by lifestyle change in migrant Asian Indians older than 50 years ELAINE C RUSH, VISHNU CHANDU AND LINDSAY D PLANK

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(4):671-676.

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Obesity and changes in body weight related to 10-year diabetes incidence in women in Taiwan (1993-2003) LEE-CHING HWANG, CHIEN-JEN CHEN AND BONIFACE J LIN

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(4):677-682.

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Body weight and weight loss: are health messages reaching their target? LYNNETTE J RIDDELL AND VICTORIA INMAN

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(4):683-687.

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Nutritionally-Related Disorders and Diseases and Their Risk factors

Assessment of risks of "lifestyle" diseases including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes by anthropometry in remote Australian Aborigines MICHAEL GRACEY, VALERIE BURKE, DAVID D MARTIN, ROBERT J JOHNSTON, TIMOTHY JONES AND ELIZABETH A DAVIS

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(4):688-697.

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Determinants of plasma homocysteine levels and carotid intima-media thickness in Japanese NOBORU TAKAMURA, YASUYO ABE, MIO NAKAZATO, TAKAHIRO MAEDA, MITSUHIRO WADA, KENICHIRO NAKASHIMA, YOSUKE KUSANO AND KIYOSHI AOYAGI

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(4):698-703.

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Growth and Child Nutrition

The relationship between maternal physical activity during pregnancy and birth weight PRATIBHA DWARKANATH, SUMITHRA MUTHAYYA, MARIO VAZ, TINKU THOMAS, ARUN MHASKAR, RITA MHASKAR, ANNAMMA THOMAS, SWARNAREKHA BHAT AND ANURA KURPAD

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(4):704-710.

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Comparsions of a chicken-based formula with soy-based formula in infants with cow milk allergy PIPOP JIRAPINYO, NARUMON DENSUPSOONTORN, RENU WONGARN, NUCHNOI THAMONSIRI

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(4):711-715.

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Anemia and intestinal parasite infection in school children in rural Vietnam HUONG THI LE, INGE D BROUWER, HANS VERHOEF, KHAN CONG NGUYEN, FRANS J KOK

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(4):716-723.

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Serum iron status in Orang Asli children living in endemic areas of soil-transmitted helminths U NOR AINI, MS HESHAM AL-MEKHLAFI, M AZLIN, A SHAIK, A SA’IAH, MS FATMAH, MG ISMAIL, MS AHMAD FIRDAUS, MY AISAH, AR ROZLIDA AND M NORHAYATI

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(4):724-730.

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Investigation of intelligence quotient and psychomotor development in schoolchilren in areas with different degrees of iodine deficiency ZHIFENG TANG, WANYANG LIU, HONGBO YIN, PING WANG, JING DONG, YI WANG AND JIE CHEN

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(4):731-737.

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Nutritional Epidemiology and Public Health

Food intake patterns among Australian adolescents GAYLE S SAVIGE, KYLIE BALL, ANTHONY WORSLEY, DAVID CRAWFORD

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(4):738-747.

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Adolescent home food environments and socioeconomic position ABBIE MACFARLANE, DAVID CRAWFORD, KYLIE BALL, GAYLE SAVIGE AND ANTHONY WORSLEY

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(4):748-756.

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Associations between dietary habits and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in a Hong Kong Chinese working population- the "Better Health for Better Hong Kong" (BHBHK) health promotion campaign GARY TC KO, JULIANA CN CHAN, SPENCER DY TONG, AMY WY CHAN, PATRICK TS WONG, STANLEY SC HUI, RUBY KWOK AND CECILIA LW CHAN

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(4):757-765.

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Meal distribution, relative validity and reproducibility of a meal-based food frequency questionnaire in Taiwan LI-CHING LYU, CHI-FEN LIN, FANG-HSIN CHANG, HENG-FEI CHEN, CHIAO-CHEN LO AND HONG-FA HO

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(4):766-776.

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Book Review

The Hundred Year Lie: How food and medicine are destroying your health by Randall Fitzgerald Mark L Wahlqvist

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(4):777.

Essentials of human nutrition (Third edition 2007) by Jim Mann & Stewart Truswll Mark L Wahlqvist

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(4):777.

Nutritional Anemia by Klaus Kraemer and Michael B Zimmermann & The Guidebook: Nutritional Anemia by Jane Badham, Michael B Zimmermann and Klaus Kraemer Mark L Wahlqvist

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(4):778.

 

Future Events

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(4):779.

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A review of the evidence: nuts and body weight

SHARON NATOLI AND PENELOPE MCCOY There is currently no single dietary or lifestyle intervention that is effective in long-term weight loss. Traditional weight loss diets tend to be low in total fat and therefore often restrict nut consumption. However, nuts are an important source of many vitamins, minerals, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. This paper reviewed all the available evidence from the literature in relation to nut consumption and body weight. The findings show that the role of nut consumption in body weight management is varied. Nuts, when included as part of an energy-controlled diet, were found in some instances to assist with weight loss. However, when nuts were added to an existing diet without controlling for energy intake, body weight increased, although to a lesser extent than theoretically predicted.  There is limited evidence on the effect nut consumption has on type 2 diabetes, although available evidence indicates that nuts as part of a healthy diet do not cause weight gain and can have a positive influence on the fatty acid profile of a person with diabetes. This review shows there is a lack of evidence to support the restriction of nut consumption in weight management, indicating that further research is needed to assess the role of nuts in weight management. Key Words: nuts, body weight, body mass index, weight loss, diabetes mellitus, Type 2

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實證綜論:堅果與體重

目前並沒有單一飲食或生活型態介入對長期減重有效。傳統減重飲食傾向降低總脂肪,因此經常限制堅果的攝取。然而,堅果是多種維生素、礦物質、單元不飽和脂肪酸以及多元不飽和脂肪酸的重要來源。本文查證目前所有關於堅果攝取與體重的文獻,結果發現堅果攝取在體重控制的角色差異極大。當將堅果納為熱量控制飲食的一部份的時候,有些例子指出有助於減輕體重。但若將堅果加進去目前的飲食,而不控制熱量攝取量,則會增加體重,儘管增加的重量較預期的少。堅果攝取對第二型糖尿病的影響的證據並不太多,有限的證據指出,對糖尿病人而言,堅果是健康飲食的一部份,不會增加體重,且對糖尿病患者的脂肪酸形態有正向影響。本綜論指出並沒有證據可以支持體重管理需要限制堅果攝取,還需要更進一步的研究堅果在體重管理的角色。 關鍵字:堅果、體重、身體質量指數、減重、糖尿病、第二型。

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The lactase gene -13910 T allele can not predict the lactase-persistence phenotype in north China

HAI-MING SUN, YUAN-DONG QIAO, FENG CHEN, LI-DAN XU, JING BAI AND SONG-BIN FU

The frequency of lactase persistence varies widely in human populations. Study showed that the T allele of a C/T transition 13910bp upstream from exon 1 of lactase gene (LCT) was completely associated with lactase persistence in a Finnish population. To evaluate if the frequency of -13910T allele was in concordance with the lactase persistence in northern Chinese populations, in this study, we used Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) to detect the lactase -13910T allelic frequency in 5 northern    Chinese populations for the first time. Results showed that the T allele frequency was low in these populations and that it did not match the lactase persistence phenotype in these populations. Therefore the -13910T allelic frequency can not serve as a predictor of the lactase persistence in these populations and this suggests the existence of other possible mechanisms of lactose tolerance in Chinese populations. Key Words: lactase, lactose intolerance, China, population, polymorphism, single nucleotide

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乳糖酶基因-13910T等位基因無法中国北方人的乳糖耐受

乳糖耐受在不同人群中频率差异很大,有研究表明乳糖酶基因(LCT)第一外显子上游13910bp处的C/T转换与芬兰人群的乳糖耐受表型完全相关。为了分析-13910T等位基因是否与中国北方人群的乳糖耐受表型相关,我们应用聚合酶链反应-限制性片段长度多态性的方法对中国北方5个少数民族的-13910T等位基因频率进行了检测。结果显示在这些民族中,T等位基因频率很低,而且与乳糖耐受表型频率并不一致。因此,-13910T等位基因频率并不能反映这些民族的乳糖耐受表型,进而暗示在中国人群中存在着其他可能的乳糖耐受机制。

關鍵字:乳糖酶乳糖耐受中国民族单核苷酸多态性

 

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Alterations of atherogenic low-density lipoproteins and serum fatty acids after 12 week moderate exercise training in sedentary Thai women

RAVEENAN SITTIWICHEANWONG, TIPAYANATE ARIYAPITIPUN, SOMNUKE GULSATITPORN, VANIDA NOPPONPUNTH, MAHINDA ABEYWARDENA AND WINAI DAHLAN

The potential benefit of aerobic exercise upon cardiovascular disease (CVD) through an increasing high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) is acknowledged. However, its effects on low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and their subpopulations, are unknown in Thailand. Twenty sedentary Thai women undertook a 12-week exercise training program (60% heart rate reserve) comprising 25-minute cycling followed by 10-minute warm-up/cool-down 3 times a week with a group of 20 matched sedentary subjects as control. Triacylglycerols (TGs) and cholesterol (C) of plasma lipoproteins including triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins (TRLs), large, buoyant LDL (lb-LDL), small, dense LDL (sd-LDL) and HDLs were analyzed while serum fatty acid profiles were also assessed. It was found that plasma TGs, TRL-TGs, sd-LDL-C and sd-LDL-C/lb-LDL-C (S/L) ratio decreased significantly after 12-weeks of exercise to -9%, -8%, -17% and -19% respectively from baseline (p<0.05). Serum fatty acid profiles remained unchanged. No alteration of any parameters was found in the control group without exercise. These findings suggest that moderate exercise training, even without a change of HDLs, impedes the shift of lb-LDL to more atherogenic sd-LDL, thus possibly preventing cardiovascular disease in healthy, sedentary Thai women. Key Words: small dense low-density lipoprotein, moderate exercise, sedentary women, cardiovascular disease,  serum fatty acid top

 

泰國久坐型態女性12星期中度運動訓練後致動脈粥化低密度脂蛋白和血清脂肪酸之變化

 有氧運動在心血管疾病(CVD)的潛在益處,被認為是透過增加高密度脂蛋白(HDLs)。然而,運動對低密度脂蛋白(LDLs)及其亞群的影響在泰國仍不清楚的。20位久坐型態的泰國女性接受12週的運動訓練計畫(保留60%心跳),包括每週3次,每次10分鐘暖身緩和運動接著騎25分鐘腳踏車,另有20位久坐型態配對婦女為控制組。分析血漿脂蛋白中三酸甘油酯(TGs)和膽固醇(C)包括富含三酸甘油脂的脂蛋白(TRLs)、大且有浮力的LDL(lb-LDL)、小且稠密的LDL(sb-LDL)HDL,及血清脂肪酸組成。在12週運動後,發現血漿中TGsTRL-TGssd-LDL-C sd-LDL-C/lb-LDL-C (S/L)比率比一開始時顯著下降,分別為-9%, -8%, -17% -19%(p<0.05);血清脂肪酸沒有改變。沒有運動的控制組中沒有任何數據的改變。這些結果顯示中度運動,即使HDL沒有改變,仍能阻止lb-LDL轉換成更多能致動脈粥化的sd-LDL,因此可能可以預防健康及久坐型態的泰國女性的心血管疾病。

關鍵字:小且稠密低密度脂蛋白、中度運動、靜態活動婦女、心血管疾病、血清脂肪酸。

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Effect of purple sweet potato leaves consumption on the modulation of the immune response in basketball players during the training period

WEN-HSIN CHANG, CHIAO-MING CHEN, SHENE-PIN HU, NAI-WEN KAN, CHUN-CHIEH CHIU AND JEN-FANG LIU

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the consumption of purple sweet potato leaves (PSPLs) on the immune response and the modulation of that response in 15 basketball players during a training period. They completed the 7-week study consisted of a run-in period (week 1), a PSPLs diet (200 g PSPLs/d; weeks 2, 3), a washout period (weeks 4, 5), and a control diet (low polyphenols content and carotenoid content adjusted to the same level as that of PSPLs diet; weeks 6 and 7). Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected for biochemical analysis. The results showed that the plasma polyphenols concentration increased significantly in the PSPLs period. Compared with the control period, the PSPLs consumption produced a significant increase in the proliferation responsiveness of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), cytotoxic activity of nature killer (NK) cells, and secretion of interferon (IFN)-γ. However, no significant increase in the secretion of salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA), interleukin (IL)-2, or interleukin-4 was observed after PSPLs consumption. In conclusion, consumption of a PSPLs diet for 2 weeks can modulate the immune response of basketball players during a training period. Key Words: purple sweet potato leaves, polyphenols, basketball, training, immune response

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籃球員在訓練期間紅甘藷葉的攝取對其免疫調節之影響  本研究的目的是探討籃球員在訓練期間攝取紅甘藷葉 (PSPLs),對其體內免疫狀態之調節效應。15 位籃球校隊的男女隊員納入本研究。7 週的研究包括調整第一週PSPLs 飲食每日攝取200 gPSPLs) 2-3、排空 4-5及控制飲食低多酚類且調整其類胡蘿蔔素含量與PSPLs一致)(6-7。採集受試者空腹血液、清晨唾液及24小時尿液以進行評估分析。研究結果顯示,與控制組相比,攝食 PSPLs 二週後,受試者血漿中多酚類濃度顯著增加。此外,血中淋巴細胞增殖反應、自然殺手細胞毒殺力和細胞激素--IFN-γ 的分泌量也皆顯著增加;然而唾液中免疫球蛋白A (sIgA) 的濃度及 IL-2 IL-4 的分泌量於二期間並無顯著差

關鍵字:紅甘藷葉、多酚類、籃球、訓練、免疫狀態

  

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Fruits and stir-fried vegetables increase plasma carotenoids in young adults

YU-JU LIN, YI-WEN CHIEN, SHWU-HUEY YANG AND HSING-HSIEN CHENG

We examined the plasma levels of carotenoids in young adults after a dietary intervention composed of increased intakes of fruits and stir-fried vegetables from a Taiwanese mixed diet. Thirty-four apparently healthy, non-smoking subjects who normally ingested less than two and a half servings of fruits and vegetables daily were selected for the study. Meals changed were lunch and dinner on weekdays for a period of 4 weeks. The test meal consisted of three servings of stir-fried vegetables and two servings of fresh fruits. Plasma carotenoid levels in subjects significantly increased from 19%-32% for β-carotene, 15%-47% for lycopene and 59%-88% for β-crytoxanthin (p < 0.05) from week 1 to 4. However, these concentrations of β-carotene and lycopene significantly decreased after stopping the consumption of the test meals. This study reveals the importance of a continuous consumption of carotenoid rich foods in order to maintain high levels of plasma carotenoids for the potential prevention of chronic diseases in individuals. Key Words: fruits, stir-fried vegetables, β-carotene β-crytoxanthin, lycopene, young adults

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攝取水果與炒青菜可增加年輕人血漿類胡蘿蔔素的濃度

本次研究以飲食介入方式探討年輕成年受試者在增加水果及台灣地區日常飲食炒青菜攝取量,對其血漿類胡蘿蔔素濃度的影響。招募34位健康、無吸煙習慣及每天平均攝取低於2.5份蔬菜及水果的受試者加入本研究。受試者接受四週的飲食介入試驗,星期一星期五提供受試者午餐及晚餐的試驗飲食。餐食包括3份炒青菜與2份新鮮水果。受試者在攝取試驗飲食第一週及第四週後,血漿β-胡蘿蔔素、番茄紅素及β-玉米黃素分別顯著性增加19-32%15-47%59-88%受試者在停止攝取試驗飲食四週後,其血漿中β-胡蘿蔔素及番茄紅素的濃度皆顯著降低。持續攝取富含類胡蘿蔔素的飲食可維持較高的血漿類胡蘿蔔素的濃度,有助於預防慢性病的發生。

關鍵字:水果、炒青菜、β-胡蘿蔔素、β-玉米黃素、番茄紅素、年輕人

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Dietary plant sterols supplementation does not alter lipoprotein kinetics in men with the metabolic syndrome

ESTHER MM OOI, GERALD F WATTS, P HUGH R BARRETT, DICK C CHAN, PETER M CLIFTON, JUYING JI AND PAUL J NESTEL

Dietary plant sterols supplementation has been demonstrated in some studies to lower plasma total and LDL cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic subjects. The cholesterol lowering action of plant sterols remains to be investigated in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. In a randomized, crossover study of 2 x 4 week therapeutic periods with oral supplementation of plant sterols (2 g/day) or placebo, and two weeks placebo wash-out between therapeutic periods, we investigated the effects of dietary plant sterols on lipoprotein metabolism in nine men with the metabolic syndrome. Lipoprotein kinetics were measured using [D3]-leucine, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compartmental modeling. In men with the metabolic syndrome, dietary plant sterols did not have a significant effect on plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein (apo) B, apoA-I or apoA-II. There were no significant changes to VLDL-, IDL-, LDL-apoB or apoA-I fractional catabolic rates and production rates between therapeutic phases. Relative to placebo, plasma campesterol, a marker of cholesterol absorption was significantly increased (2.53 0.35 vs. 4.64 0.59 mg/ml, p<0.05), but there was no change in plasma lathosterol, a marker of endogenous cholesterol synthesis. In conclusion, supplementation with plant sterols did not appreciably influence plasma lipid or lipoprotein metabolism in men with the metabolic syndrome. Future studies with larger sample size, stratification to low and high cholesterol absorbers and cholesterol balance studies are warranted. Key Words: plant sterols, lipoprotein kinetics, dyslipidemia, cholesterol absorption, metabolic syndrome

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補充膳食植物固醇不影響代謝症候群男性之脂蛋白動力學  部分研究已證實高膽固醇血症患者補充膳食植物固醇,可以降低其血漿總膽固醇及LDL膽固醇濃度。對代謝症候群患者,植物固醇降低膽固醇的作用仍待研究。我們設計一個隨機交叉,處置時間為2x4週的研究,探討膳食固醇對九名有代謝症候群男性脂蛋白代謝之影響。給予口服植物固醇補充劑(2g/)或是安慰劑,兩種處置期間的休閒期兩週給予安慰劑。採用[D3]-leucine、氣相層析質譜儀以及隔式模型測量脂蛋白動力學。對患有代謝症候群的男性而言,膳食固醇對於血漿總膽固醇、三酸甘油酯、LDL膽固醇、HDL膽固醇、輔蛋白(apo)B、輔蛋白A-IA-II之濃度沒有顯著的影響。VLDL-IDL-LDL-輔蛋白B或輔蛋白A-I部分的分解率及生產率在兩種不同處置間並沒有顯著改變。相對於安慰劑組,膽固醇吸收標記-血漿campesterol顯著增加(2.53 0.35 vs. 4.64 0.59 mg/ml, p<0.05),但是內生性膽固醇合成標記-血漿lathosterol則沒有改變。總之,補充植物固醇對於代謝症候群男性患者之血漿脂質或是脂蛋白代謝並沒有很大的影響。未來研究應有較大的樣本,並且作低、高膽固醇吸收者分層,以及膽固醇平衡研究。 關鍵字:植物固醇、脂蛋白動力學、血脂異常、膽固醇吸收、代謝症候群

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Desirable intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids in Indonesian adults

ASIKIN HANAFIAH, DARWIN KARYADI, WIDJAJA LUKITO, MUHILAL AND FADILAH SUPARI

A Indonesian Advisory Group on Fatty Acid Nutrition and Health was established in 2004 to consider the increasing incidence of nutritionally-related cardiovascular disease in Indonesia. Emerging international recommendations often focused on dietary fat and may not  have been  relevant to the national situation. Traditional dietary patterns were apparently protective against ischaemic heart disease often with fat derived dominantly from a particular source like coconut, soy, peanut or fish. These fats were used in ways which promoted the use of potentially cardioprotecive foods like legumes, vegetables, fruits and aquatic food. Optimal intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids in Indonesia are likely to reflect both absolute intakes and the relationships between n–3 and n–6 fatty acids of longer chain lengths. This leaves some issues for active and continuing review, like the intakes of trans fatty acids, and the regulatory and food labelling implications. Some studies underway and others which need implementation will enable the Advisory Group to prepare a second report with more basis in Indonesian evidence. In the meantime, the Advisory Group has recommended that the AHA (American Heart Association) and ISSFAL (International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids) recommendations obtain until the end of 2007. Key Words: Omega3 fatty acids, chronic disease, dietary patterns, Okinawan Round Table on Nutrition and CVD, coconut, fish, tofu, tempeh

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印尼成人多元不飽和脂肪酸期望攝取量

一個印尼脂肪酸營養和健康顧問團在2004年成立,關切印尼日漸增加的營養相關心血管疾病發生率。新興的國際建議多將焦點放在膳食脂肪,未必能符合國內的狀況。傳統飲食型態對於缺血性心臟病有明顯保護者,其脂肪多來自特定來源,像椰子、黃豆、花生或魚。使用這些脂肪的同時,也吃了其他潛在保護心血管的食物,像豆科植物、蔬菜、水果和水生食物。在印尼,最適的多元不飽和脂肪酸攝取很可能同時反映了絕對攝取量,及n–3 n–6長鏈脂肪酸間的關係。這些議題留待持續與積極的評估,例如反式脂肪酸的攝取,及其對管理及食品標示的意涵。一些進行中和其他需要進行的研究,將使顧問團能依據印尼的證據準備第二次報告。同時,顧問團也建議建議AHA(美國心臟協會)和 ISSFAL(脂肪酸及脂肪國際學術協會)保留到2007年底。

關鍵字:omega3脂肪酸、慢性疾病、飲食型態、琉球營養與心血管疾病圓桌會議、椰子、魚、黃豆、豆腐、天貝

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Comparison of body compositional indices assessed by underwater weighing, bioelectrical impedance and anthropometry in Indonesian adolescent girls

RATIH I ISJWARA, WIDJAJA LUKITO AND JAN WERNER SCHULTINK

Objective: to investigate the accuracy of bioelectric impedance analysis and anthropometry to assess percentage body fat (BF %) against underwater weighing (UW). Design and Methods: a cross sectional study, 102 girls, aged 11-15, were recruited from two Junior High Schools in Jakarta. Measurements:  measurements of percentage body fat (BF%) using underwater weighing (UW), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), Tanita BIA, body mass index (BMI) and skinfold equations. Results: Correlation between different methods was significant (p < 0.001).The mean difference of BF % from BIA, Tanita, BMI and skinfold compared to UW were 1.87+3.14, -3.46+3.28, 1.57+2.90 and -0.360+3.09, respectively. Assessments between UW and other methods were significantly different (p < 0.0001) except for skinfolds (p = 0.3031). Conclusion: The results between UW and other methods was significantly different, except for skinfolds. There was overestimation and underestimation of BF%. The agreement between skinfold measurement and underwater weighing was also influenced by menarche status. Key Words: body fat, skinfolds, underwater weighing, bioelectrical impedance, anthropometry, Jakarta, Schools, menarche

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比較由水中秤重法、生物電阻、人體測量評估之印尼青少女女孩之體組成指標 目的:與水中秤重法(UW)對照,研究生物電阻分析(BIA)和人體測量學評估體脂百分比(BF%)的正確性。設計與方法:一個橫斷性研究,召募10211-15歲來自兩所位於雅加達的中學的女孩。測量法:體脂百分比(BF%)的測量法用水中秤重法(UW)、生物電阻分析、Tanita BIA、身體質量指數(BMI)和皮脂厚度公式。結果:不同方法間有顯著的相關(p < 0.001)BIATanitaBMI和皮脂厚度測得的BF%UW比較平均差異分別為1.87+3.14-3.46+3.281.57+2.90-0.360+3.09UW與其他方法估計的差異,除了皮脂厚度(p = 0.3031)外,其餘均有顯著差異。結論:UW與其他方法的結果,除了皮脂厚度外均達到顯著差異,那是對BF%的高估和低估;皮脂厚度測量法和水中秤重法之間的一致也受到初經狀況影響。 關鍵字:體脂肪、皮脂厚度、水中秤重法、生物電阻、人體測量學、雅加達、學校、初經

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Percent body fat cutoff values for classifying overweight and obesity recommended by the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) in Korean children

KAYOUNG LEE, SANGYEOUP LEE, SU YUNG KIM, SU JIN KIM AND YUN JIN KIM

Objective:  To predict the percent body fat (%BF) cutoff values corresponding to overweight and obesity recommended by the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) in Korean children and to compare those values with the published cutoff values in Caucasian children. Research methods and procedures:  The sample consisted of 1083 Korean children and adolescents (555 boys and 528 girls) aged 7-18 years from 3 schools. Body mass index (BMI) and %BF using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer were measured. The classification of overweight and obesity was based on the age- and sex-specific BMI cutoff values of the IOTF guidelines. Results: The predicted %BF cutoff values for overweight and obesity varied by age and sex: overweight, 17-22% in boys and 24-37% in girls; obesity, 24-30% in boys and 30-53% in girls. Those %BF cutoff values in older Korean boys tended to be lower than the published %BF cutoff values in Caucasian boys. While %BF cutoff values for overweight in Korean girls were similar to the values in Caucasian girls,  %BF cutoff values for obesity in Korean girls aged 13~18 years were higher compared to cutoff values in Caucasian girls. Conclusion: The %BF values associated with the IOTF-recommended BMI cutoff values for overweight and obesity may require age- and sex-specific cutoff values in Korean children aged 7-18 years. Key Words: IOTF, Korean children, obesity, overweight, percent body fat

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韓國國際肥胖專案小組建議兒童體重過重與肥胖分類之體脂肪率切點

目的:預測以國際肥胖專案小組(IOTF)建議的體重過重與肥胖分類之韓國兒童體脂肪率(%BF)切點值與的一致性,並與那些已發表之高加索兒童數值比較。研究方法與程序:樣本由來自三個學校之10837-18歲韓國兒童以及青少年(555名男孩及528名女孩)組構。身體質量指數(BMI)以及%BF使用生物電阻分析儀測量。體重過重與肥胖的分類是依據IOTF指南之年齡別及性別的BMI切點。結果:預測體重過重與肥胖的%BF切點因年齡及性別而有所不同。17-22%男童及24-37%女童為過重,24-30%男童30-53%女童為肥胖。年齡較大的韓國男童%BF切點比起已發表的高加索男童%BF切點為低;而體重過重的韓國女童%BF切點與高加索女童則相似;韓國13-18歲肥胖女童的%BF切點比高加索女童的切點高。結論:韓國7-18歲的兒童之IOTF-對體重過重及肥胖建議BMI切點值與相關的%BF值,其切點可能需要針對年齡及性別分別訂定。

關鍵字:國際肥胖專案小組、韓國兒童、肥胖、過重、體脂肪率

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Population-specific anthropometric cut-points improve the functionality of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) in elderly Taiwanese ALAN CHUNG-HONG TSAI, CHING-SUNG HO AND MING-CHENG CHANG

The objective of this study was to determine the population-specific cut-points of body mass index (BMI), mid-arm circumference (MAC) and calf circumference (CC) for identifying subnormal nutritional status in elderly Taiwanese, and to evaluate the possibility of improving the functionality of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) by adopting these cut-points. This study analyzed data from 1583 men and 1307 women, 65 years or older, of a national survey. The survey involved in-home, face-to-face, interviews and anthropometric measurements. Results showed that based on the cumulative percentile curves, the fifth percentile values were: BMI, 17 kg/m2 for both men and women; MAC, 22.5 cm for men and 21 cm for women; and CC, 28 cm for men and 25 cm for women. Substitution of these population-specific cut-points for respective values in the MNA screen resulted in lowered proportions of elderly classified malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. The prevalence of malnutrition was reduced from 1.7% to 1.4% in men and from 2.4% to 1.5% in women. The proportions classified at risk of malnutrition were reduced from 10.1% to 8.9% for men and 16.8% to 12.8% for women. In conclusion, results suggest that the MNA is a valuable tool for geriatric nutritional risk assessment. However, in populations where significant differences exist in anthropometric measurements from the Caucasian populations, population-specific cut-points should be used.

Key Words: Mini Nutritional Assessment, elderly, BMI, calf circumference, Taiwan

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族群代表性的體位指標切點修訂的「迷你營養評估」可改進其對灣老人的評估功能

本研究之目的在研訂灣老人族群代表性的身體質量指數 (BMI)、上臂圍MAC、及小腿圍CC之分切點以期能更有效的判別營養不良的老人及評量這些新切點改進「迷你營養評估」(MNA)功能的程度。本研究分析了一個具族群代表性的全國性的調查研究65歲以上的個案, 1582人及女1307人的資料。該調查包括問卷訪談及體位測量。結果顯示各指標進百分位分佈曲線第五百分位之值分別為BMI男女均為17 kg/m2MAC22.5 cm21cmCC28 cm25cm。以這些新分切點分別取代MNA中原切點後減低了該研究個案老人的營養不良率。被判定為營養不良者從男2.4%及女1.5%分別降為1.7%1.4%。而被判定為具營養風險者則從男16.8%及女12.8%分別降為10.1%8.9%。本研究的結論是以老人營養評估而言, MNA是一套有價値的工具。但當此工具被用來評估非白人族群老人時則應採用具族群代表性的體位指標分切點。

關鍵字:迷你營養評估老人身體質量指數小腿圍、臺

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Body fatness, physical activity, and nutritional behaviours in Asian Indian immigrants to New Zealand

GREGORY S KOLT, GRANT M SCHOFIELD, ELAINE C RUSH, MELODY OLIVER AND NARENDER K CHADHA

Body fatness, physical activity, and nutritional behaviours were assessed in 112 (50 male, 62 female) Asian Indians living in New Zealand. Participants were aged 44-91 years (mean 67.5 7.6) and had lived in New Zealand on average 51 months. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured to determine body mass index (BMI) and central adiposity. Bioelectrical impedance was used to derive fat free mass, fat mass, and percentage body fat. Pedometers were worn to record daily steps taken over each of seven consecutive days. A lifestyle and health questionnaire was administered to collect information on nutrition behaviours. Average BMI for the sample was 27.2 4.7 kg/m2 with females (28.0 5.4 kg/m2) significantly higher than males (25.6 5.4 kg/m2). Using Asian Indian specific cut-offs 69% of the sample was obese (BMI≥25 kg/m2) and a further 13.7% overweight (23≥BMI<25 kg/m2). Average percentage body fat for the sample was 41.1 9.1 with females significantly higher than males. The majority (74%) reported some form of chronic condition, with 35% diagnosed with diabetes. Physical activity levels for the sample were low (5,977 3,560 steps/day) and significantly different between males (6,982 4,426) and females (5,159 2,401). Higher pedometer steps were associated with lower waist circumference. After adjustment for age, physical activity was lower, but nutritional habits better for those who had spent a longer time in New Zealand. In summary, Asian Indian immigrants to New Zealand have low physical activity levels and high levels of overweight/obesity and lifestyle disease. Key Words: obesity, body mass index, physical activity, Asians, nutrition

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紐西蘭之亞洲印度移民之身體肥胖度、體能活動及營養行為

112名(50名男性,62名女性)住在紐西蘭的亞洲印度人評估身體肥胖度、體能活動及營養行為。參與者的年齡從4491歲(平均67.5 7.6),並且住在紐西蘭平均51個月。為了測定身體質量指數(BMI)及中央形肥胖測量身高、體重和腰圍。以生物阻抗法推算非脂肪質量、脂肪質量和體脂肪率。連續7天配戴記步器用來記錄每日步行數。以生活形態和健康問卷收集營養行為的訊息。本樣本的平均BMI27.2 4.7 kg/m2,女性(28.0 5.4 kg/m2)顯著高於男性(25.6 5.4 kg/m2)。採用亞洲印度人特殊切點,有69%的人肥胖(BMI≥25 kg/m2)13.7%過重(23≥BMI<25 kg/m2)。平均體脂肪率為41.1 9.1,而女性顯著高於男性。多數 (74)報告有一些慢性疾患,35%被診斷出有糖尿病。體能活動的程度不高(5,977 3,560/天),男(6,982 4,426)(5,159 2,401)之間有顯著差異。較高的記步數與較小的腰圍相關。校正年齡之後,體能活動仍低,但是營養行為比居住在紐西蘭較久的人好。總結,紐西蘭之亞洲印度移民體能活動程度低及高比例的過重和肥胖及與生活型態相關的疾病。

關鍵字:肥胖、身體質量指標、體能活動、亞洲人、營養

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Reduction of abdominal fat and chronic disease factors by lifestyle change in migrant Asian Indians older than 50 years

ELAINE C RUSH, VISHNU CHANDU AND LINDSAY D PLANK

The objective of this study was to assess the impact of a group diet and physical activity intervention on body composition, blood lipid profile and insulin resistance in migrant Asian Indian volunteers. Total body and abdominal fat, waist girth, serum glucose, insulin and lipids were measured one month before and immediately prior to an intervention designed to encourage increased physical activity and improved diet. Measurements were repeated after a 5-month period of altered exercise and dietary habits. Over this period monthly group education sessions were held on diet and physical activity and the importance of lifestyle changes to reduce risk factors for chronic disease. Forty one (21M, 20F) volunteers (aged >50 y) were recruited from Asian Indian community groups in urban Auckland, New Zealand.  Body weight, total and percentage body fat, waist girth and abdominal fat decreased in men following the intervention (p<0.006) while these changes were not statistically significant in women. In both men and women high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels increased and LDL and total cholesterol/HDL ratio decreased (p<0.002) without changes in serum glucose, insulin and triglycerides. Reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure was associated with an increase in HDL cholesterol in women (r=0.63, p=0.003, r=0.48, p=0.03) but not in men (r=0.09, p=0.69, r=0.04, p=0.86). Over a five month period, an Asian Indian community group diet and physical activity intervention resulted in significant reductions in total and abdominal body fat and blood lipid risk factors but not in insulin sensitivity or resistance. Key Words: Obesity, diabetes, lifestyle, physical activity, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

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生活型態改變降低50歲以上亞洲印度人移民腹部脂肪與慢性疾病因子

本研究目的為評估一個團體飲食與體能活動的介入,對自願的亞洲印度移民之身體組成、血脂肪以及胰島素阻抗之影響。在介入活動(鼓勵增加體能活動及改善飲食開始)前一個月及即將開始前測量受試者的總脂肪以及腹部脂肪、腰圍、血糖、胰島素及脂質。在改變運動以及飲食習慣介入活動之後五個月,重複這些測量。在介入期間,每個月有一次團體教育課程,針對飲食與體能活動及降低慢性疾病危險因子之生活習慣改變的重要性的。從紐西蘭奧克蘭城市亞洲印度人社區招募40名(21名男性,20名女性)自願者(年齡>50歲)。介入之後,男性的體重、總脂肪及體脂率、腰圍與腹部脂肪顯著降低(p<0.006),女性則沒有統計顯著的改變。男女性的高密度脂蛋白(HDL)量均上升,LDL及總膽固醇/HDL比值則下降(p<0.002),血糖、胰島素及三酸甘油酯則沒有改變。女性收縮壓及舒張壓降低與HDL上升具相關性(r=0.63p=0.003r=0.48p=0.03),但在男性則沒有(r=0.09p=0.69r=0.04 p=0.86)。五個月的亞州印度社區團體飲食與體能活動介入,能顯著降低總脂肪、腹部脂肪與血脂危險因子,但對胰島素敏感性或阻抗性則沒有作用。

關鍵字:肥胖、糖尿病、生活型態、體能活動、雙能量X光吸收光儀。

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Obesity and changes in body weight related to 10-year diabetes incidence in women in Taiwan (1993-2003)

LEE-CHING HWANG, CHIEN-JEN CHEN AND BONIFACE J LIN

This study aimed to investigate the relation of obesity and changes in body weight through adulthood with risks of type 2 diabetes. This study of 954 middle-aged women free of diabetes (mean age, 37.19.6 years) was conducted in a hospital. The baseline and biannual health check-ups were performed from 1993 to 2003. The cumulative incidence rate of type 2 diabetes was 3.64 per 1000 person-years during the mean follow-up period of 10 years. 73.3% of subjects who developed type 2 diabetes were overweight (16.6%) or obese (56.7%). Obese subjects (body mass index more than 25 kg/m2) had a relative risk of type 2 diabetes of 10.4 (95% confidence interval 2.95-36.9) compared with subjects with an optimal body mass index (18-22.9 kg/m2). Long-term weight gain was strongly related to the risk of type 2 diabetes. Each 1 kg of weight gain was associated with a 16% increase in risk of developing diabetes. This study indicated that obesity at young adult and weight gain appreciably increase risk for type 2 diabetes. Maintaining a lean weight throughout adulthood seems to be beneficial in the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes.

Key Words: obesity, body mass index, weight change, incidence, type 2 diabetes, Taiwan

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臺灣女性肥胖及體重增加與10年後糖尿病發生率的相關

研究目的在探討成人期肥胖與體重增加是否影響第二型糖尿病的發生率,本研究對象為954位女性(平均年齡37.19.6)1993年起至2003年定期健康檢查,追蹤10年之後發現第二型糖尿病的發生率為每千人年3.64,發生糖尿病的人之中有16.6%是屬於體重過重,而56.7%是肥胖者,身體質量指數超過25kg/m2的人發生第二型糖尿病的危險性是身體質量指數介於18-22.9kg/m210.4倍。體重增加亦是發生第二型糖尿病的高危險群,每增加一公斤體重可以增加16%的風險,在女性成人期若是能避免體重過重或是肥胖,並維持適當體重有利於預防第二型糖尿病。

關鍵字:肥胖、身體質量指數、體重改變、發生率、第二型糖尿病、臺灣

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Body weight and weight loss: are health messages reaching their target?

LYNNETTE J RIDDELL AND VICTORIA INMAN

Objective: To investigate lay peoples’ knowledge of health risks of overweight, accuracy of self-perception of body weight and perceived benefits of weight loss. Method: A nine item questionnaire was administered to a cross sectional survey of adults in metropolitan shopping centres, height and weight were measured. Results: Two hundred and nine (57% female) adults completed the survey. Thirty eight percent had a healthy BMI (18.5-24.9), 38% were overweight (BMI 25-29.9) and a further 22% were obese (BMI>30). However only 46% perceived themselves ‘overweight’, 50% considered themselves ‘just about right’ and 4% considered themselves ‘underweight’. Of those with a BMI of 25 or greater 28% considered their weight ‘just about right’.  Over 80% thought ‘being overweight’ was ‘likely’ or ‘very likely’ to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes and stroke; however 20% of overweight or obese individuals did not think their health would improve if they lost weight. Conclusion: A significant proportion of overweight or obese individuals do not accurately perceive their body weight and do not recognise the health advantages of weight loss despite recognising excess body weight as a risk factor for chronic diseases. Implications: Increasing the awareness of an individual’s BMI and promoting the benefits of modest weight loss maybe two underutilized strategies for population level weight control. Key Words: BMI, overweight, obesity, weight loss, chronic disease, public health

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體重與減重:健康訊號是否傳達到標的?

目的:研究一般大眾對過重的健康風險知識、自我認知體重的準確性,以及減重益處的認知。方法:在都會區的購物中心對成年人所進行的橫斷性調查,問卷包含九個項目,並測量身高及體重。結果209名成年人(57%女性)完成此調查。38%有健康的BMI (18.5-24.9)38%過重(BMI25-29.9)以及22%肥胖 (BMI>30)。然而只有46%自認為 「過重」、50%認為自己「剛剛好」,4%認為他們自己「過輕」。BMI大於等於25者,有28%認為他們的體重「剛剛好」。超過80%認為「過重」「可能是」或「很有可能」是心血管疾病、高血壓、糖尿病以及中風的危險因子;然而,20%過重或肥胖的人並不認為減重會改善他們的健康。結論:有極大一部份的過重或肥胖的人無法精準的知道他們自己的體重,並且不認為減重對健康的益處,儘管他們知道體重過重是慢性疾病的危險因子。意涵:增加個人對BMI的知覺以及宣傳適度減重的益處,或許是兩個在族群層次控制體重尚未被充分利用的政策。

關鍵字:BMI、體重過重、肥胖、減重、慢性疾病、公共衛生

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Assessment of risks of "lifestyle" diseases including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes by anthropometry in remote Australian Aborigines

MICHAEL GRACEY, VALERIE BURKE, DAVID D MARTIN, ROBERT J JOHNSTON, TIMOTHY JONES AND ELIZABETH A DAVIS

Objective: To evaluate waist-to-height ratio (WTHR), waist girth and body mass index (BMI) as predictors of cardiovascular risk factors in Australian Aborigines. Design: Indices were examined as predictors of mean blood pressures (BP), blood lipids, glucose, insulin and as predictors of hypertension, decreased HDL-cholesterol, elevated glucose and type 2 diabetes. Setting: Aboriginal communities in remote north-west Australia. Participants: Four hundred and one adults. Results: More than 80% of participants had WTHR 0.5 or BMI >22 kg/m2 and 78% had increased waist girth (>90 cm men; >80 cm women). Adverse BP, blood lipids, glucose and insulin were associated with classification above the cutpoint for each index. For fasting glucose ≥5.6 mmol/L, sensitivity was 91% with WTHR, 87% with waist girth and 88% with BMI; respective specificities were 29%, 29% and 44%. Area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves gave only “fair” accuracy for any discriminatory variable. With diabetes AUROC for BMI (0.59, 95% CI 0.53, 0.65) was significantly lower than with other indices (WTHR 0.74, 95% CI 0.69, 0.79; girth 0.72, 95% CI 0.67, 0.78) but did not differ significantly for fasting glucose, HDL-cholesterol or hypertension. AUROC did not differ significantly between men and women for any outcomes. Conclusions: The indices did not discriminate well for diabetes or cardiovascular risk factors in these Aborigines, but waist girth or WTHR appeared more useful than BMI. Appropriate cutpoints are needed. WTHR is simple, does not need sex-specific cutpoints and could be useful in developing public health strategies. Key Words: overweight/obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, anthropometry, BMI, Aborigines, indigenous

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體位測量評估澳洲偏遠地區原住民的「生活型態」疾病包括心血管疾病以及第二型糖尿病之危險因子

目的:評估澳洲原住民的心血管疾病的預測因子:腰圍身高比(WTHR)、腰圍及身體質量指數(BMI)設計:評估指標是否為平均血壓(BP)、血脂、血糖、胰島素及高血壓、低HDL-膽固醇、高血糖以及第二型糖尿病的預測因子。地點:澳洲偏遠西北部原住民社區。參與者401名成年人。結果:超過80%的參與者其WTHR≥0.5 或是 BMI >22 kg/m278%的人腰圍過大(男性>90公分;女性>80公分)。以上述的切點分類每個指標,這些指標與血壓、血脂、血糖及胰島素為負相關。對禁食血糖≥5.6 mmol/L的敏感度WTHR91%、腰圍為87%以及BMI88%;特異度分別為29%29%以及44%。藉由接收器運作指標曲線下面積(AUROC)得知任一具辨別能力的變項的精確性只是「尚可」。BMI (0.5995% CI 0.530.78)對糖尿病的AUROC比其他指標(WTHR 0.7495% CI 0.690.79;腰圍 0.72 95% CI 0.670.78)顯著的低,但是對禁食血糖、HDL-膽固醇或是高血壓則沒有顯著差異。男女性在任何結果的AUROC均沒有顯著差異。結論:這些指標對原住民的糖尿病或是心血管疾病危險因子沒有良好的區別能力,但是腰圍或WTHRBMI有用。適當的切點是需要的。WTHR簡單,不需要因性別用不同切點,對發展公共衛生政策可能有用。

關鍵字:過重/肥胖、糖尿病、心血管疾病、體位測量、BMI、原住民、土著

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Determinants of plasma homocysteine levels and carotid intima-media thickness in Japanese

NOBORU TAKAMURA, YASUYO ABE, MIO NAKAZATO, TAKAHIRO MAEDA, MITSUHIRO WADA, KENICHIRO NAKASHIMA, YOSUKE KUSANO AND KIYOSHI AOYAGI

Although hyperhomocysteinemia is considered to be a key risk factor for atherosclerosis, especially in Western countries, its role in the Asian population is still controversial. In this study, we evaluated the determinants of homocysteine and carotid intima-media thickness, a clinical marker for the detection of atherosclerosis, in Japanese. In 289 Japanese adults (age 37-86 yrs), we screened plasma total homocysteine by high performance liquid chromatography and evaluated maximum carotid intima-media thickness by ultrasound. Other blood chemistry values were also measured. Total homocysteine levels were higher in men than in women and increased with age. In multiple regression analysis, adjusted for age and sex, serum creatinine was a powerful determinant of homocysteine (=3.3, p<0.01). Maximum carotid intima-media thickness was higher in men than in women and increased with age. When adjusted for age and sex, systolic blood pressure was independently correlated with maximum carotid intima-media thickness (=0.001, p<0.01). Our current results support previous findings that in addition to age and sex, serum creatinine and systolic blood pressure are independent determinants of homocysteine and carotid intima-media thickness, respectively. Key Words: atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), folate, homocysteine (HCY), Asia

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日本人血漿中的同半胱胺酸量與頸動脈中內膜層厚度的決定因子

雖然高同半胱胺酸血症被認為是動脈硬化的關鍵危險因子,尤指西方國家,但它在亞洲族群中的角色尚未有定論。本研究我們評估日本人同半胱胺酸及頸動脈中內膜層厚度(一個動脈硬化臨床標記)之決定因子。我們以高效能液相層析儀分析289名日本成年人(年齡37-86)血漿總同半胱胺酸,並用超音波評估頸動脈中內膜層厚度最大值。同時評估其他血液生化值。總同半胱胺酸量男性高與女性,並且隨著年齡增加。在多元迴歸分析,校正年齡及性別後,血清肌酸酐是同半胱胺酸(β=3.3p<0.01)有力的決定因子。頸動脈中內膜層厚度最大值男性高於女性,且隨著年齡增加。當校正年齡及性別後,收縮壓與頸動脈中內膜層最大值具有獨立相關性(β=0.001p<0.01)。我們目前的結果支持之前的發現,亦即除了年齡及性別外,血清肌酸酐與收縮壓分別為同半胱胺酸及頸動脈中內層厚度的決定因子。

關鍵字:動脈硬化、心血管疾病(CVD)、頸動脈中內膜層厚度(CIMT)、葉酸、同半胱胺酸(HCY)、亞洲

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The relationship between maternal physical activity during pregnancy and birth weight

PRATIBHA DWARKANATH, SUMITHRA MUTHAYYA, MARIO VAZ, TINKU THOMAS, ARUN MHASKAR, RITA MHASKAR, ANNAMMA THOMAS, SWARNAREKHA BHAT AND ANURA KURPAD

Introduction: Earlier studies in India have demonstrated an inverse relationship between physical activity and birth weight in rural women who had high levels of physical activity related to agricultural and domestic activities. There are no data on urban Indian women from a wide range of socio-economic backgrounds with varying levels of physical activity. This study assessed the role of different domains of physical activity during pregnancy and its relation to birth weight. Methods: Data on maternal anthropometry and maternal physical activity level were collected at the 1st trimester (baseline), the 2nd trimester and the 3rd trimester of pregnancy.  Birth weight for 546 live born babies was measured immediately after delivery. Results: The time spent in sedentary activities (median “cut-off” of 165 min/d) was significantly associated with maternal body weight in the first trimester of pregnancy (51.2 kg vs. 54.1 kg, p<0.001). Women in the highest tertile of physical activity level in the 1st trimester were 1.58 times (95% CI: 1.02-2.44) more likely of having a baby in the lowest tertile of birth weight with reference to the first tertile. This significant association continued after adjustment for maternal weight and energy intake. Conclusion: The present study shows that physical activity in the first trimester is associated with low birth weight in Indian babies.

Key Words: pregnancy, physical activity, low birth weight, nutrition, India

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婦女懷孕期間的體能活動與嬰兒出生體重的相關性

前言:印度早期的研究指出,從事大量與農業以及家事的鄉村婦女,其體能活動與嬰兒出生體重為負相關。目前還沒有印度城市地區,較大範圍的社經背景及各種強度的體能活動量的婦女的相關數據。本研究評估婦女懷孕期間,不同狀況的體能活動量與對其嬰兒出生體重的角色。方法:收集婦女妊娠第一期、第二期與第三期的體位資料及體能活動量。在分娩後立即測量546名活產嬰兒之出生體重。結果:花費在靜態活動的時間(中位數切點為165/)與婦女妊娠第一期時的體重顯著相關(51.2公斤vs. 54.1公斤,p<0.001)。當妊娠第一期的體能活動量位在最高三分位,其產下的嬰兒出生體重在最低三分位的機會為在體能活動量最低三分位者的1.58倍。在校正婦女體重與熱量攝取量之後,仍然顯著性。結論:本研究顯示第一孕期的體能活動量與印度嬰兒低出生體重相關。

關鍵字:懷孕、體能活動、低出生體重、營養、印度

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Comparsions of a chicken-based formula with soy-based formula in infants with cow milk allergy

PIPOP JIRAPINYO, NARUMON DENSUPSOONTORN, RENU WONGARN, NUCHNOI THAMONSIRI

Objective: To determine whether chicken-based formula can replace soy-based formula in infants with cow milk allergy. Subjects and Methods: Thirty-eight infants with cow’s milk allergy, aged between 2-24 months of age were randomized to receive either chicken-based formula or soy-based formula for 14 days. Results: In the group of soy-based formula, 12 out of 18 infants had evidence of intolerance and could not continue with the formula.  However, only 4 out of 20 infants in the chicken-based formula group had evidence of clinical intolerance. All other 16 infants were fed the chicken-based formula with success.  The number of infants who were intolerant to chicken formula was significantly lower than the number of those fed soy-based formula (p = 0.009). Conclusion: Chicken-based formula can be used more effectively than soy-based formula in infants with cow milk allergy. Key Words: Chicken-formula, cow milk allergy, soy-formula., Thailand, infants

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雞肉和黃豆蛋白配方奶對牛奶過敏症嬰兒之比較

目的:測定對牛奶過敏症的嬰兒,是否可以用雞肉蛋白配方奶取代黃豆蛋白配方奶。對象和方法382-24個月對牛奶過敏的嬰兒,隨機分派至接受雞肉蛋白配方奶或黃豆蛋白配方奶14天。結果:在黃豆蛋白配方奶組,18個中有12個嬰兒證實不耐受而無法繼續使用此配方奶。然而,20個使用雞肉蛋白配方奶的嬰兒中只有4個確認為臨床不耐。所有其他16位都成功餵食雞肉蛋白配方奶。雞肉蛋白配方奶不耐受的嬰兒數明顯比餵食黃豆蛋白配方奶少(p = 0.009)結論:對牛奶過敏症的嬰兒而言,雞肉蛋白配方奶比黃豆蛋白配方奶更有效。

關鍵字:雞肉配方奶、牛奶過敏症、黃豆配方奶、泰國、嬰兒

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Anemia and intestinal parasite infection in school children in rural Vietnam

HUONG THI LE, INGE D BROUWER, HANS VERHOEF, KHAN CONG NGUYEN, FRANS J KOK

Objectives: This study hypothesized that besides iron deficiency, intestinal parasites infection is also a determinant of anemia in schoolchildren in rural Vietnam. Methods: 400 primary schoolchildren from 20 primary schools in Tam Nong district, a poor rural area in Vietnam, were randomly selected from enrolment lists. Venous blood (5ml) was collected in a cross sectional study and analyzed for hemoglobin (Hb), serum ferritin (SF), serum transferrin receptor (TfR), serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and total immunoglobulin E (IgE). Stools samples were examined for hookworm, Trichuris, and Ascaris infection. Logistic regression was used to assess the effect of intestinal parasites on anemia. Results: The prevalence of anemia (Hb<115g/L) was 25%. Iron deficiency (TfR >8.5mg/L) occurred in 2% of the children. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was 92% with the highest prevalence for Trichuris (76%) and Ascaris (71%). More than 30% and 80% of the children showed an elevated CRP (≥ 8 mg/L) and IgE (> 90 IU/mL) concentration. Anemia status was borderline significantly associated with SF and not associated with TfR and CRP. The prevalence odds ratio for Trichuris infection was 1.96 (95%CI 1.07-3.59) and 2.00 (95% CI 1.08-3.65) with iron deficiency reflected by TfR and SF, respectively. Conclusion: Anemia is highly prevalent among schoolchildren in Vietnam but may not be associated with iron deficiency. Trichuris infection is associated with a doubled risk of anemia, not mediated through iron deficiency. Chronic infection may play a role in anemia, but needs further investigation. Key Words: iron deficiency, anemia, parasite, children, Vietnam

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越南鄉村學童貧血及腸道寄生蟲感染

目的:本研究假設除了鐵缺乏之外,腸道寄生蟲感染也是越南鄉村學童貧血的決定因素。方法:從越南貧窮的鄉村地區Tam Nong省的20所國小學童的學籍資料隨機選取400名。這個橫斷性研究收集靜脈血(5毫升),分析血紅素(Hb)、血清鐵蛋白(SF)、血清運鐵蛋白接受器(TfR)、血清C-反應蛋白以及總免疫球蛋白E(IgE)。糞便樣本用來評估鉤蟲、鞭蟲以及蛔蟲感染。使用羅吉斯迴歸評估腸道寄生蟲對貧血的效應。結果:貧血盛行率為25%(Hb<115g/L)2%的兒童鐵缺乏(TfR >8.5mg/L)。腸道寄生蟲盛行率為92%,鞭蟲(76%)與蛔蟲(71%)的盛行率較高。超過30%80%的學童其CRP(≥ 8mg/L)IgE(> 90 IU/mL)濃度較高。貧血狀況與SF呈邊緣顯著相關,與TfRCRP則沒有相關。鞭蟲感染與表現鐵缺乏的TfRSF的盛行率勝算比分別為1.96(95% CI 1.07-3.59)2.00(95% CI 1.08-3.65)結論:越南學童的貧血盛行率高,但是與鐵缺乏可能無關。不是因為缺鐵,鞭蟲感染者有兩倍的機會貧血。慢性感染可能是貧血的重要原因,但是仍需要更進ㄧ步的研究。 關鍵字:鐵缺乏、貧血、寄生蟲、兒童、越南

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Serum iron status in Orang Asli children living in endemic areas of soil-transmitted helminths

U NOR AINI, MS HESHAM AL-MEKHLAFI, M AZLIN, A SHAIK, A SA’IAH, MS FATMAH, MG ISMAIL, MS AHMAD FIRDAUS, MY AISAH, AR ROZLIDA AND M NORHAYATI

We conducted a cross sectional study to examine the association of intestinal parasitic infections and protein energy malnutrition (PEM) with iron-status indicators and anaemia among Orang Asli children in Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 281 children aged 2 - 15 years were studied. The data were collected using structured questionnaires, anthropometric measurements and laboratory analysis for blood and faecal samples. All children were infected either by A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura or hookworm and almost 19%, 26% and 3% of the children had severe infection of ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm infection respectively. The prevalence of giardiasis among them was 24.9%.  Overall, 41.5% of the children were anaemic (haemoglobin < 11.0 g/dL). Of these 61.0% of the children had iron deficiency and 36.5% had iron deficiency anaemia (IDA), which accounted for 88.0% of anaemia in this population. Severe trichuriasis had the most significant correlation with anaemia and iron deficiency in this population. It contributed to low concentrations of haemoglobin, serum iron and serum ferritin and high total iron binding capacity (TIBC). Significant underweight and stunting were associated with low concentrations of haemoglobin and serum iron while significant wasting was significantly associated with low concentration of serum ferritin.  Logistic regression analysis confirmed that severe trichuriasis was a strong predictor of IDA. It also confirmed that children who were significantly underweight and whose mother was working were independent predictors of IDA in this population. Key Words: iron deficiency anaemia, soil-transmitted helminthiases, protein-energy malnutrition, Orang Asli children, Malaysia

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土壤傳染蛔蟲病疫區Orang Asli孩童之血清鐵狀態

我們進行一個橫斷性研究,以鐵狀態指標和貧血來調查馬來西亞SelangorOrang Asli孩童的寄生腸傳染病及蛋白質熱量營養不良症。共有2812-15歲孩童納入研究。資料收集包括:結構式問卷、人體測量及實驗室血液及糞便檢體分析。所有的孩童都感染到蛔蟲、鞭蟲或鉤蟲,而受蛔蟲、鞭蟲和鉤蟲嚴重感染的孩童分別佔19%、26%及3%。梨形蟲病的盛行率為24%。整體而言,41.5%的孩童為貧血(血紅素< 11.0 g/dL)。其中,61.0%有鐵缺乏,36.5%有缺鐵性貧血(IDA),佔這個族群貧血人口的88.0%。在這個族群嚴重的鞭蟲症與貧血和鐵缺乏相關最為顯著。它影響到低的血紅素濃度、血清鐵、血清鐵蛋白和高的總鐵結合能力(TIBC)。嚴重的體重不足和發育遲緩與低的血紅素濃度和血清鐵有關,而嚴重的肌肉消失與低血鐵蛋白有顯著相關。羅吉斯迴歸分析確定嚴重的鞭蟲症是IDA的一個重要的預測因子。也確定在這個族群,嚴重體重不足及孩童母親有工作兩項為IDA的獨立預測因子。

關鍵字:缺鐵性貧血、土壤傳染蛔蟲病、蛋白熱量營養不良、Orang Asli孩童

、馬來西亞

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Investigation of intelligence quotient and psychomotor development in schoolchilren in areas with different degrees of iodine deficiency

ZHIFENG TANG, WANYANG LIU, HONGBO YIN, PING WANG, JING DONG, YI WANG AND JIE CHEN

This investigation aims to observe the intelligence and psychomotor development of the schoolchildren in iodine deficiency (ID) areas after the adoption of Universal Salt Iodization (USI), and evaluate the effect of the adoption of USI on their intelligence and psychomotor development. 564 schoolchildren (306 males and 258 females, age range from 8 to 13 yrs) from areas with severe, moderate, and mild ID were investigated. Intelligence quotient (IQ) was measured by Combined Raven’s test, second edition. Psychomotor development was examined by Jinyi Psychomotor Test Battery (JPB). We found that the IQ scores of all subjects in the severe and moderate ID areas were 10215.6 and 99.516.6 respectively, lower than those in the mild ID areas (10812.4, p<0.01). The IQ scores correlated negatively with age (partial r=-0.17; β=-1.95; p<0.0001). The total T scores of JPB of all subjects in the severe and moderate ID areas were 31642.3 and 33047.7 respectively, lower than those in the mild ID areas (34248.1, p<0.05). The total T scores of JPB correlated negatively with age (partial r=-0.15; β=-4.94; p=0.0006). We may conclude that after the adoption of USI in the ID areas investigated, USI has probably made a contribution to the partial recovery of intelligence and psychomotor development injured by ID in schoolchildren, and should be strengthened. Key Words: iodine deficiency, schoolchildren, Universal Salt Iodization, intelligence, psychomotor development, Shenyang, Liaoning province, China

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中国辽宁省沈阳市不同碘缺乏病区学龄儿童智力和精神运动发育的调查

本研究目的是观察在实行全民食盐加碘后的碘缺乏病区学龄儿童智力、精神运动发育状况,并评价全民食盐加碘(USI)策略实施对病区儿童智力、精神运动发育的影响。重、中、轻度碘缺乏地区的564名学龄儿童(306名男性和258名女性,年龄范围为8-13岁)接受了调查。用联合型瑞文测验(第二版)测验学龄儿童智商(IQ),津医精神运动成套测验(JPB)测验精神运动发育。我们发现重、中病区学龄儿童智商分别为10215.6 99.516.6,低于轻病区学龄儿童(10812.4, p<0.01)。学龄儿童智商与年龄呈负相关(偏相关系数r=-0.17; β=-1.95; p<0.0001)。重、中病区学龄儿童JPBT分分别为31642.333047.7,低于轻病区学龄儿童 (34248.1, p<0.05),学龄儿童JPBT分与年龄呈负相关(偏相关系数r=-0.15; β=-4.94; p=0.0006) 。我们可得出结论:在被研究的实施过USI的碘缺乏地区,USI可能使学龄儿童因碘缺乏而受损的智力和精神运动发育得到了部分恢复,USI应得到加强。

關鍵字:碘缺乏、学龄儿童、全民食盐加碘、智力、精神运动发育、沈阳、辽宁省、中国

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Food intake patterns among Australian adolescents

GAYLE S SAVIGE, KYLIE BALL, ANTHONY WORSLEY, DAVID CRAWFORD

Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the food intake patterns of adolescents with respect to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating, and to examine variations in food intake patterns by age, gender and region of residence. Design: Cross-sectional online food survey administered through schools. Participants and setting: In 2004-2005, 3841 secondary students in years seven (12-13 years) and nine (14-15 years) drawn from 37 secondary schools in Victoria, Australia completed an online food intake patterns survey. Outcome measures: Food intake was measured by a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), and categorized according to the five basic food groups (fruit, vegetables, meat, dairy, cereal) and the ‘extra’ food group as defined by the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE). The foods groups were examined in the study population and compared across age, gender and region. Results: Many adolescents in this sample reported food intakes that deviated substantially from recommendations of the AGHE. For example, two-thirds of participants failed to consume foods from the five recommended food groups daily; over a third reported eating fruit ‘rarely or never’; and 22% reported eating fast foods every day. Food intakes were generally more in line with dietary guidelines among girls than boys. Regional differences were less consistent, and there were few differences by age. Conclusion: A significant proportion of adolescents have food intakes that fall short of the recommendations outlined in the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. This highlights the need for public health initiatives to promote healthier food intake patterns among adolescents. Key Words: adolescent, diet, food intake, nutrition, rural, urban, Australia

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澳洲青少年的食物攝取型態

目的:本研究目的在於評估青少年食物攝取與澳洲健康飲食指南的關聯,並且調查食物攝取型態隨年齡、性別和居住地區的變異。設計:透過學校執行的橫斷性線上飲食調查。參與者及裝置2004-2005年,3841位來自澳洲維多利亞37所中學7年級(12-13歲)和9年級(14-15歲)的中學生完成線上食物攝取型態調查。出象測量:由飲食頻率問卷測得食物攝取並依五大類(水果、蔬菜、肉類、奶類、穀類)和澳洲健康飲食指南(AGHE)定義的「額外」食物類作分類。在這個研究族群中分析這些食物類別,並作跨年齡、性別和地區的比較。結果:這個樣本中,有許多青少年報告的食物攝取與AGHE的建議有極大的偏離。例如,三分之二的參與者無法每天吃到建議的五大類食物;超過三分之一「很少或從來不」吃水果;22%每天吃速食。一般來說,女孩的食物攝取與飲食指標的一致性上較男孩好。地區性的差異較不一致,而在年齡上有些許的差異。結論:顯著比例的青少年的食物攝取低於澳洲健康飲食指南的建議。這個結果強調了需要公共衛生的行動來促進青少年更健康的飲食型態。

關鍵字:青少年、飲食、食物攝取、營養、鄉村、城市、澳洲

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Adolescent home food environments and socioeconomic position

ABBIE MACFARLANE, DAVID CRAWFORD, KYLIE BALL, GAYLE SAVIGE AND ANTHONY WORSLEY

Many adolescents have diets that are less than optimal, particularly adolescents of low socioeconomic position (SEP). The determinants of SEP differences in adolescent dietary intake are poorly understood. This study examined the home food environments of adolescents and specifically investigated whether low SEP adolescents have less supportive home meal environments, fewer eating rules and poorer home availability of fruit and vegetables than adolescents of high SEP. A cross-sectional, self-reported survey was administered to 3,264 adolescents in years 7 and 9, from 37 secondary schools in Victoria, Australia. Adolescent perceptions of the home meal environment, eating rules and home food availability were described and compared across SEP, which was measured using maternal education. Maternal education was linked to various aspects of the home meal environment, as well as home food availability, but not to eating rules. Low SEP adolescents were more likely to report that they were always allowed to watch television during meal times, and that unhealthy foods were always or usually available at home. In contrast, high SEP adolescents were more likely to report that vegetables were always served at dinner, that the evening meal was never an unpleasant time and always or usually a time for family connectedness, and that fruit was always or usually available at home. This study highlights aspects of the home food environment that might explain SEP variation in adolescent diets. Feasible ways of increasing home availability of healthy foods, and encouraging home meal environments to be supportive of healthy eating should be explored, particularly in households of low SEP adolescents. Key Words: social class, adolescents, food habits, nutrition, Australia

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青少年家庭食物環境和社經地位

許多青少年的飲食很不理想,低社經地位(SEP)的青少年尤甚。對青少年飲食的社經地位決定因素差異的瞭解相當有限。本研究調查青少年的家庭食物環境,特別針對是否低社經地位的青少年,比起社經地位較高者,其家庭飲食環境支持較少、較少的進食規則和較差的家庭蔬菜水果可獲性。一個橫斷性自陳調查,收集3,264位來自澳洲維多利亞37所中學7年級及9年級的青少年。我們描述青少年家庭膳食環境、進食規則和家庭食物可獲量的看法,並作跨SEP(母親教育程度)的比較。母親教育程度與家庭膳食環境的不同面向及家庭食物可獲量相關,但與進食規則無關。低社經地位青少年較可能報告他們總是被允許在用餐時看電視,以及在家裡總是或常有不健康的食物。相較之下,高社經地位青少年較可能報告晚餐時都會供應蔬菜,而晚餐時從不會是不快樂的時間,而總是或常常是家人聯絡感情的時刻,水果在家也是隨時都有。本研究強調家庭食物環境面向可能說明社經地位在青少年飲食的變異。增加家中健康食物的可獲性的可行的方法,及鼓勵家庭用餐環境能支持健康飲食值得探究,尤其針對低社經地位青少年的家戶。 關鍵字:社會階級、青少年、飲食習慣、營養、澳洲

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Associations between dietary habits and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in a Hong Kong Chinese working population- the "Better Health for Better Hong Kong" (BHBHK) health promotion campaign

GARY TC KO, JULIANA CN CHAN, SPENCER DY TONG, AMY WY CHAN, PATRICK TS WONG, STANLEY SC HUI, RUBY KWOK AND CECILIA LW CHAN

Diet and nutritional status have been shown to play pivotal roles in the occurrence of many chronic diseases. In this study, we examined the patterns of dietary habits and their relationships with risk factors for cardiovascular and chronic diseases in Hong Kong working populations. In April 2000, a 5-year territory-wide health promotion campaign supported by the Li Ka Shing Foundation was launched in Hong Kong by the Health InfoWorld of Hospital Authority. Between July 2000 and March 2002, 4841 Chinese subjects [2375 (49.1%) men and 2466 (50.9%) women, mean age: 42.4 8.9 years (median: 43.0 years, range: 17-83 years)] from the general working class were recruited. Subjects were randomly selected using computer generated codes according to the distribution of occupational groups. A dietary questionnaire was used to assess 6 core dietary habits: daily fruit intake, vegetable intake, fluid intake, sugary drinks, regularity of daily meals and number of dining out each day. Overall, men had a worse cardiovascular risk profile and less desirable dietary habits than women. Those who had more unhealthy dietary habits were more likely to be obese and current smokers. Using logistic regression analysis with the dietary habits as independent variables, we found that obesity, smoking and constipation were independently associated with various unhealthy dietary patterns. In conclusion, there were close associations between dietary habits and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in Hong Kong. More effective community education about healthy lifestyle is required in Hong Kong. Key Words: dietary assessment, risk factors, cardiovascular diseases, urban health

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香港華人工作族群飲食習慣與心血管危險因子之相關性 – “更好的健康為更好的香港”(BHBHK)健康促進運動

飲食與營養狀況是許多慢性疾病發生的重要角色。本研究我們評估香港的工作族群,他們的飲食習慣模式與他們的心血管及慢性疾病危險因子之相關性。在20004月,一個由李嘉誠基金會贊助,醫院管理局健康資訊天地發起的港區五年的健康促進計畫正式上路。在2000年七月至2002年三月期間,從綜合工作類別召募4847名華人研究對象[2375名男性(49.1%)2466名女性(50.9%),平均年齡:42.4 8.9(中位數:43.0歲,範圍:17-83)]。研究對象是從根據職業類別分布電腦產生的的編碼中隨機選取。一個膳食頻率問卷用以評估六個核心飲食習慣:每日水果攝取、蔬菜攝取、液體攝取、含糖飲料、每日各餐的規律性與每日在外用餐次數。整體上,男性比起女性有較差的心血管風險狀況及較差的飲食習慣。那些有較多不健康的飲食習慣者較有可能為肥胖者或是目前有抽菸。使用羅吉斯迴歸分析,飲食習慣當做自變項,我們發現肥胖、抽菸及便秘與不健康的飲食模式具有獨立相關性。總之,在香港飲食習慣與心血管疾病危險因子有密切相關。香港需要更多有效的關於健康生活型態的社區教育。

關鍵字:飲食評估、危險因子、心血管疾病、城市健康

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Meal distribution, relative validity and reproducibility of a meal-based food frequency questionnaire in Taiwan

LI-CHING LYU, CHI-FEN LIN, FANG-HSIN CHANG, HENG-FEI CHEN, CHIAO-CHEN LO AND HONG-FA HO

Food frequency questionnaire is an important assessment tool for public health nutrition research.  We describe the development history and conducted the validity and reproducibility studies for a meal-based Chinese food frequency questionnaire (Chinese FFQ) by five meal sequences.  A total of 51 subjects were recruited to collect dietary information twice (6 months apart) with one 24-hr recall, 7-day food records and the Chinese FFQ.  Combining data from both time sets, Chinese FFQ showed strong correlations of macro and micronutrients with 7-day records (n=60, r=0.29-0.50, p<0.05), but not with 24-hr recalls (n=60, r=0.01-0.23, p>0.05).  The reproducibility of this Chinese FFQ (n=22) was consistently high for most nutrients, with Spearman correction coefficients between 0.42 for vitamin A to 0.79 for vitamin B12.  From a larger sample of 231 subjects who completed the Chinese FFQ and one 24-hr recall, we found the energy distributions of breakfast, lunch, dinner, afternoon and evening snacks combined from Chinese FFQ were 20%, 37%, 37% and 6%, and from 24-hour recalls were 19%, 36%, 44% and 1%, respectively.  These results showed acceptable reproducibility and relative validity of this meal-based Chinese FFQ. Key Words: meal distribution, relative validity, reproducibility, meal-based food frequency questionnaire, Taiwan

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灣分餐次之中式食物頻率問卷的餐次分佈、相對效度及信度研究

食物頻率問卷為公共衛生營養相關研究之重要的飲食評估工具。此研究描述分為五餐次之中式食物頻率問卷的發展歷程及信效度分析結果。總共有51位參加者,研究收集二次中式食物頻率問卷相隔6個月及一次24小時回憶及7天飲食紀錄。將兩次時間點合併分析結果發現,中式食物頻率問卷所得之巨量及微量營養素與7天飲食紀錄的相關性強(n=60, r=0.29-0.50, p<0.05),但與24小時回憶之相關性不顯著(n=60, r=0.01-0.23, p>0.05)。而兩次中式食物頻率問卷之信度(n=22)在大多數營養素皆佳,斯皮爾曼相關係數範圍由維生素A0.42到維生素B120.79另外,較大樣本之231位參加者完成中式食物頻率問卷及一次24小時回憶,分析發現中式食物頻率問卷的早餐、午餐、晚餐、下午點心及宵夜相加的熱量分佈為20%37%37%6%;而24小時回憶為17%36%44%1%。研究報告此分餐次之中式食物頻率問卷具可接受之相對效度及信度。

關鍵字:餐次分佈、相對效度、信度、分餐次之中式食物頻率問卷、臺灣

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Last Updated: September 2007